Abstract

Changes in the refractive index of amorphous chalcogenide A2S8 films upon ultraviolet (UV) exposure and annealing at different temperatures are investigated in detail, indicating an index contrast of the order of 102 in the A2S8 channel waveguide. An As2S8 channel waveguide is fabricated using UV well irradiation and then annealing near the glass transition temperature and shows a low propagation loss of 0.76dB/cm and good propagation characterization at the 1310nm guided mode.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. P. Nemec and M. Frumar, “Chalcogenide-based amorphous thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 5, 1047-1059 (2003).
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    [CrossRef]
  12. L. P. Du, B. X. Chen, B. Sun, Z. Chen, L. E. Zou, H. Hamanaka, and M. Iso, Acta Phys. Sin. 57, 3593-3599 (2008) [in Chinese].
  13. F. Kyriazis and S. N. Yannopoulos, “Colossal photostructural changes in chalcogenide glasses: athermal photoinduced polymerization in AsxS100−x bulk glasses revealed by near-bandgap Raman scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 101901-101903(2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. P. Chen, C. Holbrook, P. Boolchand, D. G. Georgiev, K. A. Jackson, and M. Micoulaut, “Intermediate phase, network demixing, boson and floppy modes, and compositional trends in glass transition temperatures of binary AsxS1−x system,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 224208-224215 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. Y. Jiang, Z. Q. Cao, and Y. L. Chen, “CCD camera photographing in detecting the propagation attenuate coefficient of polymer waveguides,” J. Shanghai Jiaotong Univ. 31(10), 42-44(1997).
  20. A. V. Kolobov and G. J. Adriaenssens, “On the mechanism of photostructural changes in As-based vitreous chalcogenides: microscopic, dynamic and electronic aspects,” Philos. Mag. B 69, 21-31 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  21. G. R. Sui, B. X. Chen, X. W. Zhang, J. Z. Zhou, C. S. Fu, and M. Iso, “Automatic waveguide-fiber coupling system based on multi-objective evolutionary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7452-7459 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. G. R. Sui, B. X. Chen, J. Z. Zhou, C. S. Fu, and M. Iso, “Automatic optic waveguide chip packaging system based on center-integration algorithm,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1515-1521 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2009

F. Kyriazis and S. N. Yannopoulos, “Colossal photostructural changes in chalcogenide glasses: athermal photoinduced polymerization in AsxS100−x bulk glasses revealed by near-bandgap Raman scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 101901-101903(2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

L. E. Zou, B. X. Chen, L. P. Du, H. Hamanaka, and M. Iso, “Photo- and thermally induced changes in the refractive index and film thickness of amorphous As2S8 film,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 123523-123525 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Prasad, C.-J. Zha, R.-P. Wang, A. Smith, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Properties of GexAsySe1−x−y glasses for all-optical signal processing,” Opt. Express 16, 2804-2815(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Chen, C. Holbrook, P. Boolchand, D. G. Georgiev, K. A. Jackson, and M. Micoulaut, “Intermediate phase, network demixing, boson and floppy modes, and compositional trends in glass transition temperatures of binary AsxS1−x system,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 224208-224215 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Du, B. X. Chen, B. Sun, Z. Chen, L. E. Zou, H. Hamanaka, and M. Iso, Acta Phys. Sin. 57, 3593-3599 (2008) [in Chinese].

G. R. Sui, B. X. Chen, J. Z. Zhou, C. S. Fu, and M. Iso, “Automatic optic waveguide chip packaging system based on center-integration algorithm,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1515-1521 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

R. P. Wang, S. J. Madden, C. J. Zha, A. V. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, “Annealing induced phase transformation in amorphous As2S3 films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 063524-063527 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2003

M. Frumar, J. Jedelský, B. Frumarová, T. Wágner, and M. Hrdlicka, “Optically and thermally induced changes of structure, linear and non-linear optical properties of chalcogenides thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326-327, 399-404(2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Balan, C. Vigreux, A. Pradel, A. Llobera, C. Dominguez, M. I. Alonso, and M. Garriga, “Chalcogenide glass-based rib ARROW waveguide,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326-327, 455-459(2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Nemec and M. Frumar, “Chalcogenide-based amorphous thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 5, 1047-1059 (2003).

