Abstract

A dual-pump dual-broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) setup for simultaneous pure rotational and vibrational CARS is further developed by reducing the experimental efforts due to the use of only one detection system. With this system dual-pump CARS for probing ro-vibrational transitions of N2/CO/H2 and dual-broadband CARS for pure rotational transitions of N2/O2/CO/CO2 are applicable simultaneously. In this work the improvements to the setup and the data evaluation are described. First simultaneous temperature and concentration results from cell measurements and from a partially premixed propane flame are presented. Interference effects due to smeared vibrational CARS are investigated. It is shown that with similar experimental effort to a conventional dual-pump CARS setup considerably more information can be gained.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  26. C. Brackmann, J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, T. Seeger, M. Schenk, and A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous vibrational and pure rotational coherent Anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy for temperature and multispecies concentration measurements demonstrated in sooting flames,” Appl. Opt. 41, 564-572(2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. M. Schenk, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous temperature and relative O2-N2 concentration measurements by single-shot pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering for pressures as great as 5 MPa,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6918-6925 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  31. A. Malarski, F. Beyrau, and A. Leipertz, “Interference effects of C2-radical in nitrogen vibrational CARS thermometry using a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36, 102-108 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  32. S. P. Kearney and M. N. Jackson, “Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry in heavily sooting flames,” AIAA J. 45, 2947-2956 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  33. P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, and S. Kröll, “Rotational CARS thermometry in sooting flames,” Combust. Sci. Tech. 81, 129-140 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  34. T. Seeger, J. Egermann, S. Dankers, F. Beyrau, and A. Leipertz, “Comprehensive characterization of a sooting laminar methane-diffusion flame using different laser techniques,” Chem. Eng. Technol. 27, 1150-1156 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (4)

M. C. Weikl, T. Seeger, R. Hierold, and A. Leipertz, “Dual-pump CARS measurements of N2, H2 and CO in a partially premixed flame,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 38, 983-988 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. O'Byrne, P. M. Danehy, A. D. Cutler, and S. A. Tedder, “Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering measurements in a supersonic combustor,” AIAA J. 45, 922-933 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Bivolaru and G. C. Herring, “Focal-plane imaging of crossed beams in nonlinear optics experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 056102 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Kearney and M. N. Jackson, “Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry in heavily sooting flames,” AIAA J. 45, 2947-2956 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

J. Buldyreva, J. Bonamy, M. C. Weikl, F. Beyrau, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, F. Vestin, M. Afzelius, J. Bood, and P.-E. Bengtsson, “Linewidth modelling of C2H2-N2 mixtures tested by rotational CARS measurements,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 37, 647-654 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Weikl, F. Beyrau, J. Kiefer, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, “Combined coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy and linear Raman spectroscopy for simultaneous temperature and multiple species measurements,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1908-1910(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

M. Schenk, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous and time-resolved temperature and relative CO2-N2 and O2-CO2-N2 concentration measurements with pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering for pressures as great as 5 MPa,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5582-5593 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schenk, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, “Time-resolved CO2 thermometry for pressures as great as 5 MPa by use of pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6526-6536 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Malarski, F. Beyrau, and A. Leipertz, “Interference effects of C2-radical in nitrogen vibrational CARS thermometry using a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36, 102-108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Meyer, S. Roy, R. P. Lucht, and J. R. Gord, “Dual-pump dual-broadband CARS for exhaust-gas temperature and CO2-O2-N2 mole-fraction measurements in model gas-turbine combustors,” Combust. Flame 142, 52-61 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

2003 (3)

T. Seeger, J. Jonuscheit, M. Schenk, and A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous temperature and relative oxygen and methane concentration measurements in a partially premixed sooting flame using a novel CARS-technique,” J. Mol. Struct. 661-662, 515-524 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, M. S. Brown, V. N. Velur, R. P. Lucht, and J. R. Gord, “Triple-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS): temperature and multiple-species concentration measurements in reacting flows,” Opt. Commun. 224, 131-137 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Beyrau, T. Seeger, A. Malarski, and A. Leipertz, “Determination of temperature and fuel/air ratios in an ethene-air flame by dual-pump CARS,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 946-951 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2000 (2)

M. Schenk, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous temperature and relative O2-N2 concentration measurements by single-shot pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering for pressures as great as 5 MPa,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6918-6925 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, “Temperature and concentration measurements in acetylene-nitrogen mixtures in the range 300-600 K using dual-broadband rotational CARS,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 607-620 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, “Oxygen concentration and temperature measurements in N2-O2 mixtures using rotational coherent Anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 29-37 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Seeger and A. Leipertz, “Experimental comparison of single-shot broadband vibrational and dual-broadband pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering in hot air,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2665-2671 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, and M. Aldén, “Combined vibrational and rotational CARS for simultaneous measurements of temperature and concentrations of fuel, oxygen, and nitrogen,” Appl. Spectrosc. 48, 188-192 (1994).

