Abstract

Time-gated ballistic-photon imaging is a form of shadowgraphy in which an ultrashort, optical-Kerr- effect (order 2ps) time gate is used to enhance the relative intensity of ballistic versus multiply scattered photons. In the current work, this technique is adapted for what is believed to be the first time for use in the moderately dense environment (optical density 1.5 to 2) of a high-speed 5 to 15mm diameter rocket spray to improve image contrast and observe liquid-breakup phenomena. Unlike coherence gating, which is another form of ballistic imaging, the time-gating approach allows sufficient signal levels from ballistic and near-ballistic photons to enable time-resolved single-shot imaging. Direct comparisons with non-time-gated shadowgraphy indicate that the two techniques are sensitive to different features of the flowfield, with regions composed of a dense field of droplets being highly attenuated in conventional shadowgrams but appearing transparent to ballistic photons. This enables significant image contrast enhancement (6.61) of liquid-core structures and facilitates improved understanding of the primary and secondary breakup processes in sprays of moderate optical density.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008

C. Calba, L. Méès, C. Rozé, and T. Girasole, “Ultrashort pulse propagation through a strongly scattering medium: simulation and experiments,” J.Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 1541-1550(2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Bakić, C. Heinisch, N. Damaschke, T. Tschudi, and C. Tropea, “Time integrated detection of femtosecond laser pulses scattered by small droplets” Appl. Opt. 47, 523-530(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

D. L. Sedarsky, M. E. Paciaroni, M. A. Linne, J. R. Gord, and T. R. Meyer, “Velocity imaging for the liquid-gas interface in the near field of an atomizing spray: proof of concept,” Opt. Lett. 31, 906-908 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Paciaroni, M. Linne, T. Hall, J-P. Delpanque, and T. Parker, “Single shot two-dimensional ballistic imaging of the liquid core in an atomizing spray,” Atomization Sprays 16, 51-70 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Linne, M. Paciaroni, T. Hall, and T. Parker, “Ballistic imaging of the near field in a diesel spray,” Exp. Fluids 40, 836-846 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

M. Paciaroni and M. Linne, “Single-shot two-dimensional ballistic imaging through scattering media,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5100-5109 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mujumdar and H. Ramachandran, “Imaging through turbid media using polarization modulation: dependence on scattering anisotropy,” Opt. Commun. 241, 1-9 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

W. Cai, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, S. Narayanan, J. Wang, M. W. Tate, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, E. Fontes, and S. M. Gruner, “Quantitative analysis of highly transient fuel sprays by time-resolved X-radiography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1671-1673 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

A. G. MacPhee, M. W. Tate, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, S. Narayanan, E. Fontes, J. Walther, J. Schaller, S. M. Gruner, and J. Wang, “X-ray imaging of shock waves generated by high-pressure fuel sprays,” Science 295, 1261-1264(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

1993

1979

P. P. Ho and R. R. Alfano, “Optical Kerr effect in liquids,” Phys. Rev. A 20, 2170-2187 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1975

K. Sala and M. C. Richardson, “Optical Kerr effect induced by ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 12, 1036-1047(1975).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

Bakic, S.

Berrocal, E.

D. Sedarsky, E. Berrocal, and M. Linne, “Ballistic imaging for measurement of flow structures in dense multiphase media,” presented at the 14th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 7-10 July, 2008.

Cai, W.

W. Cai, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, S. Narayanan, J. Wang, M. W. Tate, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, E. Fontes, and S. M. Gruner, “Quantitative analysis of highly transient fuel sprays by time-resolved X-radiography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1671-1673 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Calba, C.

C. Calba, L. Méès, C. Rozé, and T. Girasole, “Ultrashort pulse propagation through a strongly scattering medium: simulation and experiments,” J.Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 1541-1550(2008).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, G. C.

