Abstract

We propose an adaptive image mapping method that removes image discontinuity, which is the main degradation factor of image quality in an integral floating display. The proposed method is based on a newly modified image mapping algorithm that removes image discontinuity for an observer at a specific location. By taking advantage of an eye tracking scheme, the modified algorithm can produce a floating 3D image in real time for moving observers as well. The observable area of the proposed system is analyzed, and we show that multiple observers in the area can view floating 3D images without interfering with one another’s views. The effect of tracking error on the floating 3D image is analyzed, and a strategy to deal with it is also given.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. S.-W. Min, M. Hahn, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Three-dimensional electro-floating display system using an integral imaging method,” Opt. Express 13, 4358-4369 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Kakeya, “Real image based autostereoscopic display using a LCD, mirrors, and lenses,” Proc. SPIE 5006, 99-108(2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Kakeya, N. Kobe, and H. Kasano, “Multiview autostereoscopic displays with floating real image,” Proc. SPIE 5291, 255-264 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Kakeya, “MOEVision: simple multiview display with clear floating image,” Proc. SPIE 6490, 64900J (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Liao, M. Iwahara, N. Hata, and T. Dohi, “High-quality integral videography using a multiprojector,” Opt. Express 12, 1067-1076 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Liao, M. Iwahara, T. Koike, N. Hata, I. Sakuma, and T. Dohi, “Scalable high-resolution integral videography autostereoscopic display with a seamless multiprojection system,” Appl. Opt. 44, 305-315 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D.-H. Shin, E.-S. Kim, and B. Lee, “Computational reconstruction technique of three-dimensional object in integral imaging using a lenslet array,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 8016-8018(2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D.-H. Shin, B. Lee, and E.-S. Kim, “Effect of illumination in an integral imaging system with large depth of focus,” Appl. Opt. 44, 7749-7753 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, “Wide-viewing-angle integral three-dimensional imaging system by curving a screen and a lens array,” Appl. Opt. 44, 546-552 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, and B. Lee, “Analysis of viewing parameters for two display methods based on integral photography,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5217-5232 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M.-O. Jeong, N. Kim, and J.-H. Park, “Elemental image synthesis for integral imaging using phase-shifting digital holography,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 12, 275-280 (2008).
  12. M.-S. Kim, G. Baasantseren, N. Kim, and J.-H. Park, “Hologram generation of 3D objects using multiple orthographic view images,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 12, 269-274 (2008).
  13. J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Viewing region maximization of an integral floating display through location adjustment of viewing window,” Opt. Express 15, 13023-13034 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Hong, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Analysis of image depth in integral imaging and its enhancement by correction to elemental images,” Proc. SPIE 5524, 387-395 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Kim, S.-W. Min, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Analysis on viewing characteristics of integral floating system,” Appl. Opt. 47, D80-D86 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. Park, J.-H. Jung, K. Hong, Y. Kim, Y.-H. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Multi-viewer tracking integral imaging system and its viewing zone analysis,” Opt. Express 17, 17895-17908(2009).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Kim, S.-W. Min, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Floated image mapping for integral floating display,” Opt. Express 16, 8549-8556(2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. Balogh, “The holovizio system,” Proc. SPIE 6055, 60550U (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. Sakai, M. Yamasaki, T. Koike, M. Oikawa, and M. Kobayashi, “Autostereoscopic display based on enhanced integral photography using overlaid multiple projectors,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 40(1), 611-614(2009).
  20. J.-Y. Son and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional imaging methods based on multiview images,” J. Disp. Technol. 1, 125-140(2005).
    [CrossRef]
  21. D. W. Hansen, and A. E. C. Pece, “Eye tracking in the wild,” Comput. Vis. Image Underst. 98, 155-181 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (2)

H. Sakai, M. Yamasaki, T. Koike, M. Oikawa, and M. Kobayashi, “Autostereoscopic display based on enhanced integral photography using overlaid multiple projectors,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 40(1), 611-614(2009).

G. Park, J.-H. Jung, K. Hong, Y. Kim, Y.-H. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Multi-viewer tracking integral imaging system and its viewing zone analysis,” Opt. Express 17, 17895-17908(2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

T. Balogh, “The holovizio system,” Proc. SPIE 6055, 60550U (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (7)

2004 (3)

J. Hong, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Analysis of image depth in integral imaging and its enhancement by correction to elemental images,” Proc. SPIE 5524, 387-395 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Kakeya, N. Kobe, and H. Kasano, “Multiview autostereoscopic displays with floating real image,” Proc. SPIE 5291, 255-264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Liao, M. Iwahara, N. Hata, and T. Dohi, “High-quality integral videography using a multiprojector,” Opt. Express 12, 1067-1076 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

H. Kakeya, “Real image based autostereoscopic display using a LCD, mirrors, and lenses,” Proc. SPIE 5006, 99-108(2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Baasantseren, G.