1992 (1)

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, and S. Kröll, “Rotational CARS thermometry in sooting flames,” Combust. Sci. Tech. 81, 129-140 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

S. Kröll, P. E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, and D. Nilsson, “Is rotational CARS an alternative to vibrational CARS for thermometry?” Appl. Phys. B 51, 25-30 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

1986 (2)

1983 (1)

1980 (2)

Afzelius, M.

Aldén, M.

J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, “Temperature and concentration measurements in acetylene-nitrogen mixtures in the range 300-600 K using dual-broadband rotational CARS,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 607-620 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, “Oxygen concentration and temperature measurements in N2-O2 mixtures using rotational coherent Anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 29-37 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, and M. Aldén, “Combined vibrational and rotational CARS for simultaneous measurements of temperature and concentrations of fuel, oxygen, and nitrogen,” Appl. Spectrosc. 48, 188-192 (1994).

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, and S. Kröll, “Rotational CARS thermometry in sooting flames,” Combust. Sci. Tech. 81, 129-140 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Kröll, P. E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, and D. Nilsson, “Is rotational CARS an alternative to vibrational CARS for thermometry?” Appl. Phys. B 51, 25-30 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, and H. Edner, “Rotational CARS generation through a multiple four-color interaction,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4493-4499 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, T. J.

Aron, K.

Bengtsson, P. E.

S. Kröll, P. E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, and D. Nilsson, “Is rotational CARS an alternative to vibrational CARS for thermometry?” Appl. Phys. B 51, 25-30 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bengtsson, P.-E.

J. Buldyreva, J. Bonamy, M. C. Weikl, F. Beyrau, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, F. Vestin, M. Afzelius, J. Bood, and P.-E. Bengtsson, “Linewidth modelling of C2H2-N2 mixtures tested by rotational CARS measurements,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 37, 647-654 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, R. P. Lucht, M. Afzelius, P.-E. Bengtsson, and J. R. Gord, “Dual-pump dual-broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering in reacting flows,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1843-1845 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Afzelius, C. Brackmann, F. Vestin, and P.-E. Bengtsson, “Pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy in mixtures of CO and N2,” Appl. Opt. 43, 6664-6672 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Brackmann, J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, T. Seeger, M. Schenk, and A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous vibrational and pure rotational coherent Anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy for temperature and multispecies concentration measurements demonstrated in sooting flames,” Appl. Opt. 41, 564-572(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, “Temperature and concentration measurements in acetylene-nitrogen mixtures in the range 300-600 K using dual-broadband rotational CARS,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 607-620 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, “Oxygen concentration and temperature measurements in N2-O2 mixtures using rotational coherent Anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 29-37 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, and M. Aldén, “Combined vibrational and rotational CARS for simultaneous measurements of temperature and concentrations of fuel, oxygen, and nitrogen,” Appl. Spectrosc. 48, 188-192 (1994).

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, and S. Kröll, “Rotational CARS thermometry in sooting flames,” Combust. Sci. Tech. 81, 129-140 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, and H. Edner, “Rotational CARS generation through a multiple four-color interaction,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4493-4499 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beyrau, F.

M. C. Weikl, F. Beyrau, J. Kiefer, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, “Combined coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy and linear Raman spectroscopy for simultaneous temperature and multiple species measurements,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1908-1910(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Buldyreva, J. Bonamy, M. C. Weikl, F. Beyrau, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, F. Vestin, M. Afzelius, J. Bood, and P.-E. Bengtsson, “Linewidth modelling of C2H2-N2 mixtures tested by rotational CARS measurements,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 37, 647-654 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Malarski, F. Beyrau, and A. Leipertz, “Interference effects of C2-radical in nitrogen vibrational CARS thermometry using a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36, 102-108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Seeger, J. Egermann, S. Dankers, F. Beyrau, and A. Leipertz, “Comprehensive characterization of a sooting laminar methane-diffusion flame using different laser techniques,” Chem. Eng. Technol. 27, 1150-1156 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Beyrau, T. Seeger, A. Malarski, and A. Leipertz, “Determination of temperature and fuel/air ratios in an ethene-air flame by dual-pump CARS,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 946-951 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bivolaru, D.

