Abstract

We have developed a 1.6μm carbon dioxide (CO2) differential absorption lidar utilizing a quasi-phase-matching optical parametric oscillator (OPO) and a photon-counting detector. The operating wavelengths were chosen based on their low interference from water vapor and low temperature sensitivity. The online wavelength was in the (300120001) band of CO2, which was insensitive to atmospheric temperature. The established OPO laser achieved a 10mJ, 200Hz repetition rate at the online and offline wavelengths. Our observations confirmed the statistical error of 2% with 5h of accumulation for the CO2 density profile less than 5.2km. Also, the statistical error of 1% at an altitude of 2km was demonstrated. The results of the vertical CO2 concentrations acquired using a 1.6μm wavelength are presented.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2008 (5)

F. Gibert, P. H. Flamant, J. Cuesta, and D. Bruneau, “Vertical 2 μm heterodyne differential absorption lidar measurements of mean CO2 mixing ratio in the toroposhpere,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25, 1477-1499 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Amediek, A. Fix, M. Wirth, and G. Ehret, “Development of an OPO system at 1.57 μm for integrated path DIAL measurement of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 295-302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Burris and D. Richter, “Tunable infrared radiation for atmospheric profiling,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 2, 023527 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Sakaizawa, C. Nagasawa, T. Nagai, M. Abo, Y. Shibata, and M. Nakazato, “Measurement of the pressure-induced broadening and shift coefficients around 1.6 μm carbon dioxide absorption lines for differential absorption lidar,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 325-328 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Koch, J. Y. Beyon, F. Gibert, B. W. Barnes, S. Ismail, M. Petros, P. J. Petzar, J. Yu, E. A. Modlin, K. J. Davis, and U. N. Singh, “Side-line tunable laser transmitter for differential absorption lidar measurements of CO2: design and application to atmospheric measurements,” Appl. Opt. 47, 944-956 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

R. A. Toth, C. E. MillerV. M. Devi, D. C. Benner, and L. R. Brown, “Air-broadened half width and pressure shift coefficients of 12C16O2 bands: 4750-7000 cm−1,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 246, 133-157 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Letchworth and D. C. Benner, “Rapid and accurate calculation of the Voigt function,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 107, 173-192 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Stephens, K. R. Gurney, P. P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machida, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R. L. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, R. J. Francey, and A. S. Denning, “Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2,” Science 316, 1732-1735 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

R. A. Toth, L. R. Brown, C. E. Miller, V. M. Devi, and D. C. Benner, “Line strengths of 12C16O2: 4550−7000 cm−1,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 239, 221-242 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, S. Kurimura, M. Nakamura, S. Takekawa, and K. Kitamura, “Effective aperture in periodically poled Mg-doped stoichiometric LitaO3 for quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4064-4067 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Gibert, P. H. Flamant, D. Bruneau, and C. Loth, “Two-micrometer heterodyne differential absorption lidar measurements of the atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio in the boundary layer,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4448-4458 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Saikawa, M. Fujii, H. Ishizuki, and T. Taira, “52 mJ narrow-bandwidth degenerated optical parametric system with a large-aperture periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3 device,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3149-3151 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

H. Ishizuki and T. Taira, “High-energy quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillation in a periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3 device with a 5 mm×5 mm aperture,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2918-2920 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

P. L. Voss, K. G. Köprülü, S.-K. Choi, S. Dugan, and P. Kumar, “14 MHz rate photon counting with room temperature InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1369-1379 (2004).

G. Ribordy, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, D. Stucki, M. Wegmuller, and H. Zbinden, “Photon counting at telecom wavelengths with commercial InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes: current performance,” J. Modern Opt. 51, 1381-1398 (2004).

