Abstract

The sparse aperture system gives a novel solution for the design of large telescopes with high angular resolution. Such systems utilize several smaller subapertures to simulate the full aperture but are more promising by virtue of their lighter weight and lower cost. Multiple-mirror telescopes (MMTs) and multiple-telescope telescopes (MTTs) are two types of sparse aperture systems. Here, the entrance pupil characteristics are derived for the Golay 3 MMT by studying the relationships between the submirrors on the primary mirror and the shapes of the subapertures on the entrance pupil with different relative apertures and conic constants of the primary mirror of the Golay 3 MMT. Overlay and efficiency factors are proposed in order to obtain the optimal fill factor on the entrance pupil. Expressions for the point spread function (PSF) and the modulation transfer function (MTF) of the Golay 3 MMT are deduced, and the characteristics of the PSF and MTF are explored based on the derived equations and Matlab simulation. Designs for two Cassegrain telescopes with the Golay3 configuration have been developed. Based on the relationships between the fill factor and the overlay factor, optimal parameters for the submirrors on the primary mirror can be selected. The PSF and MTF for both Cassegrain MMT designs have been obtained by Zemax simulation to prove that our theoretical results are consistent with those of practical simulation.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. T. A. Pauls, “Origins of sparse aperture imaging,” in Aerospace Conference Proceedings of IEEE (IEEE, 2001), pp. 1421-1426.
  2. C. R. Sandy, “Next Generation Space Telescope inflatable sunshield development,” Aerospace Conference Proceedings of IEEE (IEEE, 2000), pp. 505-519.
  3. C. M. Ohara, David C. Redding, F. Shi, and J. J. Green, “PSF monitoring and in focus wavefront control for NGST,” Proc. SPIE 4850, 556-563 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Clampin, “Status of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST),” Proc. SPIE 7010, 70100L (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. T. van Delle, A. B. Meinel, and M. P. Meinel, “The scaling relationship between telescope cost and aperture size for very large telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 563-570 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. BlancoS. Callahan, D. Clark, B. Comisso, C. B. Folz, J. D. Gibson, C. Heller, R. James, B. Kindred, S. King, C. Knop, H. Lester, J. McAfee, A. A. E. Milone, R. Ortiz, T. E. Pickering, P. Ritz, B. Russ, G. Schmidt, D. Smith, P. Spencer, T. Tebisky, K. Van Horn, S. C. West, C. Wainwright, G. Williams, and J. T. Williams, “The new MMT,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 300-311 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. B. DeYoung, J. D. DillowS. P. Corcoran, E. V. Andrews, J. Yellowhair, and K. DeVries, “Ground demonstration of an optical control system for a space-based sparse aperture telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3356, 1156-1167 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S.-J. Chung, D. W. Miller, and O. L. de Weck, “ARGOS tested: study of multidisciplinary challenges of future spaceborne interferometric,” Opt. Eng. 43, 2156-2167 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Golay, “Point arrays having compact non-redundant autocorrelations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 61, 727-723 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. R. Fienup, “MTF and integration time versus fill factor for sparse-aperture imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 4091, 43-47(2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. E. Harvey, A. Kotha, and R. L. Phillips, “Image characteristics in applications utilizing dilute subaperture arrays,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2983-2992 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. I. Bekey, “Very large yet extremely lightweight space imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 4849, 17-27 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. N. J. Miller, M. P. Dierking, and B. D. Duncan, “Optical sparse aperture imaging,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5933-5943 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Q. Lin, W. Q. Ying, W. Feng, and S. W. Min, “Study on imaging of dual three subapertures design,” Acta Opt. Sin. 25, 1030-1035 (2005).
  15. Q. Lin, W. Q. Ying, and S. W. Min, “Research on pupil configuration of dual three subapertures sparse-aperture system,” Acta Opt. Sin. 26, 187-192 (2006).
  16. Q. Lin, W. Q. Ying, and S. W. Min, “Image recovering for sparse-aperture systems,” Proc. SPIE 5642, 478-486(2005).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

M. Clampin, “Status of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST),” Proc. SPIE 7010, 70100L (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

Q. Lin, W. Q. Ying, and S. W. Min, “Research on pupil configuration of dual three subapertures sparse-aperture system,” Acta Opt. Sin. 26, 187-192 (2006).