Balogh, T.

T. Balogh, “The holovizio system,” Proc. SPIE 6055, 60550U (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H.

Dohi, T.

Hahn, M.

Hansen, D. W.

D. W. Hansen, and A. E. C. Pece, “Eye tracking in the wild,” Comput. Vis. Image Underst. 98, 155-181 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hata, N.

Hong, J.

J. Hong, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Analysis of image depth in integral imaging and its enhancement by correction to elemental images,” Proc. SPIE 5524, 387-395 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hong, K.

Iwahara, M.

Javidi, B.

J.-Y. Son and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional imaging methods based on multiview images,” J. Disp. Technol. 1, 125-140(2005).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, M.-O.

Jung, J.-H.

Jung, S.

Kakeya, H.

H. Kakeya, “MOEVision: simple multiview display with clear floating image,” Proc. SPIE 6490, 64900J (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Kakeya, N. Kobe, and H. Kasano, “Multiview autostereoscopic displays with floating real image,” Proc. SPIE 5291, 255-264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Kakeya, “Real image based autostereoscopic display using a LCD, mirrors, and lenses,” Proc. SPIE 5006, 99-108(2003).
[CrossRef]

Kasano, H.

H. Kakeya, N. Kobe, and H. Kasano, “Multiview autostereoscopic displays with floating real image,” Proc. SPIE 5291, 255-264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, E.-S.

D.-H. Shin, E.-S. Kim, and B. Lee, “Computational reconstruction technique of three-dimensional object in integral imaging using a lenslet array,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 8016-8018(2005).
[CrossRef]

D.-H. Shin, B. Lee, and E.-S. Kim, “Effect of illumination in an integral imaging system with large depth of focus,” Appl. Opt. 44, 7749-7753 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

Kim, M.-S.

Kim, N.

Kim, Y.

Kim, Y.-H.

Kobayashi, M.

H. Sakai, M. Yamasaki, T. Koike, M. Oikawa, and M. Kobayashi, “Autostereoscopic display based on enhanced integral photography using overlaid multiple projectors,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 40(1), 611-614(2009).

Kobe, N.

H. Kakeya, N. Kobe, and H. Kasano, “Multiview autostereoscopic displays with floating real image,” Proc. SPIE 5291, 255-264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koike, T.

H. Sakai, M. Yamasaki, T. Koike, M. Oikawa, and M. Kobayashi, “Autostereoscopic display based on enhanced integral photography using overlaid multiple projectors,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 40(1), 611-614(2009).

H. Liao, M. Iwahara, T. Koike, N. Hata, I. Sakuma, and T. Dohi, “Scalable high-resolution integral videography autostereoscopic display with a seamless multiprojection system,” Appl. Opt. 44, 305-315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

G. Park, J.-H. Jung, K. Hong, Y. Kim, Y.-H. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Multi-viewer tracking integral imaging system and its viewing zone analysis,” Opt. Express 17, 17895-17908(2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, S.-W. Min, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Floated image mapping for integral floating display,” Opt. Express 16, 8549-8556(2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, S.-W. Min, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Analysis on viewing characteristics of integral floating system,” Appl. Opt. 47, D80-D86 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Viewing region maximization of an integral floating display through location adjustment of viewing window,” Opt. Express 15, 13023-13034 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, “Wide-viewing-angle integral three-dimensional imaging system by curving a screen and a lens array,” Appl. Opt. 44, 546-552 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D.-H. Shin, B. Lee, and E.-S. Kim, “Effect of illumination in an integral imaging system with large depth of focus,” Appl. Opt. 44, 7749-7753 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D.-H. Shin, E.-S. Kim, and B. Lee, “Computational reconstruction technique of three-dimensional object in integral imaging using a lenslet array,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 8016-8018(2005).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Min, M. Hahn, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Three-dimensional electro-floating display system using an integral imaging method,” Opt. Express 13, 4358-4369 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Hong, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Analysis of image depth in integral imaging and its enhancement by correction to elemental images,” Proc. SPIE 5524, 387-395 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, and B. Lee, “Analysis of viewing parameters for two display methods based on integral photography,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5217-5232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liao, H.

Min, S.-W.