G. J. Koch, B. W. Barnes, M. Petros, J. Y. Beyon, F. Amzajerdian, J. Yu, R. E. Davis, S. Ismail, S. Vay, M. J. Kavaya, and U. N. Singh, “Coherent differential absorption lidar measurements of CO2,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5092-5099 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2001 (2)

P. J. Rayner and D. M. O'Brien, “The utility of remotely sensed CO2 concentration data in surface source inversions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 175-178 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Walther, M. P. Larsen, and E. S. Fry, “Generation of Fourier-transform-limited 35 ns pulses with a ramp-hold-fire seeding technique in a Ti:sapphire laser,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3046-3050 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1983 (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

Abo, M.

D. Sakaizawa, C. Nagasawa, T. Nagai, M. Abo, Y. Shibata, and M. Nakazato, “Measurement of the pressure-induced broadening and shift coefficients around 1.6 μm carbon dioxide absorption lines for differential absorption lidar,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 325-328 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Abshire, J.

J. Burris, A. Andrews, H. Riris, J. Abshire, A. Gates, M. Krainak, and X. Sun, “Profiling CO2 within the planetary boundary layer,” in Proc. 23rd Int. Laser Radar Conf. (2006), Vol. 1, pp. 531-533.

Amediek, A.

A. Amediek, A. Fix, M. Wirth, and G. Ehret, “Development of an OPO system at 1.57 μm for integrated path DIAL measurement of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 295-302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Amzajerdian, F.

Andrews, A.

J. Burris, A. Andrews, H. Riris, J. Abshire, A. Gates, M. Krainak, and X. Sun, “Profiling CO2 within the planetary boundary layer,” in Proc. 23rd Int. Laser Radar Conf. (2006), Vol. 1, pp. 531-533.

Aoki, S.

B. B. Stephens, K. R. Gurney, P. P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machida, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R. L. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, R. J. Francey, and A. S. Denning, “Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2,” Science 316, 1732-1735 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Auwera, J. Vander

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, B. W.

Benner, D. C.

K. L. Letchworth and D. C. Benner, “Rapid and accurate calculation of the Voigt function,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 107, 173-192 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Toth, C. E. MillerV. M. Devi, D. C. Benner, and L. R. Brown, “Air-broadened half width and pressure shift coefficients of 12C16O2 bands: 4750-7000 cm−1,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 246, 133-157 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Toth, L. R. Brown, C. E. Miller, V. M. Devi, and D. C. Benner, “Line strengths of 12C16O2: 4550−7000 cm−1,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 239, 221-242 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Beyon, J. Y.

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bousquet, P.

B. B. Stephens, K. R. Gurney, P. P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machida, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R. L. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, R. J. Francey, and A. S. Denning, “Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2,” Science 316, 1732-1735 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Browell, E. V.

Brown, L. R.

R. A. Toth, C. E. MillerV. M. Devi, D. C. Benner, and L. R. Brown, “Air-broadened half width and pressure shift coefficients of 12C16O2 bands: 4750-7000 cm−1,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 246, 133-157 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Toth, L. R. Brown, C. E. Miller, V. M. Devi, and D. C. Benner, “Line strengths of 12C16O2: 4550−7000 cm−1,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 239, 221-242 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bruhwiler, L.

B. B. Stephens, K. R. Gurney, P. P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machida, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R. L. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, R. J. Francey, and A. S. Denning, “Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2,” Science 316, 1732-1735 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruneau, D.

F. Gibert, P. H. Flamant, J. Cuesta, and D. Bruneau, “Vertical 2 μm heterodyne differential absorption lidar measurements of mean CO2 mixing ratio in the toroposhpere,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25, 1477-1499 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Gibert, P. H. Flamant, D. Bruneau, and C. Loth, “Two-micrometer heterodyne differential absorption lidar measurements of the atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio in the boundary layer,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4448-4458 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burris, J.