2005 (2)

Q. Lin, W. Q. Ying, and S. W. Min, “Image recovering for sparse-aperture systems,” Proc. SPIE 5642, 478-486(2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Lin, W. Q. Ying, W. Feng, and S. W. Min, “Study on imaging of dual three subapertures design,” Acta Opt. Sin. 25, 1030-1035 (2005).

2004 (3)

G. T. van Delle, A. B. Meinel, and M. P. Meinel, “The scaling relationship between telescope cost and aperture size for very large telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 563-570 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. BlancoS. Callahan, D. Clark, B. Comisso, C. B. Folz, J. D. Gibson, C. Heller, R. James, B. Kindred, S. King, C. Knop, H. Lester, J. McAfee, A. A. E. Milone, R. Ortiz, T. E. Pickering, P. Ritz, B. Russ, G. Schmidt, D. Smith, P. Spencer, T. Tebisky, K. Van Horn, S. C. West, C. Wainwright, G. Williams, and J. T. Williams, “The new MMT,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 300-311 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S.-J. Chung, D. W. Miller, and O. L. de Weck, “ARGOS tested: study of multidisciplinary challenges of future spaceborne interferometric,” Opt. Eng. 43, 2156-2167 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

C. M. Ohara, David C. Redding, F. Shi, and J. J. Green, “PSF monitoring and in focus wavefront control for NGST,” Proc. SPIE 4850, 556-563 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

I. Bekey, “Very large yet extremely lightweight space imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 4849, 17-27 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. R. Fienup, “MTF and integration time versus fill factor for sparse-aperture imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 4091, 43-47(2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

D. B. DeYoung, J. D. DillowS. P. Corcoran, E. V. Andrews, J. Yellowhair, and K. DeVries, “Ground demonstration of an optical control system for a space-based sparse aperture telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3356, 1156-1167 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1971 (1)

M. Golay, “Point arrays having compact non-redundant autocorrelations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 61, 727-723 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, E. V.

D. B. DeYoung, J. D. DillowS. P. Corcoran, E. V. Andrews, J. Yellowhair, and K. DeVries, “Ground demonstration of an optical control system for a space-based sparse aperture telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3356, 1156-1167 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bekey, I.

I. Bekey, “Very large yet extremely lightweight space imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 4849, 17-27 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Blanco, D.

D. BlancoS. Callahan, D. Clark, B. Comisso, C. B. Folz, J. D. Gibson, C. Heller, R. James, B. Kindred, S. King, C. Knop, H. Lester, J. McAfee, A. A. E. Milone, R. Ortiz, T. E. Pickering, P. Ritz, B. Russ, G. Schmidt, D. Smith, P. Spencer, T. Tebisky, K. Van Horn, S. C. West, C. Wainwright, G. Williams, and J. T. Williams, “The new MMT,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 300-311 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Callahan, S.

D. BlancoS. Callahan, D. Clark, B. Comisso, C. B. Folz, J. D. Gibson, C. Heller, R. James, B. Kindred, S. King, C. Knop, H. Lester, J. McAfee, A. A. E. Milone, R. Ortiz, T. E. Pickering, P. Ritz, B. Russ, G. Schmidt, D. Smith, P. Spencer, T. Tebisky, K. Van Horn, S. C. West, C. Wainwright, G. Williams, and J. T. Williams, “The new MMT,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 300-311 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chung, S.-J.

S.-J. Chung, D. W. Miller, and O. L. de Weck, “ARGOS tested: study of multidisciplinary challenges of future spaceborne interferometric,” Opt. Eng. 43, 2156-2167 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Clampin, M.

M. Clampin, “Status of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST),” Proc. SPIE 7010, 70100L (2008).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D.

D. BlancoS. Callahan, D. Clark, B. Comisso, C. B. Folz, J. D. Gibson, C. Heller, R. James, B. Kindred, S. King, C. Knop, H. Lester, J. McAfee, A. A. E. Milone, R. Ortiz, T. E. Pickering, P. Ritz, B. Russ, G. Schmidt, D. Smith, P. Spencer, T. Tebisky, K. Van Horn, S. C. West, C. Wainwright, G. Williams, and J. T. Williams, “The new MMT,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 300-311 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Comisso, B.

D. BlancoS. Callahan, D. Clark, B. Comisso, C. B. Folz, J. D. Gibson, C. Heller, R. James, B. Kindred, S. King, C. Knop, H. Lester, J. McAfee, A. A. E. Milone, R. Ortiz, T. E. Pickering, P. Ritz, B. Russ, G. Schmidt, D. Smith, P. Spencer, T. Tebisky, K. Van Horn, S. C. West, C. Wainwright, G. Williams, and J. T. Williams, “The new MMT,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 300-311 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Corcoran, S. P.

