Abstract

Different wavelength modulation waveforms were studied comprehensively in tunable diode laser photoacoustic spectroscopy. The generation of the photoacoustic signal was studied by way of simulations and experiments. A cantilever-enhanced photoacoustic detector and CO2 sample gas were used in the experiments. The modulation waveforms compared in this study were sinusoidal, triangular, shaped, and quasi-square waves. All four waveforms allow background-free detection of trace gases. Compared to the conventionally used sinusoidal modulation, the triangular, shaped, and quasi-square waves enhanced the photoacoustic signal by factors of 1.12, 1.42, and 1.57, respectively.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (2)

V. Koskinen, J. Fonsen, K. Roth, and J. Kauppinen, “Progress in cantilever enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 48, 16-21 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 165-176(2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

V. Koskinen, J. Fonsen, K. Roth, and J. Kauppinen, “Cantilever enhanced photoacoustic detection of carbon dioxide using a tunable diode laser source,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 451-454(2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Lewicki, G. Wysocki, A. Kosterev, and F. Tittel, “Carbon dioxide and ammonia detection using 2 μm diode laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 157-162 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

H. Cattaneo, T. Laurila, and R. Hernberg, “Photoacoustic detection of oxygen using cantilever enhanced technique,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 337-341 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Wysocki, A. Kosterev, and F. Tittel, “Influence of molecular relaxation dynamics on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic detection of CO2 at λ=2 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 301-306(2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Besson, S. Schilt, E. Rochat, and L. Thévenaz, “Ammonia trace measurements at ppb level based on near-IR photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 323-328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

J. Kauppinen, K. Wilcken, I. Kauppinen, and V. Koskinen, “High sensitivity in gas analysis with photoacoustic detection,” Microchem. J. 76, 151-159 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Li, X. Li, and W.-P. Huang, “A traveling-wave model of laser diodes with consideration for thermal effects,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 709-724 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

1996 (1)

T. Fink, S. Büscher, R. Gäbler, Q. Yu, A. Dax, and W. Urban, “An improved CO2 laser intracavity photoacoustic spectrometer for trace gas analysis,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 4000-4004(1996).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1986 (1)

1981 (1)

M. Ito and T. Kimura, “Stationary and transient thermal properties of semiconductor laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 787-795 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bakhirkin, Y.

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 165-176(2008).
[CrossRef]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Besson, J.-P.

J.-P. Besson, S. Schilt, E. Rochat, and L. Thévenaz, “Ammonia trace measurements at ppb level based on near-IR photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 323-328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Büscher, S.

T. Fink, S. Büscher, R. Gäbler, Q. Yu, A. Dax, and W. Urban, “An improved CO2 laser intracavity photoacoustic spectrometer for trace gas analysis,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 4000-4004(1996).
[CrossRef]

Carleer, M. R.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cattaneo, H.

H. Cattaneo, T. Laurila, and R. Hernberg, “Photoacoustic detection of oxygen using cantilever enhanced technique,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 337-341 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chackerian, C.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Curl, R.

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 165-176(2008).
[CrossRef]

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dax, A.

T. Fink, S. Büscher, R. Gäbler, Q. Yu, A. Dax, and W. Urban, “An improved CO2 laser intracavity photoacoustic spectrometer for trace gas analysis,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 4000-4004(1996).
[CrossRef]

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Drummond, J.

Fink, T.

T. Fink, S. Büscher, R. Gäbler, Q. Yu, A. Dax, and W. Urban, “An improved CO2 laser intracavity photoacoustic spectrometer for trace gas analysis,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 4000-4004(1996).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fonsen, J.

V. Koskinen, J. Fonsen, K. Roth, and J. Kauppinen, “Progress in cantilever enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 48, 16-21 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Koskinen, J. Fonsen, K. Roth, and J. Kauppinen, “Cantilever enhanced photoacoustic detection of carbon dioxide using a tunable diode laser source,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 451-454(2007).
[CrossRef]

Fox, J.

Fraser, M.

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 165-176(2008).
[CrossRef]

Fried, A.

Gäbler, R.

T. Fink, S. Büscher, R. Gäbler, Q. Yu, A. Dax, and W. Urban, “An improved CO2 laser intracavity photoacoustic spectrometer for trace gas analysis,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 4000-4004(1996).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hartmann, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Henry, B.

Hernberg, R.

H. Cattaneo, T. Laurila, and R. Hernberg, “Photoacoustic detection of oxygen using cantilever enhanced technique,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 337-341 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W.-P.

W. Li, X. Li, and W.-P. Huang, “A traveling-wave model of laser diodes with consideration for thermal effects,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 709-724 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Iguchi, T.