D. Bivolaru and G. C. Herring, “Focal-plane imaging of crossed beams in nonlinear optics experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 056102 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonamy, J.

J. Buldyreva, J. Bonamy, M. C. Weikl, F. Beyrau, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, F. Vestin, M. Afzelius, J. Bood, and P.-E. Bengtsson, “Linewidth modelling of C2H2-N2 mixtures tested by rotational CARS measurements,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 37, 647-654 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bood, J.

J. Buldyreva, J. Bonamy, M. C. Weikl, F. Beyrau, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, F. Vestin, M. Afzelius, J. Bood, and P.-E. Bengtsson, “Linewidth modelling of C2H2-N2 mixtures tested by rotational CARS measurements,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 37, 647-654 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Brackmann, J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, T. Seeger, M. Schenk, and A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous vibrational and pure rotational coherent Anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy for temperature and multispecies concentration measurements demonstrated in sooting flames,” Appl. Opt. 41, 564-572(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, “Temperature and concentration measurements in acetylene-nitrogen mixtures in the range 300-600 K using dual-broadband rotational CARS,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 607-620 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Boyack, K. W.

K. W. Boyack and P. O. Hedman, “Dual-Stokes CARS system for simultaneous measurement of temperature and multiple species in turbulent flames,” in Proceedings of the 23rd Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, 1990), pp. 1893-1899.

Brackmann, C.

Brown, M. S.

S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, M. S. Brown, V. N. Velur, R. P. Lucht, and J. R. Gord, “Triple-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS): temperature and multiple-species concentration measurements in reacting flows,” Opt. Commun. 224, 131-137 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Buldyreva, J.

J. Buldyreva, J. Bonamy, M. C. Weikl, F. Beyrau, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, F. Vestin, M. Afzelius, J. Bood, and P.-E. Bengtsson, “Linewidth modelling of C2H2-N2 mixtures tested by rotational CARS measurements,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 37, 647-654 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cutler, A. D.

S. O'Byrne, P. M. Danehy, A. D. Cutler, and S. A. Tedder, “Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering measurements in a supersonic combustor,” AIAA J. 45, 922-933 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Danehy, P. M.

S. O'Byrne, P. M. Danehy, A. D. Cutler, and S. A. Tedder, “Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering measurements in a supersonic combustor,” AIAA J. 45, 922-933 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dankers, S.

T. Seeger, J. Egermann, S. Dankers, F. Beyrau, and A. Leipertz, “Comprehensive characterization of a sooting laminar methane-diffusion flame using different laser techniques,” Chem. Eng. Technol. 27, 1150-1156 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eckbreth, A. C.

Edner, H.

Egermann, J.

T. Seeger, J. Egermann, S. Dankers, F. Beyrau, and A. Leipertz, “Comprehensive characterization of a sooting laminar methane-diffusion flame using different laser techniques,” Chem. Eng. Technol. 27, 1150-1156 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fendell, J.

Gord, J. R.

T. R. Meyer, S. Roy, R. P. Lucht, and J. R. Gord, “Dual-pump dual-broadband CARS for exhaust-gas temperature and CO2-O2-N2 mole-fraction measurements in model gas-turbine combustors,” Combust. Flame 142, 52-61 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, R. P. Lucht, M. Afzelius, P.-E. Bengtsson, and J. R. Gord, “Dual-pump dual-broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering in reacting flows,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1843-1845 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, M. S. Brown, V. N. Velur, R. P. Lucht, and J. R. Gord, “Triple-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS): temperature and multiple-species concentration measurements in reacting flows,” Opt. Commun. 224, 131-137 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hall, R. J.

Harris, L. E.

Hedman, P. O.

K. W. Boyack and P. O. Hedman, “Dual-Stokes CARS system for simultaneous measurement of temperature and multiple species in turbulent flames,” in Proceedings of the 23rd Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, 1990), pp. 1893-1899.

Herring, G. C.

D. Bivolaru and G. C. Herring, “Focal-plane imaging of crossed beams in nonlinear optics experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 056102 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hierold, R.