J. Burris and D. Richter, “Tunable infrared radiation for atmospheric profiling,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 2, 023527 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Burris, A. Andrews, H. Riris, J. Abshire, A. Gates, M. Krainak, and X. Sun, “Profiling CO2 within the planetary boundary layer,” in Proc. 23rd Int. Laser Radar Conf. (2006), Vol. 1, pp. 531-533.

Carleer, M. R.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chackerian, C.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S.-K.

P. L. Voss, K. G. Köprülü, S.-K. Choi, S. Dugan, and P. Kumar, “14 MHz rate photon counting with room temperature InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1369-1379 (2004).

Ciais, P.

B. B. Stephens, K. R. Gurney, P. P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machida, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R. L. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, R. J. Francey, and A. S. Denning, “Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2,” Science 316, 1732-1735 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cuesta, J.

F. Gibert, P. H. Flamant, J. Cuesta, and D. Bruneau, “Vertical 2 μm heterodyne differential absorption lidar measurements of mean CO2 mixing ratio in the toroposhpere,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25, 1477-1499 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Davis, K. J.

Davis, R. E.

Denning, A. S.

B. B. Stephens, K. R. Gurney, P. P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machida, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R. L. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, R. J. Francey, and A. S. Denning, “Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2,” Science 316, 1732-1735 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devi, V. M.

R. A. Toth, C. E. MillerV. M. Devi, D. C. Benner, and L. R. Brown, “Air-broadened half width and pressure shift coefficients of 12C16O2 bands: 4750-7000 cm−1,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 246, 133-157 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Toth, L. R. Brown, C. E. Miller, V. M. Devi, and D. C. Benner, “Line strengths of 12C16O2: 4550−7000 cm−1,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 239, 221-242 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Drever, R. W. P.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Dugan, S.

P. L. Voss, K. G. Köprülü, S.-K. Choi, S. Dugan, and P. Kumar, “14 MHz rate photon counting with room temperature InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1369-1379 (2004).

Ehret, G.

A. Amediek, A. Fix, M. Wirth, and G. Ehret, “Development of an OPO system at 1.57 μm for integrated path DIAL measurement of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 295-302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fix, A.

A. Amediek, A. Fix, M. Wirth, and G. Ehret, “Development of an OPO system at 1.57 μm for integrated path DIAL measurement of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 295-302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Flamant, P. H.

F. Gibert, P. H. Flamant, J. Cuesta, and D. Bruneau, “Vertical 2 μm heterodyne differential absorption lidar measurements of mean CO2 mixing ratio in the toroposhpere,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25, 1477-1499 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Gibert, P. H. Flamant, D. Bruneau, and C. Loth, “Two-micrometer heterodyne differential absorption lidar measurements of the atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio in the boundary layer,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4448-4458 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ford, G. M.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Francey, R. J.

B. B. Stephens, K. R. Gurney, P. P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machida, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R. L. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, R. J. Francey, and A. S. Denning, “Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2,” Science 316, 1732-1735 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fry, E. S.

Fujii, M.

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gates, A.

J. Burris, A. Andrews, H. Riris, J. Abshire, A. Gates, M. Krainak, and X. Sun, “Profiling CO2 within the planetary boundary layer,” in Proc. 23rd Int. Laser Radar Conf. (2006), Vol. 1, pp. 531-533.

Gibert, F.

Gisin, N.

G. Ribordy, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, D. Stucki, M. Wegmuller, and H. Zbinden, “Photon counting at telecom wavelengths with commercial InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes: current performance,” J. Modern Opt. 51, 1381-1398 (2004).

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Guinnard, O.

G. Ribordy, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, D. Stucki, M. Wegmuller, and H. Zbinden, “Photon counting at telecom wavelengths with commercial InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes: current performance,” J. Modern Opt. 51, 1381-1398 (2004).

Gurney, K. R.

B. B. Stephens, K. R. Gurney, P. P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machida, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R. L. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, R. J. Francey, and A. S. Denning, “Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2,” Science 316, 1732-1735 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, J. L.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hartmann, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Heimann, M.