2002

2001

A. Schulte, C. Rivero, K. Richardson, K. Turcotte, V. Hamel, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstian, and R. Vallee, “Bulk-film structural differences of chalcogenide glasses probed in situ by near-infrared waveguide Raman spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 198, 125-128 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

A. V. Stronski, M. Vlcek, A. Sklenar, P. E. Shepeljavi, S. A. Kostyukevich, and T. Wagner, “Application of As40S60−xSex layers for high-efficiency grating production,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 266-269, 973-978 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

1997

Y. Jiang, Z. Q. Cao, and Y. L. Chen, “CCD camera photographing in detecting the propagation attenuate coefficient of polymer waveguides,” J. Shanghai Jiaotong Univ. 31(10), 42-44(1997).

1994

A. V. Kolobov and G. J. Adriaenssens, “On the mechanism of photostructural changes in As-based vitreous chalcogenides: microscopic, dynamic and electronic aspects,” Philos. Mag. B 69, 21-31 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

M. Asobe, K. Suzuki, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, “Nonlinear refractive-index measurement in chalcogenide-glass fibers by self-phase modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1153-1154 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

S. R. Elliott, “Medium-range structural order in covalent amorphous solids,” Nature 354, 445-452 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1980

D. Adler, “Defects in amorphous semiconductors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 35-36, 819-824 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Adler, D.

D. Adler, “Defects in amorphous semiconductors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 35-36, 819-824 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Adriaenssens, G. J.

A. V. Kolobov and G. J. Adriaenssens, “On the mechanism of photostructural changes in As-based vitreous chalcogenides: microscopic, dynamic and electronic aspects,” Philos. Mag. B 69, 21-31 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Alonso, M. I.

V. Balan, C. Vigreux, A. Pradel, A. Llobera, C. Dominguez, M. I. Alonso, and M. Garriga, “Chalcogenide glass-based rib ARROW waveguide,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326-327, 455-459(2003).
[CrossRef]

Asobe, M.

M. Asobe, K. Suzuki, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, “Nonlinear refractive-index measurement in chalcogenide-glass fibers by self-phase modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1153-1154 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Balan, V.

V. Balan, C. Vigreux, A. Pradel, A. Llobera, C. Dominguez, M. I. Alonso, and M. Garriga, “Chalcogenide glass-based rib ARROW waveguide,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326-327, 455-459(2003).
[CrossRef]

Boolchand, P.

P. Chen, C. Holbrook, P. Boolchand, D. G. Georgiev, K. A. Jackson, and M. Micoulaut, “Intermediate phase, network demixing, boson and floppy modes, and compositional trends in glass transition temperatures of binary AsxS1−x system,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 224208-224215 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Z. Q.

Y. Jiang, Z. Q. Cao, and Y. L. Chen, “CCD camera photographing in detecting the propagation attenuate coefficient of polymer waveguides,” J. Shanghai Jiaotong Univ. 31(10), 42-44(1997).

Cardinal, T.

Chen, B. X.

L. P. Du, B. X. Chen, B. Sun, Z. Chen, L. E. Zou, H. Hamanaka, and M. Iso, Acta Phys. Sin. 57, 3593-3599 (2008) [in Chinese].

L. E. Zou, B. X. Chen, L. P. Du, H. Hamanaka, and M. Iso, “Photo- and thermally induced changes in the refractive index and film thickness of amorphous As2S8 film,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 123523-123525 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Sui, B. X. Chen, J. Z. Zhou, C. S. Fu, and M. Iso, “Automatic optic waveguide chip packaging system based on center-integration algorithm,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1515-1521 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Sui, B. X. Chen, X. W. Zhang, J. Z. Zhou, C. S. Fu, and M. Iso, “Automatic waveguide-fiber coupling system based on multi-objective evolutionary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7452-7459 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, P.

P. Chen, C. Holbrook, P. Boolchand, D. G. Georgiev, K. A. Jackson, and M. Micoulaut, “Intermediate phase, network demixing, boson and floppy modes, and compositional trends in glass transition temperatures of binary AsxS1−x system,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 224208-224215 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. L.

