Abstract

Shack–Hartmann aberrometers are routinely used for measuring ocular aberrations. In one configuration, the intermediate images of the Shack–Hartmann spots formed by the lenslet array are relayed by an imaging lens onto a sensor. A systematic introduction of spherical aberration that is strongly related to the power error (defocus) of the incident wavefront is observed in this configuration. We found that the largest component of this error is induced by the pupil aberration of the imaging relay lens. Some simulations and experimental results are demonstrated.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Liang, B. Grimm, S. Goelz, and J. F. Bille, “Objective measurement of wave aberrations of the human eye with the use of a Hartmann-Shack wave-front sensor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1949-1957 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. N. Thibos and X. Hong, “Clinical applications of the Shack-Hartmann aberrometer,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 76, 817-825(1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Porter, A. Guirao, I. G. Cox, and D. R. Williams, “Monochromatic aberrations of the human eye in a large population,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1793-1803 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. A. Atchison and G. Smith, Optics of the Human Eye (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000).
  5. J. Schwiegerling, Field Guide to Visual and Ophthalmic Optics (SPIE, 2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. S. Davila, W. L. Eichhorn, and M. E. Wilson, “Hartmann wavefront sensing of the corrective optics for the Hubble Space Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2198, 1261-1272 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Sheehan, A. Goncharov, and C. Dainty, “Design of a versatile clinical aberrometer,” Proc. SPIE 5962, 59620M (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Chernyshov, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, J. Helmcke, and J. Pfund, “Calibration of a Shack-Hartmann sensor for absolute measurements of wavefronts,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6419-6425 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G. Yoon, “Wavefront sensing and diagnostic uses,” in Adaptive Optics for Vision Science, J.Porter, H.Queener, J.Lin, K.Thorn, and A.Awwal, eds. (Wiley-Interscience, 2006), pp. 63-84.
  10. M. Kidger, Fundamental Optical Design (SPIE Press, 2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. G. Wynne, “Primary aberrations and conjugate change,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London Ser. B 65, 429-437 (1952).
    [CrossRef]
  12. V. Mahajan, Optical Imaging and Aberrations Part 1: Ray Geometrical Optics (SPIE, 1998).

2005 (2)

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

L. N. Thibos and X. Hong, “Clinical applications of the Shack-Hartmann aberrometer,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 76, 817-825(1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

P. S. Davila, W. L. Eichhorn, and M. E. Wilson, “Hartmann wavefront sensing of the corrective optics for the Hubble Space Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2198, 1261-1272 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Liang, B. Grimm, S. Goelz, and J. F. Bille, “Objective measurement of wave aberrations of the human eye with the use of a Hartmann-Shack wave-front sensor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1949-1957 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1952 (1)

C. G. Wynne, “Primary aberrations and conjugate change,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London Ser. B 65, 429-437 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Atchison, D. A.

D. A. Atchison and G. Smith, Optics of the Human Eye (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000).

Bille, J. F.

Chernyshov, A.

Cox, I. G.

Dainty, C.

M. Sheehan, A. Goncharov, and C. Dainty, “Design of a versatile clinical aberrometer,” Proc. SPIE 5962, 59620M (2005).
[CrossRef]

Davila, P. S.

P. S. Davila, W. L. Eichhorn, and M. E. Wilson, “Hartmann wavefront sensing of the corrective optics for the Hubble Space Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2198, 1261-1272 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Eichhorn, W. L.

P. S. Davila, W. L. Eichhorn, and M. E. Wilson, “Hartmann wavefront sensing of the corrective optics for the Hubble Space Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2198, 1261-1272 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Goelz, S.

Goncharov, A.

M. Sheehan, A. Goncharov, and C. Dainty, “Design of a versatile clinical aberrometer,” Proc. SPIE 5962, 59620M (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grimm, B.

Guirao, A.

Helmcke, J.

Hong, X.

L. N. Thibos and X. Hong, “Clinical applications of the Shack-Hartmann aberrometer,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 76, 817-825(1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kidger, M.

M. Kidger, Fundamental Optical Design (SPIE Press, 2001).
[CrossRef]

Liang, J.

Mahajan, V.

V. Mahajan, Optical Imaging and Aberrations Part 1: Ray Geometrical Optics (SPIE, 1998).

Pfund, J.

Porter, J.

Riehle, F.

Schwiegerling, J.

J. Schwiegerling, Field Guide to Visual and Ophthalmic Optics (SPIE, 2004).
[CrossRef]

Sheehan, M.

