Abstract

We report a differential phase sensor capable of measuring Faraday rotation in reflection mode with a single measurement and a small field-depth factor. Based on a polarization-maintaining-fiber low- coherence interferometer, the sensor measures phase difference between two decorrelated and oppositely polarized circular states incident on a sample. Sensitivity of the sensor for the Faraday rotation is 0.31arcmin, allowing applications on small volumes of liquids. The Verdet constants of various liquids, including clear and turbid samples, are measured at 857nm.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. L. Ingersoll and D. Liebenberg, “Faraday effect in gases and vapors. III,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 339-343 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. George, R. Waniek, and S. Lee, “Faraday effect at optical frequencies in strong magnetic fields,” Appl. Opt. 4, 253-254(1965).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Dismukes, S. Lott Jr., and J. Barach, “Faraday effect measurements with pulsed magnetic fields,” Appl. Opt. 5, 1246-1247 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Villaverde, D. Donatti, and D. Bozinis, “Terbium gallium garnet Verdet constant measurements with pulsed magnetic field,” J. Phys. C 11, L495-L498 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Pereda-Cubián, M. Todorović, J. L. Arce-Diego, and L. V. Wang, “Evaluation of the magneto-optical effect in biological tissue models using optical coherence tomography,” J Biomed. Opt. 12, 060502 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Davis, M. Islam, and R. Lilly, “Time-dependent effects in Faraday rotation in pulsed magnetic fields: an explanation,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1780-1783 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. Yoshino, M. Yokota, and T. Kenmochi, “High-speed all-fibre polarisation controller,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1800-1802(2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Yokota, Y. Sato, I. Yamaguchi, T. Kenmochi, and T. Yoshino, “A compact polarimetric glucose sensor using a high-performance fibre-optic Faraday rotator,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 143-147 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Ning, Z. Wang, A. Palmer, and K. Grattan, “Recent progress in optical current sensing techniques,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3097-3111 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Jorge, P. Caldas, L. Ferreira, A. Ribeiro, J. Santos, and F. Farahi, “Electrical current metering with a dual interferometric configuration and serrodyne signal processing,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 533-538 (2002).
  11. C. Yuchuan and L. Xingde, “Dispersion management up to the third order for real-time optical coherence tomography involving a phase or frequency modulator,” Opt. Express 12, 5968-5978 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. K. Al-Qaisi and T. Akkin, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography based on polarization-maintaining fibers and frequency multiplexing,” Opt. Express 16, 13032-13041 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. B. Villaverde and D. A. Donetti, “Verdet constant of liquids; measurements with a pulsed magnetic field,” J. Chem. Phys. 71, 4021-4024 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  14. I. Driver, J. W. Feather, P. R. King, and J. B. Dawson, “The optical properties of aqueous suspensions of Intralipid, a fat emulsion,” Phys. Med. Biol. 34, 1927-1930 (1989).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

D. Pereda-Cubián, M. Todorović, J. L. Arce-Diego, and L. V. Wang, “Evaluation of the magneto-optical effect in biological tissue models using optical coherence tomography,” J Biomed. Opt. 12, 060502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

M. Yokota, Y. Sato, I. Yamaguchi, T. Kenmochi, and T. Yoshino, “A compact polarimetric glucose sensor using a high-performance fibre-optic Faraday rotator,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 143-147 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Yuchuan and L. Xingde, “Dispersion management up to the third order for real-time optical coherence tomography involving a phase or frequency modulator,” Opt. Express 12, 5968-5978 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

T. Yoshino, M. Yokota, and T. Kenmochi, “High-speed all-fibre polarisation controller,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1800-1802(2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

P. Jorge, P. Caldas, L. Ferreira, A. Ribeiro, J. Santos, and F. Farahi, “Electrical current metering with a dual interferometric configuration and serrodyne signal processing,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 533-538 (2002).

1995 (1)

Y. Ning, Z. Wang, A. Palmer, and K. Grattan, “Recent progress in optical current sensing techniques,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3097-3111 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

I. Driver, J. W. Feather, P. R. King, and J. B. Dawson, “The optical properties of aqueous suspensions of Intralipid, a fat emulsion,” Phys. Med. Biol. 34, 1927-1930 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

1979 (1)

A. B. Villaverde and D. A. Donetti, “Verdet constant of liquids; measurements with a pulsed magnetic field,” J. Chem. Phys. 71, 4021-4024 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

A. Villaverde, D. Donatti, and D. Bozinis, “Terbium gallium garnet Verdet constant measurements with pulsed magnetic field,” J. Phys. C 11, L495-L498 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

1965 (1)

1958 (1)

Akkin, T.