Y. Jiang, Z. Q. Cao, and Y. L. Chen, “CCD camera photographing in detecting the propagation attenuate coefficient of polymer waveguides,” J. Shanghai Jiaotong Univ. 31(10), 42-44(1997).

Chen, Z.

L. P. Du, B. X. Chen, B. Sun, Z. Chen, L. E. Zou, H. Hamanaka, and M. Iso, Acta Phys. Sin. 57, 3593-3599 (2008) [in Chinese].

DeCorby, R. G.

Dominguez, C.

V. Balan, C. Vigreux, A. Pradel, A. Llobera, C. Dominguez, M. I. Alonso, and M. Garriga, “Chalcogenide glass-based rib ARROW waveguide,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326-327, 455-459(2003).
[CrossRef]

Du, L. P.

L. E. Zou, B. X. Chen, L. P. Du, H. Hamanaka, and M. Iso, “Photo- and thermally induced changes in the refractive index and film thickness of amorphous As2S8 film,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 123523-123525 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Du, B. X. Chen, B. Sun, Z. Chen, L. E. Zou, H. Hamanaka, and M. Iso, Acta Phys. Sin. 57, 3593-3599 (2008) [in Chinese].

Duguay, M. A.

Elliott, S. R.

S. R. Elliott, “Medium-range structural order in covalent amorphous solids,” Nature 354, 445-452 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Frumar, M.

P. Nemec and M. Frumar, “Chalcogenide-based amorphous thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 5, 1047-1059 (2003).

M. Frumar, J. Jedelský, B. Frumarová, T. Wágner, and M. Hrdlicka, “Optically and thermally induced changes of structure, linear and non-linear optical properties of chalcogenides thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326-327, 399-404(2003).
[CrossRef]

Frumarová, B.

M. Frumar, J. Jedelský, B. Frumarová, T. Wágner, and M. Hrdlicka, “Optically and thermally induced changes of structure, linear and non-linear optical properties of chalcogenides thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326-327, 399-404(2003).
[CrossRef]

Fu, C. S.

G. R. Sui, B. X. Chen, J. Z. Zhou, C. S. Fu, and M. Iso, “Automatic optic waveguide chip packaging system based on center-integration algorithm,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1515-1521 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Sui, B. X. Chen, X. W. Zhang, J. Z. Zhou, C. S. Fu, and M. Iso, “Automatic waveguide-fiber coupling system based on multi-objective evolutionary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7452-7459 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galstian, T.

A. Schulte, C. Rivero, K. Richardson, K. Turcotte, V. Hamel, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstian, and R. Vallee, “Bulk-film structural differences of chalcogenide glasses probed in situ by near-infrared waveguide Raman spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 198, 125-128 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Galstian, T. V.

Garriga, M.

V. Balan, C. Vigreux, A. Pradel, A. Llobera, C. Dominguez, M. I. Alonso, and M. Garriga, “Chalcogenide glass-based rib ARROW waveguide,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326-327, 455-459(2003).
[CrossRef]

Georgiev, D. G.

P. Chen, C. Holbrook, P. Boolchand, D. G. Georgiev, K. A. Jackson, and M. Micoulaut, “Intermediate phase, network demixing, boson and floppy modes, and compositional trends in glass transition temperatures of binary AsxS1−x system,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 224208-224215 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hamanaka, H.

L. E. Zou, B. X. Chen, L. P. Du, H. Hamanaka, and M. Iso, “Photo- and thermally induced changes in the refractive index and film thickness of amorphous As2S8 film,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 123523-123525 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Du, B. X. Chen, B. Sun, Z. Chen, L. E. Zou, H. Hamanaka, and M. Iso, Acta Phys. Sin. 57, 3593-3599 (2008) [in Chinese].

Hamel, V.

A. Schulte, C. Rivero, K. Richardson, K. Turcotte, V. Hamel, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstian, and R. Vallee, “Bulk-film structural differences of chalcogenide glasses probed in situ by near-infrared waveguide Raman spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 198, 125-128 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Haugen, C. J.

Hô, N.

Holbrook, C.