M. C. Weikl, T. Seeger, R. Hierold, and A. Leipertz, “Dual-pump CARS measurements of N2, H2 and CO in a partially premixed flame,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 38, 983-988 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, M. N.

S. P. Kearney and M. N. Jackson, “Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry in heavily sooting flames,” AIAA J. 45, 2947-2956 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jonuscheit, J.

T. Seeger, J. Jonuscheit, M. Schenk, and A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous temperature and relative oxygen and methane concentration measurements in a partially premixed sooting flame using a novel CARS-technique,” J. Mol. Struct. 661-662, 515-524 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kearney, S. P.

S. P. Kearney and M. N. Jackson, “Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry in heavily sooting flames,” AIAA J. 45, 2947-2956 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kiefer, J.

Kröll, S.

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, and S. Kröll, “Rotational CARS thermometry in sooting flames,” Combust. Sci. Tech. 81, 129-140 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Kröll, P. E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, and D. Nilsson, “Is rotational CARS an alternative to vibrational CARS for thermometry?” Appl. Phys. B 51, 25-30 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Leipertz, A.

M. C. Weikl, T. Seeger, R. Hierold, and A. Leipertz, “Dual-pump CARS measurements of N2, H2 and CO in a partially premixed flame,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 38, 983-988 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Weikl, F. Beyrau, J. Kiefer, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, “Combined coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy and linear Raman spectroscopy for simultaneous temperature and multiple species measurements,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1908-1910(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Buldyreva, J. Bonamy, M. C. Weikl, F. Beyrau, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, F. Vestin, M. Afzelius, J. Bood, and P.-E. Bengtsson, “Linewidth modelling of C2H2-N2 mixtures tested by rotational CARS measurements,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 37, 647-654 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Malarski, F. Beyrau, and A. Leipertz, “Interference effects of C2-radical in nitrogen vibrational CARS thermometry using a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36, 102-108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Schenk, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous and time-resolved temperature and relative CO2-N2 and O2-CO2-N2 concentration measurements with pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering for pressures as great as 5 MPa,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5582-5593 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schenk, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, “Time-resolved CO2 thermometry for pressures as great as 5 MPa by use of pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6526-6536 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Seeger, J. Egermann, S. Dankers, F. Beyrau, and A. Leipertz, “Comprehensive characterization of a sooting laminar methane-diffusion flame using different laser techniques,” Chem. Eng. Technol. 27, 1150-1156 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Seeger, J. Jonuscheit, M. Schenk, and A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous temperature and relative oxygen and methane concentration measurements in a partially premixed sooting flame using a novel CARS-technique,” J. Mol. Struct. 661-662, 515-524 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Beyrau, T. Seeger, A. Malarski, and A. Leipertz, “Determination of temperature and fuel/air ratios in an ethene-air flame by dual-pump CARS,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 946-951 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Brackmann, J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, T. Seeger, M. Schenk, and A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous vibrational and pure rotational coherent Anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy for temperature and multispecies concentration measurements demonstrated in sooting flames,” Appl. Opt. 41, 564-572(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schenk, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous temperature and relative O2-N2 concentration measurements by single-shot pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering for pressures as great as 5 MPa,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6918-6925 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Seeger and A. Leipertz, “Experimental comparison of single-shot broadband vibrational and dual-broadband pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering in hot air,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2665-2671 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lucht, R. P.

T. R. Meyer, S. Roy, R. P. Lucht, and J. R. Gord, “Dual-pump dual-broadband CARS for exhaust-gas temperature and CO2-O2-N2 mole-fraction measurements in model gas-turbine combustors,” Combust. Flame 142, 52-61 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, R. P. Lucht, M. Afzelius, P.-E. Bengtsson, and J. R. Gord, “Dual-pump dual-broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering in reacting flows,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1843-1845 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, M. S. Brown, V. N. Velur, R. P. Lucht, and J. R. Gord, “Triple-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS): temperature and multiple-species concentration measurements in reacting flows,” Opt. Commun. 224, 131-137 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Lucht, “Three-laser coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering measurements of two species,” Opt. Lett. 12, 78-80(1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Lucht, R. E. Palmer, and M. A. Maris, “Simultaneous acquisition of pure rotational and vibrational nitrogen spectra using three-laser coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 12, 386-388 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malarski, A.