B. B. Stephens, K. R. Gurney, P. P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machida, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R. L. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, R. J. Francey, and A. S. Denning, “Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2,” Science 316, 1732-1735 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hough, J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, G.

B. B. Stephens, K. R. Gurney, P. P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machida, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R. L. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, R. J. Francey, and A. S. Denning, “Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2,” Science 316, 1732-1735 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishizuki, H.

Ismail, S.

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jordan, A.

B. B. Stephens, K. R. Gurney, P. P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machida, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R. L. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, R. J. Francey, and A. S. Denning, “Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2,” Science 316, 1732-1735 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kavaya, M. J.

Kitamura, K.

Y. Liu, S. Kurimura, M. Nakamura, S. Takekawa, and K. Kitamura, “Effective aperture in periodically poled Mg-doped stoichiometric LitaO3 for quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4064-4067 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koch, G. J.

Köprülü, K. G.

P. L. Voss, K. G. Köprülü, S.-K. Choi, S. Dugan, and P. Kumar, “14 MHz rate photon counting with room temperature InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1369-1379 (2004).

Kowalski, F. V.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Krainak, M.

J. Burris, A. Andrews, H. Riris, J. Abshire, A. Gates, M. Krainak, and X. Sun, “Profiling CO2 within the planetary boundary layer,” in Proc. 23rd Int. Laser Radar Conf. (2006), Vol. 1, pp. 531-533.

Kumar, P.

P. L. Voss, K. G. Köprülü, S.-K. Choi, S. Dugan, and P. Kumar, “14 MHz rate photon counting with room temperature InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1369-1379 (2004).

Kurimura, S.

Y. Liu, S. Kurimura, M. Nakamura, S. Takekawa, and K. Kitamura, “Effective aperture in periodically poled Mg-doped stoichiometric LitaO3 for quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4064-4067 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Langenfelds, R. L.

B. B. Stephens, K. R. Gurney, P. P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machida, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R. L. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, R. J. Francey, and A. S. Denning, “Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2,” Science 316, 1732-1735 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larsen, M. P.

Letchworth, K. L.

K. L. Letchworth and D. C. Benner, “Rapid and accurate calculation of the Voigt function,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 107, 173-192 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, S. Kurimura, M. Nakamura, S. Takekawa, and K. Kitamura, “Effective aperture in periodically poled Mg-doped stoichiometric LitaO3 for quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4064-4067 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lloyd, J.

B. B. Stephens, K. R. Gurney, P. P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machida, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R. L. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, R. J. Francey, and A. S. Denning, “Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2,” Science 316, 1732-1735 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loth, C.

Machida, T.

B. B. Stephens, K. R. Gurney, P. P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machida, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R. L. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, R. J. Francey, and A. S. Denning, “Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2,” Science 316, 1732-1735 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maki, A. G.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mandin, J.-Y.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Megie, G.

Menties, R. T.

Miller, C. E.

R. A. Toth, C. E. MillerV. M. Devi, D. C. Benner, and L. R. Brown, “Air-broadened half width and pressure shift coefficients of 12C16O2 bands: 4750-7000 cm−1,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 246, 133-157 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Toth, L. R. Brown, C. E. Miller, V. M. Devi, and D. C. Benner, “Line strengths of 12C16O2: 4550−7000 cm−1,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 239, 221-242 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Modlin, E. A.

Munley, A. J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Nagai, T.

D. Sakaizawa, C. Nagasawa, T. Nagai, M. Abo, Y. Shibata, and M. Nakazato, “Measurement of the pressure-induced broadening and shift coefficients around 1.6 μm carbon dioxide absorption lines for differential absorption lidar,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 325-328 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nagasawa, C.

D. Sakaizawa, C. Nagasawa, T. Nagai, M. Abo, Y. Shibata, and M. Nakazato, “Measurement of the pressure-induced broadening and shift coefficients around 1.6 μm carbon dioxide absorption lines for differential absorption lidar,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 325-328 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, M.