D. B. DeYoung, J. D. DillowS. P. Corcoran, E. V. Andrews, J. Yellowhair, and K. DeVries, “Ground demonstration of an optical control system for a space-based sparse aperture telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3356, 1156-1167 (1998).
[CrossRef]

de Weck, O. L.

S.-J. Chung, D. W. Miller, and O. L. de Weck, “ARGOS tested: study of multidisciplinary challenges of future spaceborne interferometric,” Opt. Eng. 43, 2156-2167 (2004).
[CrossRef]

DeVries, K.

D. B. DeYoung, J. D. DillowS. P. Corcoran, E. V. Andrews, J. Yellowhair, and K. DeVries, “Ground demonstration of an optical control system for a space-based sparse aperture telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3356, 1156-1167 (1998).
[CrossRef]

DeYoung, D. B.

D. B. DeYoung, J. D. DillowS. P. Corcoran, E. V. Andrews, J. Yellowhair, and K. DeVries, “Ground demonstration of an optical control system for a space-based sparse aperture telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3356, 1156-1167 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dierking, M. P.

Dillow, J. D.

D. B. DeYoung, J. D. DillowS. P. Corcoran, E. V. Andrews, J. Yellowhair, and K. DeVries, “Ground demonstration of an optical control system for a space-based sparse aperture telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3356, 1156-1167 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Duncan, B. D.

Feng, W.

Q. Lin, W. Q. Ying, W. Feng, and S. W. Min, “Study on imaging of dual three subapertures design,” Acta Opt. Sin. 25, 1030-1035 (2005).

Fienup, J. R.

J. R. Fienup, “MTF and integration time versus fill factor for sparse-aperture imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 4091, 43-47(2000).
[CrossRef]

Folz, C. B.

D. BlancoS. Callahan, D. Clark, B. Comisso, C. B. Folz, J. D. Gibson, C. Heller, R. James, B. Kindred, S. King, C. Knop, H. Lester, J. McAfee, A. A. E. Milone, R. Ortiz, T. E. Pickering, P. Ritz, B. Russ, G. Schmidt, D. Smith, P. Spencer, T. Tebisky, K. Van Horn, S. C. West, C. Wainwright, G. Williams, and J. T. Williams, “The new MMT,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 300-311 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, J. D.

D. BlancoS. Callahan, D. Clark, B. Comisso, C. B. Folz, J. D. Gibson, C. Heller, R. James, B. Kindred, S. King, C. Knop, H. Lester, J. McAfee, A. A. E. Milone, R. Ortiz, T. E. Pickering, P. Ritz, B. Russ, G. Schmidt, D. Smith, P. Spencer, T. Tebisky, K. Van Horn, S. C. West, C. Wainwright, G. Williams, and J. T. Williams, “The new MMT,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 300-311 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Golay, M.

M. Golay, “Point arrays having compact non-redundant autocorrelations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 61, 727-723 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Green, J. J.

C. M. Ohara, David C. Redding, F. Shi, and J. J. Green, “PSF monitoring and in focus wavefront control for NGST,” Proc. SPIE 4850, 556-563 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, J. E.

Heller, C.

D. BlancoS. Callahan, D. Clark, B. Comisso, C. B. Folz, J. D. Gibson, C. Heller, R. James, B. Kindred, S. King, C. Knop, H. Lester, J. McAfee, A. A. E. Milone, R. Ortiz, T. E. Pickering, P. Ritz, B. Russ, G. Schmidt, D. Smith, P. Spencer, T. Tebisky, K. Van Horn, S. C. West, C. Wainwright, G. Williams, and J. T. Williams, “The new MMT,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 300-311 (2004).
[CrossRef]

James, R.

D. BlancoS. Callahan, D. Clark, B. Comisso, C. B. Folz, J. D. Gibson, C. Heller, R. James, B. Kindred, S. King, C. Knop, H. Lester, J. McAfee, A. A. E. Milone, R. Ortiz, T. E. Pickering, P. Ritz, B. Russ, G. Schmidt, D. Smith, P. Spencer, T. Tebisky, K. Van Horn, S. C. West, C. Wainwright, G. Williams, and J. T. Williams, “The new MMT,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 300-311 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kindred, B.