A. Malarski, F. Beyrau, and A. Leipertz, “Interference effects of C2-radical in nitrogen vibrational CARS thermometry using a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36, 102-108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Beyrau, T. Seeger, A. Malarski, and A. Leipertz, “Determination of temperature and fuel/air ratios in an ethene-air flame by dual-pump CARS,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 946-951 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Maris, M. A.

Martinsson, L.

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, “Oxygen concentration and temperature measurements in N2-O2 mixtures using rotational coherent Anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 29-37 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, and M. Aldén, “Combined vibrational and rotational CARS for simultaneous measurements of temperature and concentrations of fuel, oxygen, and nitrogen,” Appl. Spectrosc. 48, 188-192 (1994).

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, and S. Kröll, “Rotational CARS thermometry in sooting flames,” Combust. Sci. Tech. 81, 129-140 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, T. R.

T. R. Meyer, S. Roy, R. P. Lucht, and J. R. Gord, “Dual-pump dual-broadband CARS for exhaust-gas temperature and CO2-O2-N2 mole-fraction measurements in model gas-turbine combustors,” Combust. Flame 142, 52-61 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, R. P. Lucht, M. Afzelius, P.-E. Bengtsson, and J. R. Gord, “Dual-pump dual-broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering in reacting flows,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1843-1845 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, M. S. Brown, V. N. Velur, R. P. Lucht, and J. R. Gord, “Triple-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS): temperature and multiple-species concentration measurements in reacting flows,” Opt. Commun. 224, 131-137 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, D.

S. Kröll, P. E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, and D. Nilsson, “Is rotational CARS an alternative to vibrational CARS for thermometry?” Appl. Phys. B 51, 25-30 (1990).
[CrossRef]

O'Byrne, S.

S. O'Byrne, P. M. Danehy, A. D. Cutler, and S. A. Tedder, “Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering measurements in a supersonic combustor,” AIAA J. 45, 922-933 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, R. E.

Prior, Y.

Roy, S.

T. R. Meyer, S. Roy, R. P. Lucht, and J. R. Gord, “Dual-pump dual-broadband CARS for exhaust-gas temperature and CO2-O2-N2 mole-fraction measurements in model gas-turbine combustors,” Combust. Flame 142, 52-61 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, R. P. Lucht, M. Afzelius, P.-E. Bengtsson, and J. R. Gord, “Dual-pump dual-broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering in reacting flows,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1843-1845 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, M. S. Brown, V. N. Velur, R. P. Lucht, and J. R. Gord, “Triple-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS): temperature and multiple-species concentration measurements in reacting flows,” Opt. Commun. 224, 131-137 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schenk, M.

Seeger, T.

M. C. Weikl, T. Seeger, R. Hierold, and A. Leipertz, “Dual-pump CARS measurements of N2, H2 and CO in a partially premixed flame,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 38, 983-988 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Weikl, F. Beyrau, J. Kiefer, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, “Combined coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy and linear Raman spectroscopy for simultaneous temperature and multiple species measurements,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1908-1910(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Buldyreva, J. Bonamy, M. C. Weikl, F. Beyrau, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, F. Vestin, M. Afzelius, J. Bood, and P.-E. Bengtsson, “Linewidth modelling of C2H2-N2 mixtures tested by rotational CARS measurements,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 37, 647-654 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Schenk, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous and time-resolved temperature and relative CO2-N2 and O2-CO2-N2 concentration measurements with pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering for pressures as great as 5 MPa,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5582-5593 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schenk, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, “Time-resolved CO2 thermometry for pressures as great as 5 MPa by use of pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6526-6536 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Seeger, J. Egermann, S. Dankers, F. Beyrau, and A. Leipertz, “Comprehensive characterization of a sooting laminar methane-diffusion flame using different laser techniques,” Chem. Eng. Technol. 27, 1150-1156 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Seeger, J. Jonuscheit, M. Schenk, and A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous temperature and relative oxygen and methane concentration measurements in a partially premixed sooting flame using a novel CARS-technique,” J. Mol. Struct. 661-662, 515-524 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Beyrau, T. Seeger, A. Malarski, and A. Leipertz, “Determination of temperature and fuel/air ratios in an ethene-air flame by dual-pump CARS,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 946-951 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Brackmann, J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, T. Seeger, M. Schenk, and A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous vibrational and pure rotational coherent Anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy for temperature and multispecies concentration measurements demonstrated in sooting flames,” Appl. Opt. 41, 564-572(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schenk, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous temperature and relative O2-N2 concentration measurements by single-shot pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering for pressures as great as 5 MPa,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6918-6925 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Seeger and A. Leipertz, “Experimental comparison of single-shot broadband vibrational and dual-broadband pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering in hot air,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2665-2671 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shirley, J. A.

