Abstract

We investigate a new metric, the normalized point source sensitivity (PSSN), for characterizing the seeing-limited performance of large telescopes. As the PSSN metric is directly related to the photometric error of background limited observations, it represents the efficiency loss in telescope observing time. The PSSN metric properly accounts for the optical consequences of wave front spatial frequency distributions due to different error sources, which differentiates from traditional metrics such as the 80% encircled energy diameter and the central intensity ratio. We analytically show that multiplication of individual PSSN values due to individual errors is a good approximation for the total PSSN when various errors are considered simultaneously. We also numerically confirm this feature for Zernike aberrations as well as for the numerous error sources considered in the error budget of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) using a ray optics simulator. Additionally, we discuss other pertinent features of the PSSN, including its relations to Zernike aberration, RMS wave front error, and central intensity ratio.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Z. Angeli, S. Roberts, and K. Vogiatzis, “Systems engineering for the preliminary design of the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7017, 701704 (2008).
  2. K. Vogiatzis and G. Z. Angeli, “Monte Carlo simulation framework for TMT,” Proc. SPIE 7017, 7017V (2008).
  3. C. Nissly, B. Seo, M. Troy, G. Angeli, J. Angione, I. Crossfield, B. Ellerbroek, L. Gilles, and N. Sigrist, “High-resolution optical modeling of the Thirty Meter Telescope for systematic performance trades,” Proc. SPIE 7017, 70170U(2008).
  4. P. Dierickx, “Optical performance of large ground-based telescopes,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 569-588 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. I. R. King, “Accuracy of measurement of star images on a pixel array,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 95, 163-168 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. A. Muller and A. Buffington, “Real-time correction of atmospherically degraded telescope images through image sharpening,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1200-1210 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. C. Christou and R. B. Makidon, “Strehl ratio and image sharpness for adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721Y(2006).
  8. J. Hardy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes (Oxford Univ. Press, 1998).
  9. R. J. Noll, “Zernike polynomials and atmospheric turbulence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 207-211 (1976).
    [CrossRef]

2008

G. Z. Angeli, S. Roberts, and K. Vogiatzis, “Systems engineering for the preliminary design of the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7017, 701704 (2008).

K. Vogiatzis and G. Z. Angeli, “Monte Carlo simulation framework for TMT,” Proc. SPIE 7017, 7017V (2008).

C. Nissly, B. Seo, M. Troy, G. Angeli, J. Angione, I. Crossfield, B. Ellerbroek, L. Gilles, and N. Sigrist, “High-resolution optical modeling of the Thirty Meter Telescope for systematic performance trades,” Proc. SPIE 7017, 70170U(2008).

2006

J. C. Christou and R. B. Makidon, “Strehl ratio and image sharpness for adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721Y(2006).

1992

P. Dierickx, “Optical performance of large ground-based telescopes,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 569-588 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1983

I. R. King, “Accuracy of measurement of star images on a pixel array,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 95, 163-168 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1976

1974

Angeli, G.

C. Nissly, B. Seo, M. Troy, G. Angeli, J. Angione, I. Crossfield, B. Ellerbroek, L. Gilles, and N. Sigrist, “High-resolution optical modeling of the Thirty Meter Telescope for systematic performance trades,” Proc. SPIE 7017, 70170U(2008).

Angeli, G. Z.

G. Z. Angeli, S. Roberts, and K. Vogiatzis, “Systems engineering for the preliminary design of the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7017, 701704 (2008).

K. Vogiatzis and G. Z. Angeli, “Monte Carlo simulation framework for TMT,” Proc. SPIE 7017, 7017V (2008).

Angione, J.

C. Nissly, B. Seo, M. Troy, G. Angeli, J. Angione, I. Crossfield, B. Ellerbroek, L. Gilles, and N. Sigrist, “High-resolution optical modeling of the Thirty Meter Telescope for systematic performance trades,” Proc. SPIE 7017, 70170U(2008).

Buffington, A.

Christou, J. C.

J. C. Christou and R. B. Makidon, “Strehl ratio and image sharpness for adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721Y(2006).

Crossfield, I.