D. BlancoS. Callahan, D. Clark, B. Comisso, C. B. Folz, J. D. Gibson, C. Heller, R. James, B. Kindred, S. King, C. Knop, H. Lester, J. McAfee, A. A. E. Milone, R. Ortiz, T. E. Pickering, P. Ritz, B. Russ, G. Schmidt, D. Smith, P. Spencer, T. Tebisky, K. Van Horn, S. C. West, C. Wainwright, G. Williams, and J. T. Williams, “The new MMT,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 300-311 (2004).
[CrossRef]

King, S.

D. BlancoS. Callahan, D. Clark, B. Comisso, C. B. Folz, J. D. Gibson, C. Heller, R. James, B. Kindred, S. King, C. Knop, H. Lester, J. McAfee, A. A. E. Milone, R. Ortiz, T. E. Pickering, P. Ritz, B. Russ, G. Schmidt, D. Smith, P. Spencer, T. Tebisky, K. Van Horn, S. C. West, C. Wainwright, G. Williams, and J. T. Williams, “The new MMT,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 300-311 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Knop, C.

D. BlancoS. Callahan, D. Clark, B. Comisso, C. B. Folz, J. D. Gibson, C. Heller, R. James, B. Kindred, S. King, C. Knop, H. Lester, J. McAfee, A. A. E. Milone, R. Ortiz, T. E. Pickering, P. Ritz, B. Russ, G. Schmidt, D. Smith, P. Spencer, T. Tebisky, K. Van Horn, S. C. West, C. Wainwright, G. Williams, and J. T. Williams, “The new MMT,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 300-311 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kotha, A.

Lester, H.

D. BlancoS. Callahan, D. Clark, B. Comisso, C. B. Folz, J. D. Gibson, C. Heller, R. James, B. Kindred, S. King, C. Knop, H. Lester, J. McAfee, A. A. E. Milone, R. Ortiz, T. E. Pickering, P. Ritz, B. Russ, G. Schmidt, D. Smith, P. Spencer, T. Tebisky, K. Van Horn, S. C. West, C. Wainwright, G. Williams, and J. T. Williams, “The new MMT,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 300-311 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Q.

Q. Lin, W. Q. Ying, and S. W. Min, “Research on pupil configuration of dual three subapertures sparse-aperture system,” Acta Opt. Sin. 26, 187-192 (2006).

Q. Lin, W. Q. Ying, W. Feng, and S. W. Min, “Study on imaging of dual three subapertures design,” Acta Opt. Sin. 25, 1030-1035 (2005).

Q. Lin, W. Q. Ying, and S. W. Min, “Image recovering for sparse-aperture systems,” Proc. SPIE 5642, 478-486(2005).
[CrossRef]

McAfee, J.

D. BlancoS. Callahan, D. Clark, B. Comisso, C. B. Folz, J. D. Gibson, C. Heller, R. James, B. Kindred, S. King, C. Knop, H. Lester, J. McAfee, A. A. E. Milone, R. Ortiz, T. E. Pickering, P. Ritz, B. Russ, G. Schmidt, D. Smith, P. Spencer, T. Tebisky, K. Van Horn, S. C. West, C. Wainwright, G. Williams, and J. T. Williams, “The new MMT,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 300-311 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meinel, A. B.

G. T. van Delle, A. B. Meinel, and M. P. Meinel, “The scaling relationship between telescope cost and aperture size for very large telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 563-570 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meinel, M. P.

G. T. van Delle, A. B. Meinel, and M. P. Meinel, “The scaling relationship between telescope cost and aperture size for very large telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 563-570 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. W.

S.-J. Chung, D. W. Miller, and O. L. de Weck, “ARGOS tested: study of multidisciplinary challenges of future spaceborne interferometric,” Opt. Eng. 43, 2156-2167 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Miller, N. J.

Milone, A. A. E.

D. BlancoS. Callahan, D. Clark, B. Comisso, C. B. Folz, J. D. Gibson, C. Heller, R. James, B. Kindred, S. King, C. Knop, H. Lester, J. McAfee, A. A. E. Milone, R. Ortiz, T. E. Pickering, P. Ritz, B. Russ, G. Schmidt, D. Smith, P. Spencer, T. Tebisky, K. Van Horn, S. C. West, C. Wainwright, G. Williams, and J. T. Williams, “The new MMT,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 300-311 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Min, S. W.

Q. Lin, W. Q. Ying, and S. W. Min, “Research on pupil configuration of dual three subapertures sparse-aperture system,” Acta Opt. Sin. 26, 187-192 (2006).