Y. Liu, S. Kurimura, M. Nakamura, S. Takekawa, and K. Kitamura, “Effective aperture in periodically poled Mg-doped stoichiometric LitaO3 for quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4064-4067 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nakazato, M.

D. Sakaizawa, C. Nagasawa, T. Nagai, M. Abo, Y. Shibata, and M. Nakazato, “Measurement of the pressure-induced broadening and shift coefficients around 1.6 μm carbon dioxide absorption lines for differential absorption lidar,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 325-328 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nakazawa, T.

B. B. Stephens, K. R. Gurney, P. P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machida, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R. L. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, R. J. Francey, and A. S. Denning, “Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2,” Science 316, 1732-1735 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O'Brien, D. M.

P. J. Rayner and D. M. O'Brien, “The utility of remotely sensed CO2 concentration data in surface source inversions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 175-178 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Orphal, J.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peters, W.

B. B. Stephens, K. R. Gurney, P. P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machida, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R. L. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, R. J. Francey, and A. S. Denning, “Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2,” Science 316, 1732-1735 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petros, M.

Petzar, P. J.

Ramonet, M.

B. B. Stephens, K. R. Gurney, P. P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machida, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R. L. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, R. J. Francey, and A. S. Denning, “Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2,” Science 316, 1732-1735 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rayner, P. J.

P. J. Rayner and D. M. O'Brien, “The utility of remotely sensed CO2 concentration data in surface source inversions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 175-178 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ribordy, G.

G. Ribordy, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, D. Stucki, M. Wegmuller, and H. Zbinden, “Photon counting at telecom wavelengths with commercial InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes: current performance,” J. Modern Opt. 51, 1381-1398 (2004).

Richter, D.

J. Burris and D. Richter, “Tunable infrared radiation for atmospheric profiling,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 2, 023527 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Riris, H.

J. Burris, A. Andrews, H. Riris, J. Abshire, A. Gates, M. Krainak, and X. Sun, “Profiling CO2 within the planetary boundary layer,” in Proc. 23rd Int. Laser Radar Conf. (2006), Vol. 1, pp. 531-533.

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Saikawa, J.

Sakaizawa, D.

D. Sakaizawa, C. Nagasawa, T. Nagai, M. Abo, Y. Shibata, and M. Nakazato, “Measurement of the pressure-induced broadening and shift coefficients around 1.6 μm carbon dioxide absorption lines for differential absorption lidar,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 325-328 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, Y.

D. Sakaizawa, C. Nagasawa, T. Nagai, M. Abo, Y. Shibata, and M. Nakazato, “Measurement of the pressure-induced broadening and shift coefficients around 1.6 μm carbon dioxide absorption lines for differential absorption lidar,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 325-328 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shibistova, O.

B. B. Stephens, K. R. Gurney, P. P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machida, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R. L. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, R. J. Francey, and A. S. Denning, “Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2,” Science 316, 1732-1735 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singh, U. N.

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Steele, L. P.

B. B. Stephens, K. R. Gurney, P. P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machida, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R. L. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, R. J. Francey, and A. S. Denning, “Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2,” Science 316, 1732-1735 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stephens, B. B.

B. B. Stephens, K. R. Gurney, P. P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machida, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R. L. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, R. J. Francey, and A. S. Denning, “Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2,” Science 316, 1732-1735 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stucki, D.

G. Ribordy, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, D. Stucki, M. Wegmuller, and H. Zbinden, “Photon counting at telecom wavelengths with commercial InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes: current performance,” J. Modern Opt. 51, 1381-1398 (2004).

Sun, X.

J. Burris, A. Andrews, H. Riris, J. Abshire, A. Gates, M. Krainak, and X. Sun, “Profiling CO2 within the planetary boundary layer,” in Proc. 23rd Int. Laser Radar Conf. (2006), Vol. 1, pp. 531-533.