G. C. Cheng, R. R. Davis, C. W. Johnson, J. A. Muss, D. A. Greisen, and R. K. Cohn, “Development of GOX/keroseneswirl coaxial injector technology,” AIAA paper 2003-4751 presented at the 39th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Huntsville, Ala., USA, 20-24 July 2003.

Clauss, W.

D. N. Klimenko, W. Clauss, W. Mayer, M. Oschwald, and J. Smith, “Optical diagnostics and instrumentation for supercritical combustion studies in a LOX/H2 rocket engine combustion chamber,” presented at the 20th International Congress on Instrumentation in Aerospace Simulation Facilities, Göttingen, Germany, 19-25 August 2003.

Cohn, R. K.

G. C. Cheng, R. R. Davis, C. W. Johnson, J. A. Muss, D. A. Greisen, and R. K. Cohn, “Development of GOX/keroseneswirl coaxial injector technology,” AIAA paper 2003-4751 presented at the 39th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Huntsville, Ala., USA, 20-24 July 2003.

Damaschke, N.

Danczyk, S.

M. Lightfoot, S. Danczyk, and D. Talley, “Atomization rate of gas-centered swirl-coaxial injectors,” ILASS Americas, 21st Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Orlando, Fla., USA, 18-21 May 2008.

Davis, R. R.

G. C. Cheng, R. R. Davis, C. W. Johnson, J. A. Muss, D. A. Greisen, and R. K. Cohn, “Development of GOX/keroseneswirl coaxial injector technology,” AIAA paper 2003-4751 presented at the 39th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Huntsville, Ala., USA, 20-24 July 2003.

Delpanque, J-P.

M. Paciaroni, M. Linne, T. Hall, J-P. Delpanque, and T. Parker, “Single shot two-dimensional ballistic imaging of the liquid core in an atomizing spray,” Atomization Sprays 16, 51-70 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dorn, P.

Ercan, A.

W. Cai, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, S. Narayanan, J. Wang, M. W. Tate, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, E. Fontes, and S. M. Gruner, “Quantitative analysis of highly transient fuel sprays by time-resolved X-radiography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1671-1673 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. G. MacPhee, M. W. Tate, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, S. Narayanan, E. Fontes, J. Walther, J. Schaller, S. M. Gruner, and J. Wang, “X-ray imaging of shock waves generated by high-pressure fuel sprays,” Science 295, 1261-1264(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fontes, E.

W. Cai, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, S. Narayanan, J. Wang, M. W. Tate, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, E. Fontes, and S. M. Gruner, “Quantitative analysis of highly transient fuel sprays by time-resolved X-radiography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1671-1673 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. G. MacPhee, M. W. Tate, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, S. Narayanan, E. Fontes, J. Walther, J. Schaller, S. M. Gruner, and J. Wang, “X-ray imaging of shock waves generated by high-pressure fuel sprays,” Science 295, 1261-1264(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gautam, V.

V. Gautam and A. K. Gupta, “Transient cryogenic flow and mixing from a coaxial rocket injector,” AIAA paper 2007-573 presented at the 45th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nev., USA, 8-11 January 2007.

Genack, A. Z.

Girasole, T.

C. Calba, L. Méès, C. Rozé, and T. Girasole, “Ultrashort pulse propagation through a strongly scattering medium: simulation and experiments,” J.Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 1541-1550(2008).
[CrossRef]

Gord, J. R.

Greisen, D. A.

G. C. Cheng, R. R. Davis, C. W. Johnson, J. A. Muss, D. A. Greisen, and R. K. Cohn, “Development of GOX/keroseneswirl coaxial injector technology,” AIAA paper 2003-4751 presented at the 39th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Huntsville, Ala., USA, 20-24 July 2003.

Gruner, S. M.

W. Cai, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, S. Narayanan, J. Wang, M. W. Tate, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, E. Fontes, and S. M. Gruner, “Quantitative analysis of highly transient fuel sprays by time-resolved X-radiography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1671-1673 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. G. MacPhee, M. W. Tate, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, S. Narayanan, E. Fontes, J. Walther, J. Schaller, S. M. Gruner, and J. Wang, “X-ray imaging of shock waves generated by high-pressure fuel sprays,” Science 295, 1261-1264(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gupta, A. K.