Q. Lin, W. Q. Ying, W. Feng, and S. W. Min, “Study on imaging of dual three subapertures design,” Acta Opt. Sin. 25, 1030-1035 (2005).

Q. Lin, W. Q. Ying, and S. W. Min, “Image recovering for sparse-aperture systems,” Proc. SPIE 5642, 478-486(2005).
[CrossRef]

Ohara, C. M.

C. M. Ohara, David C. Redding, F. Shi, and J. J. Green, “PSF monitoring and in focus wavefront control for NGST,” Proc. SPIE 4850, 556-563 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ortiz, R.

D. BlancoS. Callahan, D. Clark, B. Comisso, C. B. Folz, J. D. Gibson, C. Heller, R. James, B. Kindred, S. King, C. Knop, H. Lester, J. McAfee, A. A. E. Milone, R. Ortiz, T. E. Pickering, P. Ritz, B. Russ, G. Schmidt, D. Smith, P. Spencer, T. Tebisky, K. Van Horn, S. C. West, C. Wainwright, G. Williams, and J. T. Williams, “The new MMT,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 300-311 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pauls, T. A.

T. A. Pauls, “Origins of sparse aperture imaging,” in Aerospace Conference Proceedings of IEEE (IEEE, 2001), pp. 1421-1426.

Phillips, R. L.

Pickering, T. E.

D. BlancoS. Callahan, D. Clark, B. Comisso, C. B. Folz, J. D. Gibson, C. Heller, R. James, B. Kindred, S. King, C. Knop, H. Lester, J. McAfee, A. A. E. Milone, R. Ortiz, T. E. Pickering, P. Ritz, B. Russ, G. Schmidt, D. Smith, P. Spencer, T. Tebisky, K. Van Horn, S. C. West, C. Wainwright, G. Williams, and J. T. Williams, “The new MMT,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 300-311 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Redding, David C.

C. M. Ohara, David C. Redding, F. Shi, and J. J. Green, “PSF monitoring and in focus wavefront control for NGST,” Proc. SPIE 4850, 556-563 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ritz, P.

D. BlancoS. Callahan, D. Clark, B. Comisso, C. B. Folz, J. D. Gibson, C. Heller, R. James, B. Kindred, S. King, C. Knop, H. Lester, J. McAfee, A. A. E. Milone, R. Ortiz, T. E. Pickering, P. Ritz, B. Russ, G. Schmidt, D. Smith, P. Spencer, T. Tebisky, K. Van Horn, S. C. West, C. Wainwright, G. Williams, and J. T. Williams, “The new MMT,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 300-311 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Russ, B.

D. BlancoS. Callahan, D. Clark, B. Comisso, C. B. Folz, J. D. Gibson, C. Heller, R. James, B. Kindred, S. King, C. Knop, H. Lester, J. McAfee, A. A. E. Milone, R. Ortiz, T. E. Pickering, P. Ritz, B. Russ, G. Schmidt, D. Smith, P. Spencer, T. Tebisky, K. Van Horn, S. C. West, C. Wainwright, G. Williams, and J. T. Williams, “The new MMT,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 300-311 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sandy, C. R.

C. R. Sandy, “Next Generation Space Telescope inflatable sunshield development,” Aerospace Conference Proceedings of IEEE (IEEE, 2000), pp. 505-519.

Schmidt, G.

D. BlancoS. Callahan, D. Clark, B. Comisso, C. B. Folz, J. D. Gibson, C. Heller, R. James, B. Kindred, S. King, C. Knop, H. Lester, J. McAfee, A. A. E. Milone, R. Ortiz, T. E. Pickering, P. Ritz, B. Russ, G. Schmidt, D. Smith, P. Spencer, T. Tebisky, K. Van Horn, S. C. West, C. Wainwright, G. Williams, and J. T. Williams, “The new MMT,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 300-311 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shi, F.

C. M. Ohara, David C. Redding, F. Shi, and J. J. Green, “PSF monitoring and in focus wavefront control for NGST,” Proc. SPIE 4850, 556-563 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D.

D. BlancoS. Callahan, D. Clark, B. Comisso, C. B. Folz, J. D. Gibson, C. Heller, R. James, B. Kindred, S. King, C. Knop, H. Lester, J. McAfee, A. A. E. Milone, R. Ortiz, T. E. Pickering, P. Ritz, B. Russ, G. Schmidt, D. Smith, P. Spencer, T. Tebisky, K. Van Horn, S. C. West, C. Wainwright, G. Williams, and J. T. Williams, “The new MMT,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 300-311 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Spencer, P.