Oikawa, M.

H. Sakai, M. Yamasaki, T. Koike, M. Oikawa, and M. Kobayashi, “Autostereoscopic display based on enhanced integral photography using overlaid multiple projectors,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 40(1), 611-614(2009).

Park, G.

Park, J.-H.

Pece, A. E. C.

D. W. Hansen, and A. E. C. Pece, “Eye tracking in the wild,” Comput. Vis. Image Underst. 98, 155-181 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, H.

H. Sakai, M. Yamasaki, T. Koike, M. Oikawa, and M. Kobayashi, “Autostereoscopic display based on enhanced integral photography using overlaid multiple projectors,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 40(1), 611-614(2009).

Sakuma, I.

Shin, D.-H.

D.-H. Shin, B. Lee, and E.-S. Kim, “Effect of illumination in an integral imaging system with large depth of focus,” Appl. Opt. 44, 7749-7753 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D.-H. Shin, E.-S. Kim, and B. Lee, “Computational reconstruction technique of three-dimensional object in integral imaging using a lenslet array,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 8016-8018(2005).
[CrossRef]

Son, J.-Y.

J.-Y. Son and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional imaging methods based on multiview images,” J. Disp. Technol. 1, 125-140(2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamasaki, M.

H. Sakai, M. Yamasaki, T. Koike, M. Oikawa, and M. Kobayashi, “Autostereoscopic display based on enhanced integral photography using overlaid multiple projectors,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 40(1), 611-614(2009).

Appl. Opt. (5)

Comput. Vis. Image Underst. (1)

D. W. Hansen, and A. E. C. Pece, “Eye tracking in the wild,” Comput. Vis. Image Underst. 98, 155-181 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

J.-Y. Son and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional imaging methods based on multiview images,” J. Disp. Technol. 1, 125-140(2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Korea (2)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D.-H. Shin, E.-S. Kim, and B. Lee, “Computational reconstruction technique of three-dimensional object in integral imaging using a lenslet array,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 8016-8018(2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Proc. SPIE (5)

H. Kakeya, “Real image based autostereoscopic display using a LCD, mirrors, and lenses,” Proc. SPIE 5006, 99-108(2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Kakeya, N. Kobe, and H. Kasano, “Multiview autostereoscopic displays with floating real image,” Proc. SPIE 5291, 255-264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Kakeya, “MOEVision: simple multiview display with clear floating image,” Proc. SPIE 6490, 64900J (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Hong, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Analysis of image depth in integral imaging and its enhancement by correction to elemental images,” Proc. SPIE 5524, 387-395 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Balogh, “The holovizio system,” Proc. SPIE 6055, 60550U (2006).
[CrossRef]

SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers (1)

H. Sakai, M. Yamasaki, T. Koike, M. Oikawa, and M. Kobayashi, “Autostereoscopic display based on enhanced integral photography using overlaid multiple projectors,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 40(1), 611-614(2009).

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Image distortion in integral floating display which manifests itself as (a) abrupt change and (b) discontinuity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Two cases of floating 3D image degradation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Geometry and parameters for viewing area calculation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of viewing areas for floating 3D image with and without discontinuity.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Principle of elemental image generation optimized for a fixed observation point.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Illustration of the possible observation positions that can lead to one synthesized elemental image set (a) when the observation position is closer to the viewing window than floated apertures and (b) when the observation position is farther from the viewing window than floated apertures.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Elemental image set generated for a (a) single observation point and for (b) two observation points without overlapping elemental image sets.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Illustration of the additional observation positions available for the second observer when there is an observer.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Experimental setup containing the glasses with infrared LED and a webcam.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Floating 3D images generated (a) by the previous method and (b) by the proposed method.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Floating 3D images whose pictures are taken while the camcorder is moving (a) horizontally and (b) vertically.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Two components of tracking errors. Component 2 is more significant than component 1.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Illustration of the marginal area for partition error compensation.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Experimental Parameters

Equations (9)

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w multiple = h window z observer d aperture d aperture d window ,
w single = φ aperture + ( φ aperture h window ) z observer d aperture d aperture d window .
w multiple = h window d aperture z observer d aperture d window ,
w single = φ aperture ( φ aperture + h window ) d aperture z observer d aperture d window .
α separate = φ aperture d observer d window d aperture d window .
γ = d window + ( d aperture d window ) β eye φ aperture ,
A error = e | d observer d window d aperture d window | ,
A marginal = ( β eye α separate ) | d observer d window d aperture d window | .
α separate < β eye 2 e .

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