P. Chen, C. Holbrook, P. Boolchand, D. G. Georgiev, K. A. Jackson, and M. Micoulaut, “Intermediate phase, network demixing, boson and floppy modes, and compositional trends in glass transition temperatures of binary AsxS1−x system,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 224208-224215 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hrdlicka, M.

M. Frumar, J. Jedelský, B. Frumarová, T. Wágner, and M. Hrdlicka, “Optically and thermally induced changes of structure, linear and non-linear optical properties of chalcogenides thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326-327, 399-404(2003).
[CrossRef]

Iso, M.

L. P. Du, B. X. Chen, B. Sun, Z. Chen, L. E. Zou, H. Hamanaka, and M. Iso, Acta Phys. Sin. 57, 3593-3599 (2008) [in Chinese].

L. E. Zou, B. X. Chen, L. P. Du, H. Hamanaka, and M. Iso, “Photo- and thermally induced changes in the refractive index and film thickness of amorphous As2S8 film,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 123523-123525 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Sui, B. X. Chen, J. Z. Zhou, C. S. Fu, and M. Iso, “Automatic optic waveguide chip packaging system based on center-integration algorithm,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1515-1521 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Sui, B. X. Chen, X. W. Zhang, J. Z. Zhou, C. S. Fu, and M. Iso, “Automatic waveguide-fiber coupling system based on multi-objective evolutionary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7452-7459 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jackson, K. A.

P. Chen, C. Holbrook, P. Boolchand, D. G. Georgiev, K. A. Jackson, and M. Micoulaut, “Intermediate phase, network demixing, boson and floppy modes, and compositional trends in glass transition temperatures of binary AsxS1−x system,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 224208-224215 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jedelský, J.

M. Frumar, J. Jedelský, B. Frumarová, T. Wágner, and M. Hrdlicka, “Optically and thermally induced changes of structure, linear and non-linear optical properties of chalcogenides thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326-327, 399-404(2003).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

Y. Jiang, Z. Q. Cao, and Y. L. Chen, “CCD camera photographing in detecting the propagation attenuate coefficient of polymer waveguides,” J. Shanghai Jiaotong Univ. 31(10), 42-44(1997).

Kanamori, T.

M. Asobe, K. Suzuki, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, “Nonlinear refractive-index measurement in chalcogenide-glass fibers by self-phase modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1153-1154 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kasap, S. O.

Knystautas, E. J.

Kolobov, A. V.

A. V. Kolobov and G. J. Adriaenssens, “On the mechanism of photostructural changes in As-based vitreous chalcogenides: microscopic, dynamic and electronic aspects,” Philos. Mag. B 69, 21-31 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kostyukevich, S. A.

A. V. Stronski, M. Vlcek, A. Sklenar, P. E. Shepeljavi, S. A. Kostyukevich, and T. Wagner, “Application of As40S60−xSex layers for high-efficiency grating production,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 266-269, 973-978 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kubodera, K.

M. Asobe, K. Suzuki, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, “Nonlinear refractive-index measurement in chalcogenide-glass fibers by self-phase modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1153-1154 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kyriazis, F.

F. Kyriazis and S. N. Yannopoulos, “Colossal photostructural changes in chalcogenide glasses: athermal photoinduced polymerization in AsxS100−x bulk glasses revealed by near-bandgap Raman scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 101901-101903(2009).
[CrossRef]

Laniel, J. M.

Llobera, A.

V. Balan, C. Vigreux, A. Pradel, A. Llobera, C. Dominguez, M. I. Alonso, and M. Garriga, “Chalcogenide glass-based rib ARROW waveguide,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326-327, 455-459(2003).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

A. Prasad, C.-J. Zha, R.-P. Wang, A. Smith, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Properties of GexAsySe1−x−y glasses for all-optical signal processing,” Opt. Express 16, 2804-2815(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Wang, S. J. Madden, C. J. Zha, A. V. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, “Annealing induced phase transformation in amorphous As2S3 films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 063524-063527 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Madden, S.

Madden, S. J.

R. P. Wang, S. J. Madden, C. J. Zha, A. V. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, “Annealing induced phase transformation in amorphous As2S3 films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 063524-063527 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McMullin, J. N.