D. BlancoS. Callahan, D. Clark, B. Comisso, C. B. Folz, J. D. Gibson, C. Heller, R. James, B. Kindred, S. King, C. Knop, H. Lester, J. McAfee, A. A. E. Milone, R. Ortiz, T. E. Pickering, P. Ritz, B. Russ, G. Schmidt, D. Smith, P. Spencer, T. Tebisky, K. Van Horn, S. C. West, C. Wainwright, G. Williams, and J. T. Williams, “The new MMT,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 300-311 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tebisky, T.

D. BlancoS. Callahan, D. Clark, B. Comisso, C. B. Folz, J. D. Gibson, C. Heller, R. James, B. Kindred, S. King, C. Knop, H. Lester, J. McAfee, A. A. E. Milone, R. Ortiz, T. E. Pickering, P. Ritz, B. Russ, G. Schmidt, D. Smith, P. Spencer, T. Tebisky, K. Van Horn, S. C. West, C. Wainwright, G. Williams, and J. T. Williams, “The new MMT,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 300-311 (2004).
[CrossRef]

van Delle, G. T.

G. T. van Delle, A. B. Meinel, and M. P. Meinel, “The scaling relationship between telescope cost and aperture size for very large telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 563-570 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Van Horn, K.

D. BlancoS. Callahan, D. Clark, B. Comisso, C. B. Folz, J. D. Gibson, C. Heller, R. James, B. Kindred, S. King, C. Knop, H. Lester, J. McAfee, A. A. E. Milone, R. Ortiz, T. E. Pickering, P. Ritz, B. Russ, G. Schmidt, D. Smith, P. Spencer, T. Tebisky, K. Van Horn, S. C. West, C. Wainwright, G. Williams, and J. T. Williams, “The new MMT,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 300-311 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wainwright, C.

D. BlancoS. Callahan, D. Clark, B. Comisso, C. B. Folz, J. D. Gibson, C. Heller, R. James, B. Kindred, S. King, C. Knop, H. Lester, J. McAfee, A. A. E. Milone, R. Ortiz, T. E. Pickering, P. Ritz, B. Russ, G. Schmidt, D. Smith, P. Spencer, T. Tebisky, K. Van Horn, S. C. West, C. Wainwright, G. Williams, and J. T. Williams, “The new MMT,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 300-311 (2004).
[CrossRef]

West, S. C.

D. BlancoS. Callahan, D. Clark, B. Comisso, C. B. Folz, J. D. Gibson, C. Heller, R. James, B. Kindred, S. King, C. Knop, H. Lester, J. McAfee, A. A. E. Milone, R. Ortiz, T. E. Pickering, P. Ritz, B. Russ, G. Schmidt, D. Smith, P. Spencer, T. Tebisky, K. Van Horn, S. C. West, C. Wainwright, G. Williams, and J. T. Williams, “The new MMT,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 300-311 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Williams, G.

D. BlancoS. Callahan, D. Clark, B. Comisso, C. B. Folz, J. D. Gibson, C. Heller, R. James, B. Kindred, S. King, C. Knop, H. Lester, J. McAfee, A. A. E. Milone, R. Ortiz, T. E. Pickering, P. Ritz, B. Russ, G. Schmidt, D. Smith, P. Spencer, T. Tebisky, K. Van Horn, S. C. West, C. Wainwright, G. Williams, and J. T. Williams, “The new MMT,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 300-311 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Williams, J. T.

D. BlancoS. Callahan, D. Clark, B. Comisso, C. B. Folz, J. D. Gibson, C. Heller, R. James, B. Kindred, S. King, C. Knop, H. Lester, J. McAfee, A. A. E. Milone, R. Ortiz, T. E. Pickering, P. Ritz, B. Russ, G. Schmidt, D. Smith, P. Spencer, T. Tebisky, K. Van Horn, S. C. West, C. Wainwright, G. Williams, and J. T. Williams, “The new MMT,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 300-311 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yellowhair, J.

D. B. DeYoung, J. D. DillowS. P. Corcoran, E. V. Andrews, J. Yellowhair, and K. DeVries, “Ground demonstration of an optical control system for a space-based sparse aperture telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3356, 1156-1167 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ying, W. Q.