Sweeney, C.

B. B. Stephens, K. R. Gurney, P. P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machida, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R. L. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, R. J. Francey, and A. S. Denning, “Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2,” Science 316, 1732-1735 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taira, T.

Takekawa, S.

Y. Liu, S. Kurimura, M. Nakamura, S. Takekawa, and K. Kitamura, “Effective aperture in periodically poled Mg-doped stoichiometric LitaO3 for quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4064-4067 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Takekawa, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Japan (personal communication, 2006).

Tans, P. P.

B. B. Stephens, K. R. Gurney, P. P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machida, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R. L. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, R. J. Francey, and A. S. Denning, “Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2,” Science 316, 1732-1735 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tennyson, J.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tolchenov, R. N.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Toth, R. A.

R. A. Toth, C. E. MillerV. M. Devi, D. C. Benner, and L. R. Brown, “Air-broadened half width and pressure shift coefficients of 12C16O2 bands: 4750-7000 cm−1,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 246, 133-157 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Toth, L. R. Brown, C. E. Miller, V. M. Devi, and D. C. Benner, “Line strengths of 12C16O2: 4550−7000 cm−1,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 239, 221-242 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tratt, D. M.

Varanasi, P.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vay, S.

Vinnichenko, N.

B. B. Stephens, K. R. Gurney, P. P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machida, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R. L. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, R. J. Francey, and A. S. Denning, “Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2,” Science 316, 1732-1735 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Voss, P. L.

P. L. Voss, K. G. Köprülü, S.-K. Choi, S. Dugan, and P. Kumar, “14 MHz rate photon counting with room temperature InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1369-1379 (2004).

Wagner, G.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Walther, T.

Ward, H.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Wegmuller, M.

G. Ribordy, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, D. Stucki, M. Wegmuller, and H. Zbinden, “Photon counting at telecom wavelengths with commercial InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes: current performance,” J. Modern Opt. 51, 1381-1398 (2004).

Wirth, M.

A. Amediek, A. Fix, M. Wirth, and G. Ehret, “Development of an OPO system at 1.57 μm for integrated path DIAL measurement of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 295-302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

Zbinden, H.

G. Ribordy, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, D. Stucki, M. Wegmuller, and H. Zbinden, “Photon counting at telecom wavelengths with commercial InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes: current performance,” J. Modern Opt. 51, 1381-1398 (2004).

Appl. Opt. (7)

G. J. Koch, B. W. Barnes, M. Petros, J. Y. Beyon, F. Amzajerdian, J. Yu, R. E. Davis, S. Ismail, S. Vay, M. J. Kavaya, and U. N. Singh, “Coherent differential absorption lidar measurements of CO2,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5092-5099 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Koch, J. Y. Beyon, F. Gibert, B. W. Barnes, S. Ismail, M. Petros, P. J. Petzar, J. Yu, E. A. Modlin, K. J. Davis, and U. N. Singh, “Side-line tunable laser transmitter for differential absorption lidar measurements of CO2: design and application to atmospheric measurements,” Appl. Opt. 47, 944-956 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Gibert, P. H. Flamant, D. Bruneau, and C. Loth, “Two-micrometer heterodyne differential absorption lidar measurements of the atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio in the boundary layer,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4448-4458 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ismail and E. V. Browell, “Airborne and spaceborne lidar measurements of water vapor profiles: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3603-3615 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. T. Menties and D. M. Tratt, “Differential laser absorption spectrometry for global profiling of tropospheric carbon dioxide: selection of optimum sounding frequencies for high-precision measurements,” Appl. Opt. 42, 6569-6577 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Walther, M. P. Larsen, and E. S. Fry, “Generation of Fourier-transform-limited 35 ns pulses with a ramp-hold-fire seeding technique in a Ti:sapphire laser,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3046-3050 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Megie and R. T. Menties, “Complementarity of UV and IR differential absorption lidar for global measurements of atmospheric species,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1173-1183(1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. Amediek, A. Fix, M. Wirth, and G. Ehret, “Development of an OPO system at 1.57 μm for integrated path DIAL measurement of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 295-302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