Singh, J. P.

Tedder, S. A.

S. O'Byrne, P. M. Danehy, A. D. Cutler, and S. A. Tedder, “Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering measurements in a supersonic combustor,” AIAA J. 45, 922-933 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Velur, V. N.

S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, M. S. Brown, V. N. Velur, R. P. Lucht, and J. R. Gord, “Triple-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS): temperature and multiple-species concentration measurements in reacting flows,” Opt. Commun. 224, 131-137 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vestin, F.

J. Buldyreva, J. Bonamy, M. C. Weikl, F. Beyrau, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, F. Vestin, M. Afzelius, J. Bood, and P.-E. Bengtsson, “Linewidth modelling of C2H2-N2 mixtures tested by rotational CARS measurements,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 37, 647-654 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Afzelius, C. Brackmann, F. Vestin, and P.-E. Bengtsson, “Pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy in mixtures of CO and N2,” Appl. Opt. 43, 6664-6672 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weikl, M. C.

M. C. Weikl, T. Seeger, R. Hierold, and A. Leipertz, “Dual-pump CARS measurements of N2, H2 and CO in a partially premixed flame,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 38, 983-988 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Buldyreva, J. Bonamy, M. C. Weikl, F. Beyrau, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, F. Vestin, M. Afzelius, J. Bood, and P.-E. Bengtsson, “Linewidth modelling of C2H2-N2 mixtures tested by rotational CARS measurements,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 37, 647-654 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Weikl, F. Beyrau, J. Kiefer, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, “Combined coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy and linear Raman spectroscopy for simultaneous temperature and multiple species measurements,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1908-1910(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yueh, F. Y.

AIAA J. (2)

S. O'Byrne, P. M. Danehy, A. D. Cutler, and S. A. Tedder, “Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering measurements in a supersonic combustor,” AIAA J. 45, 922-933 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Kearney and M. N. Jackson, “Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry in heavily sooting flames,” AIAA J. 45, 2947-2956 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (10)

K. Aron, L. E. Harris, and J. Fendell, “N2 and CO vibrational CARS and H2 rotational CARS spectroscopy of CH4/N2O flames,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3604-3611 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Singh and F. Y. Yueh, “Multiplex CARS for simultaneous measurement of temperature and CO2 and H2 concentrations in a combustion environment,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1967-1975(1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Seeger and A. Leipertz, “Experimental comparison of single-shot broadband vibrational and dual-broadband pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering in hot air,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2665-2671 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, and H. Edner, “Rotational CARS generation through a multiple four-color interaction,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4493-4499 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schenk, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous temperature and relative O2-N2 concentration measurements by single-shot pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering for pressures as great as 5 MPa,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6918-6925 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Brackmann, J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, T. Seeger, M. Schenk, and A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous vibrational and pure rotational coherent Anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy for temperature and multispecies concentration measurements demonstrated in sooting flames,” Appl. Opt. 41, 564-572(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Afzelius, C. Brackmann, F. Vestin, and P.-E. Bengtsson, “Pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy in mixtures of CO and N2,” Appl. Opt. 43, 6664-6672 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Schenk, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous and time-resolved temperature and relative CO2-N2 and O2-CO2-N2 concentration measurements with pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering for pressures as great as 5 MPa,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5582-5593 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schenk, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, “Time-resolved CO2 thermometry for pressures as great as 5 MPa by use of pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6526-6536 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Prior, “Three-dimensional phase matching in four-wave mixing,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1741-1743 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (3)

S. Kröll, P. E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, and D. Nilsson, “Is rotational CARS an alternative to vibrational CARS for thermometry?” Appl. Phys. B 51, 25-30 (1990).
[CrossRef]

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, “Oxygen concentration and temperature measurements in N2-O2 mixtures using rotational coherent Anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 29-37 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, “Temperature and concentration measurements in acetylene-nitrogen mixtures in the range 300-600 K using dual-broadband rotational CARS,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 607-620 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, and M. Aldén, “Combined vibrational and rotational CARS for simultaneous measurements of temperature and concentrations of fuel, oxygen, and nitrogen,” Appl. Spectrosc. 48, 188-192 (1994).