Q. Lin, W. Q. Ying, and S. W. Min, “Research on pupil configuration of dual three subapertures sparse-aperture system,” Acta Opt. Sin. 26, 187-192 (2006).

Q. Lin, W. Q. Ying, W. Feng, and S. W. Min, “Study on imaging of dual three subapertures design,” Acta Opt. Sin. 25, 1030-1035 (2005).

Q. Lin, W. Q. Ying, and S. W. Min, “Image recovering for sparse-aperture systems,” Proc. SPIE 5642, 478-486(2005).
[CrossRef]

Acta Opt. Sin. (2)

Q. Lin, W. Q. Ying, W. Feng, and S. W. Min, “Study on imaging of dual three subapertures design,” Acta Opt. Sin. 25, 1030-1035 (2005).

Q. Lin, W. Q. Ying, and S. W. Min, “Research on pupil configuration of dual three subapertures sparse-aperture system,” Acta Opt. Sin. 26, 187-192 (2006).

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

M. Golay, “Point arrays having compact non-redundant autocorrelations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 61, 727-723 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

S.-J. Chung, D. W. Miller, and O. L. de Weck, “ARGOS tested: study of multidisciplinary challenges of future spaceborne interferometric,” Opt. Eng. 43, 2156-2167 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (8)

Q. Lin, W. Q. Ying, and S. W. Min, “Image recovering for sparse-aperture systems,” Proc. SPIE 5642, 478-486(2005).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Fienup, “MTF and integration time versus fill factor for sparse-aperture imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 4091, 43-47(2000).
[CrossRef]

I. Bekey, “Very large yet extremely lightweight space imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 4849, 17-27 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Ohara, David C. Redding, F. Shi, and J. J. Green, “PSF monitoring and in focus wavefront control for NGST,” Proc. SPIE 4850, 556-563 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Clampin, “Status of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST),” Proc. SPIE 7010, 70100L (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. T. van Delle, A. B. Meinel, and M. P. Meinel, “The scaling relationship between telescope cost and aperture size for very large telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 563-570 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. BlancoS. Callahan, D. Clark, B. Comisso, C. B. Folz, J. D. Gibson, C. Heller, R. James, B. Kindred, S. King, C. Knop, H. Lester, J. McAfee, A. A. E. Milone, R. Ortiz, T. E. Pickering, P. Ritz, B. Russ, G. Schmidt, D. Smith, P. Spencer, T. Tebisky, K. Van Horn, S. C. West, C. Wainwright, G. Williams, and J. T. Williams, “The new MMT,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 300-311 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. B. DeYoung, J. D. DillowS. P. Corcoran, E. V. Andrews, J. Yellowhair, and K. DeVries, “Ground demonstration of an optical control system for a space-based sparse aperture telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3356, 1156-1167 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

T. A. Pauls, “Origins of sparse aperture imaging,” in Aerospace Conference Proceedings of IEEE (IEEE, 2001), pp. 1421-1426.

C. R. Sandy, “Next Generation Space Telescope inflatable sunshield development,” Aerospace Conference Proceedings of IEEE (IEEE, 2000), pp. 505-519.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cassegrain telescope with Golay 3 configuration.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Golay 3 primary mirror.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Coordinate system established for the Golay3 primary mirror.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Submirrors’ projection onto the entrance pupil.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relationships between a / b and RA ( K = 0 ) .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Relationships between a / b and RA ( K = 0.5 ) .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Relationships between a / b and RA ( K = 1 ) .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Relationships between a / b and RA ( K = 1.5 ) .

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Relationships between OVF and F ( K = 0 ) .

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Relationships between OVF and EF ( K = 0 ) .

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Three elliptical subapertures.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(a) Aperture I, (b) Aperture II, (c) Aperture III, (d) PSF pattern, (e) MTF pattern of Golay 3 MMT.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(a) subPSF 11 , (b) subPSF 22 , (c) subPSF 33 , (d) subPSF 13 , (e) subPSF 12 , (f) subPSF 23 patterns of Golay 3 MMT.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

(a) subMTF 11 , (b) subMTF 22 , (c) subMTF 33 , (d) subMTF 13 , (e) subMTF 12 , (f) subMTF 23 patterns.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

(a) Aperture surrounded by a monolithic aperture borderline, (b) false color PSF, (c) MTF contour, (d) false color MTF of the telescope with the spherical primary mirror (upper row), and the telescope with the parabolic mirror (lower row, (e)–(h)).