V. Gautam and A. K. Gupta, “Transient cryogenic flow and mixing from a coaxial rocket injector,” AIAA paper 2007-573 presented at the 45th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nev., USA, 8-11 January 2007.

Hall, T.

M. Paciaroni, M. Linne, T. Hall, J-P. Delpanque, and T. Parker, “Single shot two-dimensional ballistic imaging of the liquid core in an atomizing spray,” Atomization Sprays 16, 51-70 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Linne, M. Paciaroni, T. Hall, and T. Parker, “Ballistic imaging of the near field in a diesel spray,” Exp. Fluids 40, 836-846 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Heinisch, C.

Ho, P. P.

Johnson, C. W.

G. C. Cheng, R. R. Davis, C. W. Johnson, J. A. Muss, D. A. Greisen, and R. K. Cohn, “Development of GOX/keroseneswirl coaxial injector technology,” AIAA paper 2003-4751 presented at the 39th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Huntsville, Ala., USA, 20-24 July 2003.

Kempe, M.

Klimenko, D. N.

D. N. Klimenko, W. Clauss, W. Mayer, M. Oschwald, and J. Smith, “Optical diagnostics and instrumentation for supercritical combustion studies in a LOX/H2 rocket engine combustion chamber,” presented at the 20th International Congress on Instrumentation in Aerospace Simulation Facilities, Göttingen, Germany, 19-25 August 2003.

Lightfoot, M.

M. Lightfoot, S. Danczyk, and D. Talley, “Atomization rate of gas-centered swirl-coaxial injectors,” ILASS Americas, 21st Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Orlando, Fla., USA, 18-21 May 2008.

Linne, M.

M. Paciaroni, M. Linne, T. Hall, J-P. Delpanque, and T. Parker, “Single shot two-dimensional ballistic imaging of the liquid core in an atomizing spray,” Atomization Sprays 16, 51-70 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Linne, M. Paciaroni, T. Hall, and T. Parker, “Ballistic imaging of the near field in a diesel spray,” Exp. Fluids 40, 836-846 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Paciaroni and M. Linne, “Single-shot two-dimensional ballistic imaging through scattering media,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5100-5109 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Sedarsky, E. Berrocal, and M. Linne, “Ballistic imaging for measurement of flow structures in dense multiphase media,” presented at the 14th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 7-10 July, 2008.

Linne, M. A.

Liu, F.

MacPhee, A. G.

A. G. MacPhee, M. W. Tate, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, S. Narayanan, E. Fontes, J. Walther, J. Schaller, S. M. Gruner, and J. Wang, “X-ray imaging of shock waves generated by high-pressure fuel sprays,” Science 295, 1261-1264(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mayer, W.

D. N. Klimenko, W. Clauss, W. Mayer, M. Oschwald, and J. Smith, “Optical diagnostics and instrumentation for supercritical combustion studies in a LOX/H2 rocket engine combustion chamber,” presented at the 20th International Congress on Instrumentation in Aerospace Simulation Facilities, Göttingen, Germany, 19-25 August 2003.

Méès, L.

C. Calba, L. Méès, C. Rozé, and T. Girasole, “Ultrashort pulse propagation through a strongly scattering medium: simulation and experiments,” J.Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 1541-1550(2008).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, T. R.

Mujumdar, S.

S. Mujumdar and H. Ramachandran, “Imaging through turbid media using polarization modulation: dependence on scattering anisotropy,” Opt. Commun. 241, 1-9 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Muss, J. A.

G. C. Cheng, R. R. Davis, C. W. Johnson, J. A. Muss, D. A. Greisen, and R. K. Cohn, “Development of GOX/keroseneswirl coaxial injector technology,” AIAA paper 2003-4751 presented at the 39th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Huntsville, Ala., USA, 20-24 July 2003.