Al-Qaisi, M. K.

Arce-Diego, J. L.

D. Pereda-Cubián, M. Todorović, J. L. Arce-Diego, and L. V. Wang, “Evaluation of the magneto-optical effect in biological tissue models using optical coherence tomography,” J Biomed. Opt. 12, 060502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barach, J.

Bozinis, D.

A. Villaverde, D. Donatti, and D. Bozinis, “Terbium gallium garnet Verdet constant measurements with pulsed magnetic field,” J. Phys. C 11, L495-L498 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Caldas, P.

P. Jorge, P. Caldas, L. Ferreira, A. Ribeiro, J. Santos, and F. Farahi, “Electrical current metering with a dual interferometric configuration and serrodyne signal processing,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 533-538 (2002).

Davis, J.

Dawson, J. B.

I. Driver, J. W. Feather, P. R. King, and J. B. Dawson, “The optical properties of aqueous suspensions of Intralipid, a fat emulsion,” Phys. Med. Biol. 34, 1927-1930 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Dismukes, K.

Donatti, D.

A. Villaverde, D. Donatti, and D. Bozinis, “Terbium gallium garnet Verdet constant measurements with pulsed magnetic field,” J. Phys. C 11, L495-L498 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Donetti, D. A.

A. B. Villaverde and D. A. Donetti, “Verdet constant of liquids; measurements with a pulsed magnetic field,” J. Chem. Phys. 71, 4021-4024 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Driver, I.

I. Driver, J. W. Feather, P. R. King, and J. B. Dawson, “The optical properties of aqueous suspensions of Intralipid, a fat emulsion,” Phys. Med. Biol. 34, 1927-1930 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Farahi, F.

P. Jorge, P. Caldas, L. Ferreira, A. Ribeiro, J. Santos, and F. Farahi, “Electrical current metering with a dual interferometric configuration and serrodyne signal processing,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 533-538 (2002).

Feather, J. W.

I. Driver, J. W. Feather, P. R. King, and J. B. Dawson, “The optical properties of aqueous suspensions of Intralipid, a fat emulsion,” Phys. Med. Biol. 34, 1927-1930 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ferreira, L.

P. Jorge, P. Caldas, L. Ferreira, A. Ribeiro, J. Santos, and F. Farahi, “Electrical current metering with a dual interferometric configuration and serrodyne signal processing,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 533-538 (2002).

George, N.

Grattan, K.

Y. Ning, Z. Wang, A. Palmer, and K. Grattan, “Recent progress in optical current sensing techniques,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3097-3111 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ingersoll, L.

Islam, M.

Jorge, P.

P. Jorge, P. Caldas, L. Ferreira, A. Ribeiro, J. Santos, and F. Farahi, “Electrical current metering with a dual interferometric configuration and serrodyne signal processing,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 533-538 (2002).

Kenmochi, T.

M. Yokota, Y. Sato, I. Yamaguchi, T. Kenmochi, and T. Yoshino, “A compact polarimetric glucose sensor using a high-performance fibre-optic Faraday rotator,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 143-147 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Yoshino, M. Yokota, and T. Kenmochi, “High-speed all-fibre polarisation controller,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1800-1802(2003).
[CrossRef]

King, P. R.

I. Driver, J. W. Feather, P. R. King, and J. B. Dawson, “The optical properties of aqueous suspensions of Intralipid, a fat emulsion,” Phys. Med. Biol. 34, 1927-1930 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

Liebenberg, D.

Lilly, R.

Lott, S.

Ning, Y.

Y. Ning, Z. Wang, A. Palmer, and K. Grattan, “Recent progress in optical current sensing techniques,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3097-3111 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, A.

Y. Ning, Z. Wang, A. Palmer, and K. Grattan, “Recent progress in optical current sensing techniques,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3097-3111 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pereda-Cubián, D.

D. Pereda-Cubián, M. Todorović, J. L. Arce-Diego, and L. V. Wang, “Evaluation of the magneto-optical effect in biological tissue models using optical coherence tomography,” J Biomed. Opt. 12, 060502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ribeiro, A.

P. Jorge, P. Caldas, L. Ferreira, A. Ribeiro, J. Santos, and F. Farahi, “Electrical current metering with a dual interferometric configuration and serrodyne signal processing,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 533-538 (2002).

Santos, J.

P. Jorge, P. Caldas, L. Ferreira, A. Ribeiro, J. Santos, and F. Farahi, “Electrical current metering with a dual interferometric configuration and serrodyne signal processing,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 533-538 (2002).

Sato, Y.