P. J. Rayner and D. M. O'Brien, “The utility of remotely sensed CO2 concentration data in surface source inversions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 175-178 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Remote Sens. (1)

J. Burris and D. Richter, “Tunable infrared radiation for atmospheric profiling,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 2, 023527 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (1)

F. Gibert, P. H. Flamant, J. Cuesta, and D. Bruneau, “Vertical 2 μm heterodyne differential absorption lidar measurements of mean CO2 mixing ratio in the toroposhpere,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25, 1477-1499 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

P. L. Voss, K. G. Köprülü, S.-K. Choi, S. Dugan, and P. Kumar, “14 MHz rate photon counting with room temperature InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1369-1379 (2004).

J. Modern Opt. (1)

G. Ribordy, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, D. Stucki, M. Wegmuller, and H. Zbinden, “Photon counting at telecom wavelengths with commercial InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes: current performance,” J. Modern Opt. 51, 1381-1398 (2004).

J. Mol. Spectrosc. (2)

R. A. Toth, L. R. Brown, C. E. Miller, V. M. Devi, and D. C. Benner, “Line strengths of 12C16O2: 4550−7000 cm−1,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 239, 221-242 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Toth, C. E. MillerV. M. Devi, D. C. Benner, and L. R. Brown, “Air-broadened half width and pressure shift coefficients of 12C16O2 bands: 4750-7000 cm−1,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 246, 133-157 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (2)

K. L. Letchworth and D. C. Benner, “Rapid and accurate calculation of the Voigt function,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 107, 173-192 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

D. Sakaizawa, C. Nagasawa, T. Nagai, M. Abo, Y. Shibata, and M. Nakazato, “Measurement of the pressure-induced broadening and shift coefficients around 1.6 μm carbon dioxide absorption lines for differential absorption lidar,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 325-328 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, S. Kurimura, M. Nakamura, S. Takekawa, and K. Kitamura, “Effective aperture in periodically poled Mg-doped stoichiometric LitaO3 for quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4064-4067 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Science (1)

B. B. Stephens, K. R. Gurney, P. P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machida, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R. L. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, R. J. Francey, and A. S. Denning, “Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2,” Science 316, 1732-1735 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

J. Burris, A. Andrews, H. Riris, J. Abshire, A. Gates, M. Krainak, and X. Sun, “Profiling CO2 within the planetary boundary layer,” in Proc. 23rd Int. Laser Radar Conf. (2006), Vol. 1, pp. 531-533.

Oxide Corporation., Yamanashi 408-0302, Japan; http://www.opt-oxide.com/english/product/lita03.html.