Narayanan, S.

W. Cai, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, S. Narayanan, J. Wang, M. W. Tate, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, E. Fontes, and S. M. Gruner, “Quantitative analysis of highly transient fuel sprays by time-resolved X-radiography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1671-1673 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. G. MacPhee, M. W. Tate, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, S. Narayanan, E. Fontes, J. Walther, J. Schaller, S. M. Gruner, and J. Wang, “X-ray imaging of shock waves generated by high-pressure fuel sprays,” Science 295, 1261-1264(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oschwald, M.

D. N. Klimenko, W. Clauss, W. Mayer, M. Oschwald, and J. Smith, “Optical diagnostics and instrumentation for supercritical combustion studies in a LOX/H2 rocket engine combustion chamber,” presented at the 20th International Congress on Instrumentation in Aerospace Simulation Facilities, Göttingen, Germany, 19-25 August 2003.

Paciaroni, M.

M. Paciaroni, M. Linne, T. Hall, J-P. Delpanque, and T. Parker, “Single shot two-dimensional ballistic imaging of the liquid core in an atomizing spray,” Atomization Sprays 16, 51-70 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Linne, M. Paciaroni, T. Hall, and T. Parker, “Ballistic imaging of the near field in a diesel spray,” Exp. Fluids 40, 836-846 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Linne, M. Paciaroni, J. R. Gord, and T. R. Meyer, “Ballistic imaging of the liquid core for a steady jet in crossflow,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6627-6634 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Paciaroni and M. Linne, “Single-shot two-dimensional ballistic imaging through scattering media,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5100-5109 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paciaroni, M. E.

Parker, T.

M. Linne, M. Paciaroni, T. Hall, and T. Parker, “Ballistic imaging of the near field in a diesel spray,” Exp. Fluids 40, 836-846 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Paciaroni, M. Linne, T. Hall, J-P. Delpanque, and T. Parker, “Single shot two-dimensional ballistic imaging of the liquid core in an atomizing spray,” Atomization Sprays 16, 51-70 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Powell, C. F.

W. Cai, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, S. Narayanan, J. Wang, M. W. Tate, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, E. Fontes, and S. M. Gruner, “Quantitative analysis of highly transient fuel sprays by time-resolved X-radiography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1671-1673 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. G. MacPhee, M. W. Tate, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, S. Narayanan, E. Fontes, J. Walther, J. Schaller, S. M. Gruner, and J. Wang, “X-ray imaging of shock waves generated by high-pressure fuel sprays,” Science 295, 1261-1264(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramachandran, H.

S. Mujumdar and H. Ramachandran, “Imaging through turbid media using polarization modulation: dependence on scattering anisotropy,” Opt. Commun. 241, 1-9 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Renzi, M. J.

W. Cai, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, S. Narayanan, J. Wang, M. W. Tate, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, E. Fontes, and S. M. Gruner, “Quantitative analysis of highly transient fuel sprays by time-resolved X-radiography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1671-1673 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. G. MacPhee, M. W. Tate, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, S. Narayanan, E. Fontes, J. Walther, J. Schaller, S. M. Gruner, and J. Wang, “X-ray imaging of shock waves generated by high-pressure fuel sprays,” Science 295, 1261-1264(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richardson, M. C.

K. Sala and M. C. Richardson, “Optical Kerr effect induced by ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 12, 1036-1047(1975).
[CrossRef]

Rozé, C.

C. Calba, L. Méès, C. Rozé, and T. Girasole, “Ultrashort pulse propagation through a strongly scattering medium: simulation and experiments,” J.Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 1541-1550(2008).
[CrossRef]

Rudolph, W.

Sala, K.

K. Sala and M. C. Richardson, “Optical Kerr effect induced by ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 12, 1036-1047(1975).
[CrossRef]

Santoro, R. J.