Ito, M.

M. Ito and T. Kimura, “Stationary and transient thermal properties of semiconductor laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 787-795 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kauppinen, I.

J. Kauppinen, K. Wilcken, I. Kauppinen, and V. Koskinen, “High sensitivity in gas analysis with photoacoustic detection,” Microchem. J. 76, 151-159 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kauppinen, J.

V. Koskinen, J. Fonsen, K. Roth, and J. Kauppinen, “Progress in cantilever enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 48, 16-21 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Koskinen, J. Fonsen, K. Roth, and J. Kauppinen, “Cantilever enhanced photoacoustic detection of carbon dioxide using a tunable diode laser source,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 451-454(2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Kauppinen, K. Wilcken, I. Kauppinen, and V. Koskinen, “High sensitivity in gas analysis with photoacoustic detection,” Microchem. J. 76, 151-159 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, T.

M. Ito and T. Kimura, “Stationary and transient thermal properties of semiconductor laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 787-795 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Koskinen, V.

V. Koskinen, J. Fonsen, K. Roth, and J. Kauppinen, “Progress in cantilever enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 48, 16-21 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Koskinen, J. Fonsen, K. Roth, and J. Kauppinen, “Cantilever enhanced photoacoustic detection of carbon dioxide using a tunable diode laser source,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 451-454(2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Kauppinen, K. Wilcken, I. Kauppinen, and V. Koskinen, “High sensitivity in gas analysis with photoacoustic detection,” Microchem. J. 76, 151-159 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kosterev, A.

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 165-176(2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Lewicki, G. Wysocki, A. Kosterev, and F. Tittel, “Carbon dioxide and ammonia detection using 2 μm diode laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 157-162 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Wysocki, A. Kosterev, and F. Tittel, “Influence of molecular relaxation dynamics on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic detection of CO2 at λ=2 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 301-306(2006).
[CrossRef]

Laurila, T.

H. Cattaneo, T. Laurila, and R. Hernberg, “Photoacoustic detection of oxygen using cantilever enhanced technique,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 337-341 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Letokhov, V. S.

V. S. Letokhov and V. P. Zharov, Laser Optoacoustic Spectroscopy (Springer-Verlag, 1986).

Lewicki, R.

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 165-176(2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Lewicki, G. Wysocki, A. Kosterev, and F. Tittel, “Carbon dioxide and ammonia detection using 2 μm diode laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 157-162 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, W.

W. Li, X. Li, and W.-P. Huang, “A traveling-wave model of laser diodes with consideration for thermal effects,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 709-724 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

W. Li, X. Li, and W.-P. Huang, “A traveling-wave model of laser diodes with consideration for thermal effects,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 709-724 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maki, A. G.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mandin, J.-Y.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Orphal, J.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Patel, C. K. N.

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pushkarsky, M.

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rochat, E.

J.-P. Besson, S. Schilt, E. Rochat, and L. Thévenaz, “Ammonia trace measurements at ppb level based on near-IR photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 323-328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roth, K.

V. Koskinen, J. Fonsen, K. Roth, and J. Kauppinen, “Progress in cantilever enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 48, 16-21 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Koskinen, J. Fonsen, K. Roth, and J. Kauppinen, “Cantilever enhanced photoacoustic detection of carbon dioxide using a tunable diode laser source,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 451-454(2007).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schilt, S.

J.-P. Besson, S. Schilt, E. Rochat, and L. Thévenaz, “Ammonia trace measurements at ppb level based on near-IR photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 323-328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

So, S.

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 165-176(2008).
[CrossRef]

Svelto, O.

O. Svelto, “Inhomogeneous broadening,” in Principles of Lasers, 4th ed. (Springer, 1998), pp. 48-49.

Tennyson, J.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thévenaz, L.

J.-P. Besson, S. Schilt, E. Rochat, and L. Thévenaz, “Ammonia trace measurements at ppb level based on near-IR photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 323-328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F.

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 165-176(2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Lewicki, G. Wysocki, A. Kosterev, and F. Tittel, “Carbon dioxide and ammonia detection using 2 μm diode laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 157-162 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Wysocki, A. Kosterev, and F. Tittel, “Influence of molecular relaxation dynamics on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic detection of CO2 at λ=2 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 301-306(2006).
[CrossRef]

Tolchenov, R. N.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Urban, W.

T. Fink, S. Büscher, R. Gäbler, Q. Yu, A. Dax, and W. Urban, “An improved CO2 laser intracavity photoacoustic spectrometer for trace gas analysis,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 4000-4004(1996).
[CrossRef]

Vander Auwera, J.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Varanasi, P.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, G.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Webber, M. E.