M. Sheehan, A. Goncharov, and C. Dainty, “Design of a versatile clinical aberrometer,” Proc. SPIE 5962, 59620M (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smith, G.

D. A. Atchison and G. Smith, Optics of the Human Eye (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000).

Sterr, U.

Thibos, L. N.

L. N. Thibos and X. Hong, “Clinical applications of the Shack-Hartmann aberrometer,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 76, 817-825(1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, D. R.

Wilson, M. E.

P. S. Davila, W. L. Eichhorn, and M. E. Wilson, “Hartmann wavefront sensing of the corrective optics for the Hubble Space Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2198, 1261-1272 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wynne, C. G.

C. G. Wynne, “Primary aberrations and conjugate change,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London Ser. B 65, 429-437 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, G.

G. Yoon, “Wavefront sensing and diagnostic uses,” in Adaptive Optics for Vision Science, J.Porter, H.Queener, J.Lin, K.Thorn, and A.Awwal, eds. (Wiley-Interscience, 2006), pp. 63-84.

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Optom. Vis. Sci. (1)

L. N. Thibos and X. Hong, “Clinical applications of the Shack-Hartmann aberrometer,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 76, 817-825(1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Phys. Soc. London Ser. B (1)

C. G. Wynne, “Primary aberrations and conjugate change,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London Ser. B 65, 429-437 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

P. S. Davila, W. L. Eichhorn, and M. E. Wilson, “Hartmann wavefront sensing of the corrective optics for the Hubble Space Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2198, 1261-1272 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheehan, A. Goncharov, and C. Dainty, “Design of a versatile clinical aberrometer,” Proc. SPIE 5962, 59620M (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

G. Yoon, “Wavefront sensing and diagnostic uses,” in Adaptive Optics for Vision Science, J.Porter, H.Queener, J.Lin, K.Thorn, and A.Awwal, eds. (Wiley-Interscience, 2006), pp. 63-84.

M. Kidger, Fundamental Optical Design (SPIE Press, 2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Mahajan, Optical Imaging and Aberrations Part 1: Ray Geometrical Optics (SPIE, 1998).

D. A. Atchison and G. Smith, Optics of the Human Eye (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000).

J. Schwiegerling, Field Guide to Visual and Ophthalmic Optics (SPIE, 2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Ideal components and their roles in the whole system. The first part is the afocal pupil relay optics, by which the eye pupil is conjugated to the lenslet array. The second part is the lenslet array, by which the wavefront is sampled and the SH spots are focused at the intermediate image plane. The third part is the imaging relay optics, by which the intermediate image of SH spots is supposed to be ideally imaged with a specified magnification.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

In reality, the pupil is sampled by the lenslets, each of which turns to the stop of the following system separately so that the lenslet array and the image relay lens should be treated as one subsystem in analysis for the final spot pattern. The chief rays of lenslets are drawn in blue lines. Due to pupil aberration, the chief rays cannot always pass through the back focal point F simultaneously, which means a loss of telecentricity of the image relay optics and the distortion at the image plane.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Chief rays of three lenslets are traced. The local tilts of the incident wavefront over each lenslet are 0 ° and ± 1 ° , respectively. The green, red, and blue sets of chief rays are associated with the lenslet, whose centers are at 0.69, 0, and 0.92 in the normalized pupil coordinates, respectively. (b), (c) Distortion plots with respect to the maximum field of + 1 ° and 1 ° are illustrated, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Layout of four models in ZEMAX.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Systematic errors of spherical aberration versus defocus of input wavefront.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison between the measured and simulation systematic errors of spherical aberration as a function of the power of trial lenses. The measured data fit a quadratic curve quite well, which can be used to predict the systematic error of spherical aberrations associated with a given defocus.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of sphere equivalent power (SEP) between estimation results with spherical aberration error correction (denoted by square) and estimation results without spherical aberration error correction (denoted by circle). As the systematic errors of spherical aberrations are removed from the measured results, the resulting SEP estimation curve versus the power of trial lenses turns to be more linear, and the residual errors in curve fitting decrease apparently.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Piece of ground glass is set at the intermediate spot image plane: (a) The SEP estimations versus the power of trial lenses are illustrated. (b) The systematic errors of spherical aberration versus the power of trial lenses appear random, and the standard deviations of 10 measurements for each trial lens significantly increase compared to the standard deviations of the same measurements by the system without ground glass.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 List of Simulation Models Used to Determine Role of Pupil Aberration of Imaging Lens

Tables Icon

Table 2 Main Configuration Parameters of the System

Tables Icon

Table 3 Comparison of Standard Deviation Statistics of Measurement Results

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