R. J. Santoro, “Applications of laser-based diagnostics to high pressure rocket and gas turbine combustor studies,” AIAA paper 98-2698 presented at the 20th AIAA Advanced Measurement and Ground Testing Technology Conference, Albuquerque, N.M., USA, 15-18 June 1998.

Schaller, J.

A. G. MacPhee, M. W. Tate, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, S. Narayanan, E. Fontes, J. Walther, J. Schaller, S. M. Gruner, and J. Wang, “X-ray imaging of shock waves generated by high-pressure fuel sprays,” Science 295, 1261-1264(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sedarsky, D.

D. Sedarsky, E. Berrocal, and M. Linne, “Ballistic imaging for measurement of flow structures in dense multiphase media,” presented at the 14th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 7-10 July, 2008.

Sedarsky, D. L.

Smith, J.

D. N. Klimenko, W. Clauss, W. Mayer, M. Oschwald, and J. Smith, “Optical diagnostics and instrumentation for supercritical combustion studies in a LOX/H2 rocket engine combustion chamber,” presented at the 20th International Congress on Instrumentation in Aerospace Simulation Facilities, Göttingen, Germany, 19-25 August 2003.

Talley, D.

M. Lightfoot, S. Danczyk, and D. Talley, “Atomization rate of gas-centered swirl-coaxial injectors,” ILASS Americas, 21st Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Orlando, Fla., USA, 18-21 May 2008.

Tate, M. W.

W. Cai, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, S. Narayanan, J. Wang, M. W. Tate, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, E. Fontes, and S. M. Gruner, “Quantitative analysis of highly transient fuel sprays by time-resolved X-radiography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1671-1673 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. G. MacPhee, M. W. Tate, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, S. Narayanan, E. Fontes, J. Walther, J. Schaller, S. M. Gruner, and J. Wang, “X-ray imaging of shock waves generated by high-pressure fuel sprays,” Science 295, 1261-1264(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tropea, C.

Tschudi, T.

Walther, J.

A. G. MacPhee, M. W. Tate, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, S. Narayanan, E. Fontes, J. Walther, J. Schaller, S. M. Gruner, and J. Wang, “X-ray imaging of shock waves generated by high-pressure fuel sprays,” Science 295, 1261-1264(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

W. Cai, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, S. Narayanan, J. Wang, M. W. Tate, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, E. Fontes, and S. M. Gruner, “Quantitative analysis of highly transient fuel sprays by time-resolved X-radiography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1671-1673 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. G. MacPhee, M. W. Tate, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, S. Narayanan, E. Fontes, J. Walther, J. Schaller, S. M. Gruner, and J. Wang, “X-ray imaging of shock waves generated by high-pressure fuel sprays,” Science 295, 1261-1264(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L. M.

Yoo, K. M.

Yue, Y.

W. Cai, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, S. Narayanan, J. Wang, M. W. Tate, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, E. Fontes, and S. M. Gruner, “Quantitative analysis of highly transient fuel sprays by time-resolved X-radiography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1671-1673 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. G. MacPhee, M. W. Tate, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, S. Narayanan, E. Fontes, J. Walther, J. Schaller, S. M. Gruner, and J. Wang, “X-ray imaging of shock waves generated by high-pressure fuel sprays,” Science 295, 1261-1264(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

W. Cai, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, S. Narayanan, J. Wang, M. W. Tate, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, E. Fontes, and S. M. Gruner, “Quantitative analysis of highly transient fuel sprays by time-resolved X-radiography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1671-1673 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Atomization Sprays

M. Paciaroni, M. Linne, T. Hall, J-P. Delpanque, and T. Parker, “Single shot two-dimensional ballistic imaging of the liquid core in an atomizing spray,” Atomization Sprays 16, 51-70 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Fluids

M. Linne, M. Paciaroni, T. Hall, and T. Parker, “Ballistic imaging of the near field in a diesel spray,” Exp. Fluids 40, 836-846 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J.Opt. Soc. Am. A