C. Nissly, B. Seo, M. Troy, G. Angeli, J. Angione, I. Crossfield, B. Ellerbroek, L. Gilles, and N. Sigrist, “High-resolution optical modeling of the Thirty Meter Telescope for systematic performance trades,” Proc. SPIE 7017, 70170U(2008).

Dierickx, P.

P. Dierickx, “Optical performance of large ground-based telescopes,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 569-588 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ellerbroek, B.

C. Nissly, B. Seo, M. Troy, G. Angeli, J. Angione, I. Crossfield, B. Ellerbroek, L. Gilles, and N. Sigrist, “High-resolution optical modeling of the Thirty Meter Telescope for systematic performance trades,” Proc. SPIE 7017, 70170U(2008).

Gilles, L.

C. Nissly, B. Seo, M. Troy, G. Angeli, J. Angione, I. Crossfield, B. Ellerbroek, L. Gilles, and N. Sigrist, “High-resolution optical modeling of the Thirty Meter Telescope for systematic performance trades,” Proc. SPIE 7017, 70170U(2008).

Hardy, J.

J. Hardy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes (Oxford Univ. Press, 1998).

King, I. R.

I. R. King, “Accuracy of measurement of star images on a pixel array,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 95, 163-168 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Makidon, R. B.

J. C. Christou and R. B. Makidon, “Strehl ratio and image sharpness for adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721Y(2006).

Muller, R. A.

Nissly, C.

C. Nissly, B. Seo, M. Troy, G. Angeli, J. Angione, I. Crossfield, B. Ellerbroek, L. Gilles, and N. Sigrist, “High-resolution optical modeling of the Thirty Meter Telescope for systematic performance trades,” Proc. SPIE 7017, 70170U(2008).

Noll, R. J.

Roberts, S.

G. Z. Angeli, S. Roberts, and K. Vogiatzis, “Systems engineering for the preliminary design of the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7017, 701704 (2008).

Seo, B.

C. Nissly, B. Seo, M. Troy, G. Angeli, J. Angione, I. Crossfield, B. Ellerbroek, L. Gilles, and N. Sigrist, “High-resolution optical modeling of the Thirty Meter Telescope for systematic performance trades,” Proc. SPIE 7017, 70170U(2008).

Sigrist, N.

C. Nissly, B. Seo, M. Troy, G. Angeli, J. Angione, I. Crossfield, B. Ellerbroek, L. Gilles, and N. Sigrist, “High-resolution optical modeling of the Thirty Meter Telescope for systematic performance trades,” Proc. SPIE 7017, 70170U(2008).

Troy, M.

C. Nissly, B. Seo, M. Troy, G. Angeli, J. Angione, I. Crossfield, B. Ellerbroek, L. Gilles, and N. Sigrist, “High-resolution optical modeling of the Thirty Meter Telescope for systematic performance trades,” Proc. SPIE 7017, 70170U(2008).

Vogiatzis, K.

G. Z. Angeli, S. Roberts, and K. Vogiatzis, “Systems engineering for the preliminary design of the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7017, 701704 (2008).

K. Vogiatzis and G. Z. Angeli, “Monte Carlo simulation framework for TMT,” Proc. SPIE 7017, 7017V (2008).

J. Mod. Opt.

P. Dierickx, “Optical performance of large ground-based telescopes,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 569-588 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Proc. SPIE

J. C. Christou and R. B. Makidon, “Strehl ratio and image sharpness for adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721Y(2006).

G. Z. Angeli, S. Roberts, and K. Vogiatzis, “Systems engineering for the preliminary design of the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7017, 701704 (2008).

K. Vogiatzis and G. Z. Angeli, “Monte Carlo simulation framework for TMT,” Proc. SPIE 7017, 7017V (2008).

C. Nissly, B. Seo, M. Troy, G. Angeli, J. Angione, I. Crossfield, B. Ellerbroek, L. Gilles, and N. Sigrist, “High-resolution optical modeling of the Thirty Meter Telescope for systematic performance trades,” Proc. SPIE 7017, 70170U(2008).

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac.

I. R. King, “Accuracy of measurement of star images on a pixel array,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 95, 163-168 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. Hardy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes (Oxford Univ. Press, 1998).

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