Meneghini, C.

Micoulaut, M.

P. Chen, C. Holbrook, P. Boolchand, D. G. Georgiev, K. A. Jackson, and M. Micoulaut, “Intermediate phase, network demixing, boson and floppy modes, and compositional trends in glass transition temperatures of binary AsxS1−x system,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 224208-224215 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nemec, P.

P. Nemec and M. Frumar, “Chalcogenide-based amorphous thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 5, 1047-1059 (2003).

Pradel, A.

V. Balan, C. Vigreux, A. Pradel, A. Llobera, C. Dominguez, M. I. Alonso, and M. Garriga, “Chalcogenide glass-based rib ARROW waveguide,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326-327, 455-459(2003).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, A.

Richardson, K.

A. Schulte, C. Rivero, K. Richardson, K. Turcotte, V. Hamel, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstian, and R. Vallee, “Bulk-film structural differences of chalcogenide glasses probed in situ by near-infrared waveguide Raman spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 198, 125-128 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K. A.

Rivero, C.

A. Schulte, C. Rivero, K. Richardson, K. Turcotte, V. Hamel, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstian, and R. Vallee, “Bulk-film structural differences of chalcogenide glasses probed in situ by near-infrared waveguide Raman spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 198, 125-128 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, T.

Rode, A. V.

R. P. Wang, S. J. Madden, C. J. Zha, A. V. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, “Annealing induced phase transformation in amorphous As2S3 films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 063524-063527 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schulte, A.

A. Schulte, C. Rivero, K. Richardson, K. Turcotte, V. Hamel, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstian, and R. Vallee, “Bulk-film structural differences of chalcogenide glasses probed in situ by near-infrared waveguide Raman spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 198, 125-128 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shepeljavi, P. E.

A. V. Stronski, M. Vlcek, A. Sklenar, P. E. Shepeljavi, S. A. Kostyukevich, and T. Wagner, “Application of As40S60−xSex layers for high-efficiency grating production,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 266-269, 973-978 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sklenar, A.

A. V. Stronski, M. Vlcek, A. Sklenar, P. E. Shepeljavi, S. A. Kostyukevich, and T. Wagner, “Application of As40S60−xSex layers for high-efficiency grating production,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 266-269, 973-978 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Smith, A.

Steudel, R.

R. Steudel, in Elemental Sulfur and Sulfur-Rich Compounds I, Vol. 230 of Topics in Current Chemistry, R. Steudel, ed. (Springer--Verlag, 2003), pp. 81-116.

Stronski, A. V.

A. V. Stronski, M. Vlcek, A. Sklenar, P. E. Shepeljavi, S. A. Kostyukevich, and T. Wagner, “Application of As40S60−xSex layers for high-efficiency grating production,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 266-269, 973-978 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sui, G. R.

G. R. Sui, B. X. Chen, J. Z. Zhou, C. S. Fu, and M. Iso, “Automatic optic waveguide chip packaging system based on center-integration algorithm,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1515-1521 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Sui, B. X. Chen, X. W. Zhang, J. Z. Zhou, C. S. Fu, and M. Iso, “Automatic waveguide-fiber coupling system based on multi-objective evolutionary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7452-7459 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, B.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Changes of refractive index in as-deposited As 2 S 8 film (a) upon exposure to UV light and (b) annealing at a different temperature.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Changes of film thickness in as-deposited As 2 S 8 film upon exposure to UV light and annealing at the different temperature.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM photos of the thickness of film samples (a) before and (b) after annealing at 160 ° C .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SEM photos of the surface of the as-deposited film samples (a) before and (b) after annealing at 160 ° C .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Changes of refractive index in well irradiated As 2 S 8 film upon annealing at a different temperature.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental setup for light propagation in an As 2 S 8 film waveguide

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Light propagation photos of the well irradiated As 2 S 8 film (a) before and (b) after annealing ( 130 ° C ).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Microscopic image of the channel waveguide sample face; (b) measured near-field distribution of the guide mode at 1310 nm in the channel waveguide.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Measured insertion loss for As 2 S 8 channel waveguides at a 1310 nm guide mode.

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