C. Calba, L. Méès, C. Rozé, and T. Girasole, “Ultrashort pulse propagation through a strongly scattering medium: simulation and experiments,” J.Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 1541-1550(2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

S. Mujumdar and H. Ramachandran, “Imaging through turbid media using polarization modulation: dependence on scattering anisotropy,” Opt. Commun. 241, 1-9 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

P. P. Ho and R. R. Alfano, “Optical Kerr effect in liquids,” Phys. Rev. A 20, 2170-2187 (1979).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Science

A. G. MacPhee, M. W. Tate, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, S. Narayanan, E. Fontes, J. Walther, J. Schaller, S. M. Gruner, and J. Wang, “X-ray imaging of shock waves generated by high-pressure fuel sprays,” Science 295, 1261-1264(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

D. N. Klimenko, W. Clauss, W. Mayer, M. Oschwald, and J. Smith, “Optical diagnostics and instrumentation for supercritical combustion studies in a LOX/H2 rocket engine combustion chamber,” presented at the 20th International Congress on Instrumentation in Aerospace Simulation Facilities, Göttingen, Germany, 19-25 August 2003.

V. Gautam and A. K. Gupta, “Transient cryogenic flow and mixing from a coaxial rocket injector,” AIAA paper 2007-573 presented at the 45th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nev., USA, 8-11 January 2007.

R. J. Santoro, “Applications of laser-based diagnostics to high pressure rocket and gas turbine combustor studies,” AIAA paper 98-2698 presented at the 20th AIAA Advanced Measurement and Ground Testing Technology Conference, Albuquerque, N.M., USA, 15-18 June 1998.

D. Sedarsky, E. Berrocal, and M. Linne, “Ballistic imaging for measurement of flow structures in dense multiphase media,” presented at the 14th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 7-10 July, 2008.

G. C. Cheng, R. R. Davis, C. W. Johnson, J. A. Muss, D. A. Greisen, and R. K. Cohn, “Development of GOX/keroseneswirl coaxial injector technology,” AIAA paper 2003-4751 presented at the 39th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Huntsville, Ala., USA, 20-24 July 2003.

M. Lightfoot, S. Danczyk, and D. Talley, “Atomization rate of gas-centered swirl-coaxial injectors,” ILASS Americas, 21st Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Orlando, Fla., USA, 18-21 May 2008.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical layout for time-gated ballistic-photon imaging: M, mirror; WP, 1/2-wave plate; TFP, thin-film polarizer; GP, Glan polarizer; ICCD, intensified charge-coupled device camera.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of rocket-injector nozzle used to provide moderately dense spray. The pattern of liquid-injection holes is shown near the bottom of the nozzle.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Ballistic images and corresponding PDFs collected at an air flow rate of 227 lpm and a water flow rate of (a)  0.76 lpm , (b)  1.14 lpm , (c)  1.51 lpm , (d)  1.89 lpm , (e)  2.27 lpm , and (f)  2.65 lpm . ⊚ designates the location for statistical analyses, 2 nozzle diameters downstream of nozzle exit.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ultrafast shadowgrams and corresponding PDFs collected at an air flow rate of 227 lpm and a water flow rate of (a)  0.76 lpm , (b)  1.14 lpm , (c)  1.51 lpm , (d)  1.89 lpm , (e)  2.27 lpm , and (f)  2.65 lpm . Statistical analyses were performed at the same location as in Fig. 3.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Normalized mean intensity and (b) standard deviation as a function of water flow rate for both ballistic imaging and ultrafast shadowgraphy. Data were collected 2 nozzle diameters downstream of nozzle exit.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Ballistic imaging at two different orientations of rocket nozzle. The corresponding pattern of liquid-injection holes (not to scale) is shown above each image.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Continuous-wave laser (a) shadowgram and (b) normalized intensity PDF for air and water flow rates matching those of Figs. 3c, 4c.

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