S. Takekawa, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Japan (personal communication, 2006).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Temperature dependence of the line intensity and line shape on the effective absorption cross section. The stick plots indicate the absorption line center and its line intensity at 296 K around the R branch in the ( 30012 00001 ) bands of C 12 O 2 16 . Lines that included less than 10 24 cm / molec were omitted. Circle, line shape (broadening); square, line intensity. The right axis represents 1 / σ eff σ eff / T . Some absorption lines of 1572 to 1574 nm were insensitive to temperature uncertainty.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Interference from water vapor absorption around 1572 nm absorption bands of C 12 O 2 16 . The content of water vapor was assumed for a mixing ratio of 1%. Interference from water vapor absorption at the absorption center of CO 2 was too small to neglect the overlap. The overlapping of water vapor absorption at offline wavelengths appeared to be a strong interference. However, the differential absorption or the transmittance in the atmosphere was small, as indicated in Table 1. The link of wavelengths (A, B, and C) is described in Table 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup of the LD-pumped Q-switched Nd:YAG pumping the PPMgLT OPO. PZT, piezoelectric transducer; LPF, low-pass filter; PBS, polarizing beam splitter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Input–output characteristics of the LD-pumped Nd:YAG Q-switched laser-pumped PPMgLT OPO. The repetition rate was 200 Hz , the beam diameter of the pumping laser was 2.8 mm , and the PPMgLT aperture was 3 mm × 3 mm .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmitted interference signals of the injection-seeded pulse lasers through the FPI: (a) layout of the optics and (b) shape of the laser spectrum. The finesse of the FPI corresponded to 40.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental setup of the CO 2 DIAL.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a), (b) Calculated CO 2 absorption cross-sectional profiles at the online and offline wavelengths using Eq. (3). (c)  H 2 O absorption cross section. The dashed curve indicates the online wavelength; the solid curve indicates the offline wavelength. The profiles of (d) atmospheric pressure, (e) temperature, and (f) water vapor were used from the radiosonde value of Tateno ( 36 ° N , 140 ° E ), far away from Hino ( 35 ° N , 139 ° E ). Units of the x axis are (a)  × 10 22 cm 2 / molec , (b)  × 10 24 cm 2 / molec , (c)  × 10 27 cm 2 / molec , (d) hPa, (e) Kelvin, and (f)  g / kg .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Range-corrected lidar profiles and (b) relative error of SNR in a 5 h accumulation for online and offline pulses. Differential absorption between the online and the offline wavelengths could be confirmed. The relative error of 1% at less than 7 km height could be achieved.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Vertical CO 2 number density profile from the lidar return accumulated for 5 h by DIAL with the use of a photon-counting detector. (a) Relative CO 2 number density and the numerical simulation of CO 2 density for a constant mixing ratio of 375 ppmv using the atmospheric parameter by radiosonde (dashed curve). (b) Statistical error of calculated CO 2 number density profile. (c)  CO 2 density profile as the function of the atmospheric pressure.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Estimation of the various error or bias sources for the relative CO 2 density profile in this paper. (a) Random factor due to atmospheric temperature and pressure. (b) Random factor due to the range of stabilizing laser. (c) Bias factor due to the pressure-induced shift compared with CO 2 in the gas cell and atmosphere. (d) Bias factor due to the optical depth of water vapor on one of CO 2 . Furthermore, the spectroscopic parameters (e.g., line strengths and pressure-broadening coefficients) in recent works had an uncertainty of σ ( S ) 2 + σ ( γ L ) 2 = 1.1 % .

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Vertical CO 2 number density profile and height of the boundary layer. (a) Time index of CO 2 density from the lidar return accumulated for 25 min . (b) Height of the boundary layer retrieved from slopes of the range-corrected signal (S). JST, Japan standard time.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Spectroscopic Data Derived in Fig. 2 a

Tables Icon

Table 2 1.6 μm Differential Absorption Lidar Parameters

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P on , off ( z ) = P 0 N η A z 2 c t 2 β ( z ) O ( z ) exp ( 2 0 z α on , off ( r ) d r ) .
n ( z ) = 1 2 Δ σ Δ z ln [ P off , u P off , l P on , l P on , u ] n H 2 O Δ σ H 2 O Δ σ ,
σ eff = f ( z , ν ) σ ( z , ν ) d ν f ( z , ν ) d ν .
σ ( ν ) = S ln 2 γ D π Re ( j π + e t 2 ln 2 ( ν ν 0 + j γ L ) / γ D t d t ) .
S ( T ) = S 0 ( T 0 T ) exp [ E h c k B ( 1 T 0 1 T ) ] ,
γ L = γ 0 P P 0 ( T 0 T ) ind ,
γ D = ν 0 c 2 ln 2 k B T m .
ζ ( λ ) = τ CO 2 ( λ ) τ H 2 O ( λ ) + τ CO 2 ( λ ) .

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