Wilcken, K.

J. Kauppinen, K. Wilcken, I. Kauppinen, and V. Koskinen, “High sensitivity in gas analysis with photoacoustic detection,” Microchem. J. 76, 151-159 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wysocki, G.

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 165-176(2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Lewicki, G. Wysocki, A. Kosterev, and F. Tittel, “Carbon dioxide and ammonia detection using 2 μm diode laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 157-162 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Wysocki, A. Kosterev, and F. Tittel, “Influence of molecular relaxation dynamics on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic detection of CO2 at λ=2 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 301-306(2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Q.

T. Fink, S. Büscher, R. Gäbler, Q. Yu, A. Dax, and W. Urban, “An improved CO2 laser intracavity photoacoustic spectrometer for trace gas analysis,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 4000-4004(1996).
[CrossRef]

Zharov, V. P.

V. S. Letokhov and V. P. Zharov, Laser Optoacoustic Spectroscopy (Springer-Verlag, 1986).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (6)

H. Cattaneo, T. Laurila, and R. Hernberg, “Photoacoustic detection of oxygen using cantilever enhanced technique,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 337-341 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Wysocki, A. Kosterev, and F. Tittel, “Influence of molecular relaxation dynamics on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic detection of CO2 at λ=2 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 301-306(2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Besson, S. Schilt, E. Rochat, and L. Thévenaz, “Ammonia trace measurements at ppb level based on near-IR photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 323-328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Lewicki, G. Wysocki, A. Kosterev, and F. Tittel, “Carbon dioxide and ammonia detection using 2 μm diode laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 157-162 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 165-176(2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Koskinen, J. Fonsen, K. Roth, and J. Kauppinen, “Cantilever enhanced photoacoustic detection of carbon dioxide using a tunable diode laser source,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 451-454(2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Ito and T. Kimura, “Stationary and transient thermal properties of semiconductor laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 787-795 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Microchem. J. (1)

J. Kauppinen, K. Wilcken, I. Kauppinen, and V. Koskinen, “High sensitivity in gas analysis with photoacoustic detection,” Microchem. J. 76, 151-159 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. Li, X. Li, and W.-P. Huang, “A traveling-wave model of laser diodes with consideration for thermal effects,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 709-724 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

T. Fink, S. Büscher, R. Gäbler, Q. Yu, A. Dax, and W. Urban, “An improved CO2 laser intracavity photoacoustic spectrometer for trace gas analysis,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 4000-4004(1996).
[CrossRef]

Vib. Spectrosc. (1)

V. Koskinen, J. Fonsen, K. Roth, and J. Kauppinen, “Progress in cantilever enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 48, 16-21 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

V. S. Letokhov and V. P. Zharov, Laser Optoacoustic Spectroscopy (Springer-Verlag, 1986).

O. Svelto, “Inhomogeneous broadening,” in Principles of Lasers, 4th ed. (Springer, 1998), pp. 48-49.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measurement setup: DL, fiber-pigtailed DFB diode laser; F, optical fiber; FC, fiber collimator; PAD, photoacoustic detector; PM, powermeter; TC, temperature controller; CC, current controller; FG, function generator; and PC, personal computer. The gas exchange system is not shown.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulated PA signals with triangular and shaped modulation waveforms. The modulation index, i.e., the peak-to-peak modulation amplitude with respect to the absorption linewidth (FWHM), is 10. Triangular scan yields a pure absorption spectrum from which the shaped modulation waveform is calculated. The shaped modulation waveform produces a pure sinusoidal PA signal with all the absorbed energy concentrated into a single signal frequency.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical amplitude spectra of measured PA signals with a large laser modulation index, being about 10 in these spectra. The modulation waveforms are (a) quasi-square wave (QSW), (b) shaped wave, (c) triangular wave, and (d) sinusoidal wave, which are shown in the insets. The fundamental PA signal frequency 2 f mod = 140 Hz . The spectra are normalized with an amplitude that is produced by the sinusoidal modulation at an optimum modulation index of 2.2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured (dots) and simulated (solid curves) PA signal amplitudes, produced by the four modulation waveforms, at the frequency of 2 f mod . Pure WM was assumed in the simulations. Wavelength chirp of the diode laser increases with increasing modulation index. Because the QSW modulation suffers the most from the chirp, there is a discrepancy between the modeled and the observed curves at large modulation indices.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Experimental Results with Different Modulation Waveforms Using f mod = 70 Hz and f sig = 2 f mod = 140 Hz

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