Chem. Eng. Technol. (1)

T. Seeger, J. Egermann, S. Dankers, F. Beyrau, and A. Leipertz, “Comprehensive characterization of a sooting laminar methane-diffusion flame using different laser techniques,” Chem. Eng. Technol. 27, 1150-1156 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Flame (1)

T. R. Meyer, S. Roy, R. P. Lucht, and J. R. Gord, “Dual-pump dual-broadband CARS for exhaust-gas temperature and CO2-O2-N2 mole-fraction measurements in model gas-turbine combustors,” Combust. Flame 142, 52-61 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Sci. Tech. (1)

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, and S. Kröll, “Rotational CARS thermometry in sooting flames,” Combust. Sci. Tech. 81, 129-140 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Struct. (1)

T. Seeger, J. Jonuscheit, M. Schenk, and A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous temperature and relative oxygen and methane concentration measurements in a partially premixed sooting flame using a novel CARS-technique,” J. Mol. Struct. 661-662, 515-524 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Raman Spectrosc. (4)

A. Malarski, F. Beyrau, and A. Leipertz, “Interference effects of C2-radical in nitrogen vibrational CARS thermometry using a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36, 102-108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Buldyreva, J. Bonamy, M. C. Weikl, F. Beyrau, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, F. Vestin, M. Afzelius, J. Bood, and P.-E. Bengtsson, “Linewidth modelling of C2H2-N2 mixtures tested by rotational CARS measurements,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 37, 647-654 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Beyrau, T. Seeger, A. Malarski, and A. Leipertz, “Determination of temperature and fuel/air ratios in an ethene-air flame by dual-pump CARS,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 946-951 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Weikl, T. Seeger, R. Hierold, and A. Leipertz, “Dual-pump CARS measurements of N2, H2 and CO in a partially premixed flame,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 38, 983-988 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, M. S. Brown, V. N. Velur, R. P. Lucht, and J. R. Gord, “Triple-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS): temperature and multiple-species concentration measurements in reacting flows,” Opt. Commun. 224, 131-137 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (6)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

D. Bivolaru and G. C. Herring, “Focal-plane imaging of crossed beams in nonlinear optics experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 056102 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

K. W. Boyack and P. O. Hedman, “Dual-Stokes CARS system for simultaneous measurement of temperature and multiple species in turbulent flames,” in Proceedings of the 23rd Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, 1990), pp. 1893-1899.

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species, Combustion Science & Technology Book Series (Gordon & Breach, 1996).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Energy-level diagrams of possible CARS processes: (a) degenerate vibrational CARS of N 2 and CO, (b) dual-pump-CARS of N 2 and H 2 , (c) dual-broadband pure rotational CARS, (d) smeared vibrational CARS.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic representation of folded BOXCARS phase matching. The four beams are entering from the left side and focused to the interaction volume. Two CARS signals (light green and blue) are generated and emitted at nearly the same angle locally separated from the four laser beams.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the experimental DP-DBB- setup with one detection system: T, telescope; GP, Glan-polarizing prisms; BS, beam splitter; DC, dichroic mirror; BVS, beam view system; BD, beam dump; SM, silver mirror; L, lens.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic signal traces in the spectrometer: dashed, DP-CARS; dotted, DBB-CARS.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Averaged CCD image from the spectrometer with the region of interest for vibrational (top) and rotational CARS signals (bottom). (b) CARS spectra extracted from the image with theoretical fits and difference spectrum. The difference spectrum is set off by 0.2 for better visibility.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Pure rotational CARS spectrum from a gas mixture with signatures from N 2 , O 2 , CO 2 and CO. (b) Dual-pump CARS spectrum of N 2 , H 2 and CO.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spectrum from a mixture of 16% hydrogen in nitrogen showing RCARS and S-VCARS spectral signatures. Additionally shown is the scaled “pure” S-VCARS spectrum (black line).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Effect of S-VCARS onto the rotational CARS spectrum presented in the form of the normalized scaling factor that is applied to correct the RCARS spectrum.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

DP-DBB results from a partially premixed propane flame. The dots represent information from DBB-RCARS, and the triangles are information inferred from DP-VCARS.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Evaluated CARS Temperatures Without Correction ( T wo ) and With Correction Using Method 1 ( T M 1 ) and Method 2 ( T M 2 )

Metrics