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Values of F Being Equal to OVF with Different Relative Apertures and Conic Constants

Tables Icon

Table 2 Values of OVFs, Fill Factors, and MTFs Corresponding to Different Relative Apertures ( K = 0 )

Tables Icon

Table 3 Values of OVFs, Fill Factors, and MTFs Corresponding to Different Relative Apertures ( K = 1 )

Equations (25)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

z = ( x 2 + y 2 ) R + R 2 ( 1 + K ) ( x 2 + y 2 ) ,
t g α = x 1 R 2 ( K + 1 ) x 1 2 .
l x = x 1 R 2 K x 1 2 , l y = 0 , l z = 1 x 1 2 R 2 K x 1 2 .
( D 2 , 0 , D 2 4 R + R 2 ( K + 1 ) D 2 4 ) .
l x ( x D 2 ) + l z ( z D 2 4 R + R 2 ( K + 1 ) D 2 4 ) = 0.
y 2 a 2 + ( x x 0 ) 2 b 2 = 1 ,
b = S R a , x 0 = ( 1 + K ) D 2 R 2 x 1 2 + S x 1 R 2 R 2 ( 1 + K ) D 2 4 ,
a b = R S = 1 1 ( K + 1 ) ( x 1 R ) 2 .
RA = D f = 2 D R .
Fill factor = area of subapertures area of full aperture .
F = 12 a b D 2 = 48 RA 2 S R { ( x 1 R ) 2 [ 1 ( 1 + K ) RA 2 8 ] ( S x 1 RA 2 R 2 T R ) 1 ( 1 + K ) RA 2 16 + T R } .
Overlay factor = area of submirrors area of primary mirror ,
area of primary mirror = 0 2 π d φ 0 D 2 1 + r 2 R 2 ( 1 + K ) r 2 r d r ,
area of submirrors = 3 0 2 π d φ 0 a 1 + r 2 ( b 2 a 2 sin 2 φ + cos 2 φ ) + 2 r x 0 b a sin φ + x 0 2 R 2 ( 1 + K ) r 2 ( b 2 a 2 sin 2 φ + cos 2 φ ) + 2 r x 0 b a sin φ + x 0 2 b a r d r .
EF = fill factor overlay factor .
p ( x , y ) = ( 1 cir ( 2 r D 2 ) ) p 0 ( x , y ) ,
E p i = { 1 if     ( x , y )   is included in Aperture I, II or III 0 other ,
θ i = ( i 1 ) 2 π 3 , i = 1 , 2 , 3.
( x cos θ i y sin θ i ) 2 b 2 + ( x sin θ i y cos θ i ) 2 a 2 = 1 , i = 1 , 2 , 3.
PSF ( x , y ) = | F { p ( x , y ) } | 2 = | F { p 0 ( x , y ) } F { p 0 ( x , y ) } F { cir ( 2 r D 2 ) } | 2 = | F { p 0 ( x , y ) } | 2 + | F { p 0 ( x , y ) } F { cir ( 2 r D 2 ) } | 2 F { p 0 ( x , y ) } ( F { p 0 ( x , y ) } F { cir ( 2 r D 2 ) } ) * F * { p 0 ( x , y ) } ( F { p 0 ( x , y ) } F { cir ( 2 r D 2 ) } ) ,
PSF ( x , y ) = i = 1 3 j i 3 sub - PSF i , j cos { 2 π λ f l [ ( cos θ i cos θ j ) x + ( sin θ i sin θ j ) y ] } ,
ε p i = ( 1 λ f ) J 1 ( 2 π a b λ f ( x cos θ i y sin θ i ) 2 a 2 + ( x sin θ i y cos θ i ) 2 a 2 ) ( x cos θ i y sin θ i ) 2 a 2 + ( x sin θ i y cos θ i ) 2 a 2 .
MTF ( ξ , η ) = i = 1 3 j = 1 3 subMTF i , j { δ [ ξ l λ f ( cos θ i cos θ j ) , η l λ f ( sin θ i sin θ j ) ] + δ [ ξ + l λ f ( cos θ i cos θ j ) , η + l λ f ( sin θ i sin θ j ) ] } ,
sub - MTF i , i = { 2 π ( θ sin θ cos θ ) , if     ( ξ , η )   does not exceed the cutoff frequency 0 , otherwise ,
cos θ = λ f 2 ( ξ cos θ i η sin θ i ) 2 b 2 + ( ξ sin θ i η cos θ i ) 2 a 2 .

Metrics