M. Yokota, Y. Sato, I. Yamaguchi, T. Kenmochi, and T. Yoshino, “A compact polarimetric glucose sensor using a high-performance fibre-optic Faraday rotator,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 143-147 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Todorovic, M.

D. Pereda-Cubián, M. Todorović, J. L. Arce-Diego, and L. V. Wang, “Evaluation of the magneto-optical effect in biological tissue models using optical coherence tomography,” J Biomed. Opt. 12, 060502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Villaverde, A.

A. Villaverde, D. Donatti, and D. Bozinis, “Terbium gallium garnet Verdet constant measurements with pulsed magnetic field,” J. Phys. C 11, L495-L498 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Villaverde, A. B.

A. B. Villaverde and D. A. Donetti, “Verdet constant of liquids; measurements with a pulsed magnetic field,” J. Chem. Phys. 71, 4021-4024 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. V.

D. Pereda-Cubián, M. Todorović, J. L. Arce-Diego, and L. V. Wang, “Evaluation of the magneto-optical effect in biological tissue models using optical coherence tomography,” J Biomed. Opt. 12, 060502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Y. Ning, Z. Wang, A. Palmer, and K. Grattan, “Recent progress in optical current sensing techniques,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3097-3111 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Waniek, R.

Xingde, L.

Yamaguchi, I.

M. Yokota, Y. Sato, I. Yamaguchi, T. Kenmochi, and T. Yoshino, “A compact polarimetric glucose sensor using a high-performance fibre-optic Faraday rotator,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 143-147 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yokota, M.

M. Yokota, Y. Sato, I. Yamaguchi, T. Kenmochi, and T. Yoshino, “A compact polarimetric glucose sensor using a high-performance fibre-optic Faraday rotator,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 143-147 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Yoshino, M. Yokota, and T. Kenmochi, “High-speed all-fibre polarisation controller,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1800-1802(2003).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, T.

M. Yokota, Y. Sato, I. Yamaguchi, T. Kenmochi, and T. Yoshino, “A compact polarimetric glucose sensor using a high-performance fibre-optic Faraday rotator,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 143-147 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Yoshino, M. Yokota, and T. Kenmochi, “High-speed all-fibre polarisation controller,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1800-1802(2003).
[CrossRef]

Yuchuan, C.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Yoshino, M. Yokota, and T. Kenmochi, “High-speed all-fibre polarisation controller,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1800-1802(2003).
[CrossRef]

J Biomed. Opt. (1)

D. Pereda-Cubián, M. Todorović, J. L. Arce-Diego, and L. V. Wang, “Evaluation of the magneto-optical effect in biological tissue models using optical coherence tomography,” J Biomed. Opt. 12, 060502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

A. B. Villaverde and D. A. Donetti, “Verdet constant of liquids; measurements with a pulsed magnetic field,” J. Chem. Phys. 71, 4021-4024 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Phys. C (1)

A. Villaverde, D. Donatti, and D. Bozinis, “Terbium gallium garnet Verdet constant measurements with pulsed magnetic field,” J. Phys. C 11, L495-L498 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

M. Yokota, Y. Sato, I. Yamaguchi, T. Kenmochi, and T. Yoshino, “A compact polarimetric glucose sensor using a high-performance fibre-optic Faraday rotator,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 143-147 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Jorge, P. Caldas, L. Ferreira, A. Ribeiro, J. Santos, and F. Farahi, “Electrical current metering with a dual interferometric configuration and serrodyne signal processing,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 533-538 (2002).

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

I. Driver, J. W. Feather, P. R. King, and J. B. Dawson, “The optical properties of aqueous suspensions of Intralipid, a fat emulsion,” Phys. Med. Biol. 34, 1927-1930 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

Y. Ning, Z. Wang, A. Palmer, and K. Grattan, “Recent progress in optical current sensing techniques,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3097-3111 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the interferometer: SLD, superluminscent diode; FSI, free-space isolator; PM, polarization maintaining; PSC, polarization splitter/combiner; PhMod, phase modulator; G, grating; L, lens; GM, galvanometer mirror; M, mirror; QWP, quarter-wave plate; WP, Wollaston prism; PD, photodetector; N, magnet’s north pole; S, magnet’s south pole; U, unmagnetized rod.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Phase noise, in minutes of arc, on each channel ( ϕ 1 and ϕ 2 ) and the difference ( Δ ϕ ), and (b) probability distribution of Δ ϕ .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Faraday rotation in pure DI water for three cycles of disk rotation and (b) 75 measurements of Faraday rotation in various liquids; error bars represent standard deviations.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Faraday rotation in water with different Intralipid concentrations.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Verdet Constant of Various Liquids Measured at 857 nm at Room Temperature ( 22.7 ° C )

Metrics