Abstract

We present a method for measurement and reconstruction of light fields in finite spaces. Using a custom-made device called a plenopter, we can measure spatially and directionally varying radiance distribution functions from a real-world scene up to their second-order spherical harmonics approximations. Interpolating between measurement points, we can recover this function for arbitrary points of a scene. We visualized the global structure of the light field using light tubes, which gives an intuitive description of the flux propagation throughout three-dimensional scenes and provides information about the quality of light in the scenes. Our second-order reconstructions are sufficient to render convex matte objects and therefore have a direct interest for computer graphics applications.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Gershun, “The light field,” Moscow (1936), translated by P. Moon and G. Tinoshenko in J. Math. Phys. 18, 51-151 (1939).
  2. P. Moon and D. E. Spencer, The Photic Field (MIT, 1981).
  3. P. R. Boyce, Human Factors in Lighting (Macmillan, 1981).
  4. C. Cuttle, Lighting by Design (Architectural, 2003).
  5. C. Cuttle, “Cubic illumination,” Light. Res. Technol. 29, 1-14(1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. http://www.megatron.co.uk/cim/index.html.
  7. A. A. Mury, S. C. Pont, and J. J. Koenderink, “Light field constancy within natural scenes,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7308-7316(2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. H. Adelson and J. Bergen, “The plenoptic function and the elements of early vision,” in Computational Models of Visual Processing, M. Landy and J. Movshon, eds. (MIT, 1991), pp. 3-20.
  9. S. J. Gortler, R. Grzeszczuk, R. Szeliski, and M. F. Cohen, “The lumigraph,” in Computer Graphics, Proc. SIGGRAPH 96 (1996), pp. 43-54.
  10. M. Levoy and P. Hanrahan, “Light field rendering,” in Proc. SIGGRAPH 96 (1996), pp. 31-42.
  11. http://www.debevec.org/Probes/.
  12. P. Debevec, “Rendering synthetic objects into real scenes: bridging traditional and image-based graphics with global illumination and high dynamic range photography,” in Proc. SIGGRAPH 98 (1998), pp. 189-198.
  13. J. Unger, A. Wenger, T. Hawkins, A. Gardner, and P. Debevec, “Capturing and rendering with incident light fields,” in Proc. of the 14th Eurographics Workshop on Rendering (2003).
  14. R. Epstein, P. Hallinan, and A. Yuille, “5 plus or minus 2 eigenimages suffice: an empirical investigation of low-dimensional lighting models,” in Proc. IEEE Workshop Physics-Based Modeling in Computer Vision (1995), pp. 108-116.
  15. P. W. Hallinan, “A low-dimensional representation of human faces for arbitrary lighting conditions,” in Proc. IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (1994), pp. 995-999.
  16. R. Ramamoorthi and P. Hanrahan, “On the relationship between radiance and irradiance: determining the illumination from images of a convex Lambertian object,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 2448-2459 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. Basri and D. Jacobs, “Lambertian reflectance and linear subspaces,” Proc. 8th IEEE Int. Conf. Computer Vision (2001), pp. 383-390.
  18. A. A. Mury, S. C. Pont, and J. J. Koenderink, “Spatial properties of light fields in natural scenes,” in Proc. APGV 2007, ACM SIGGRAPH, S. N. Spencer, ed. (2007), p. 140.
  19. J. J. Koenderink, S. C. Pont, A. J. van Doorn, A. M. L. Kappers, and J. T. Todd, “The visual light field,” Perception 36, 1595-1610 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  20. G. W. Larson and R. A. Shakespeare, Rendering with Radiance: the Art and Science of Lighting Visualization (Morgan Kaufmann, 1997).
  21. A. Jacobs, MSc in Energy, Architecture and Sustainability: European Masters in the Integration of Renewable Energies into Buildings, RADIANCE Course (Advanced) (London Metropolitan University, 2004).
  22. G. Greger, P. Shirley, P. Hubbard, and D. Greenberg, “The irradiance volume,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 18, 32-43(1998).
    [CrossRef]
  23. V. Verma, D. Kao, and A. Pang, “A flow-guided streamlines seeding strategy,” Proc. IEEE Visualization (2000), pp. 163-170.
  24. C. Cuttle, “Lighting patterns and the flow of light,” Light. Res. Technol. 3, 171-189 (1971).

2007

J. J. Koenderink, S. C. Pont, A. J. van Doorn, A. M. L. Kappers, and J. T. Todd, “The visual light field,” Perception 36, 1595-1610 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Mury, S. C. Pont, and J. J. Koenderink, “Light field constancy within natural scenes,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7308-7316(2007).
[CrossRef]

2001

1998

G. Greger, P. Shirley, P. Hubbard, and D. Greenberg, “The irradiance volume,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 18, 32-43(1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

C. Cuttle, “Cubic illumination,” Light. Res. Technol. 29, 1-14(1997).
[CrossRef]

1971

C. Cuttle, “Lighting patterns and the flow of light,” Light. Res. Technol. 3, 171-189 (1971).

1939

A. Gershun, “The light field,” Moscow (1936), translated by P. Moon and G. Tinoshenko in J. Math. Phys. 18, 51-151 (1939).

Adelson, E. H.

E. H. Adelson and J. Bergen, “The plenoptic function and the elements of early vision,” in Computational Models of Visual Processing, M. Landy and J. Movshon, eds. (MIT, 1991), pp. 3-20.

Basri, R.

R. Basri and D. Jacobs, “Lambertian reflectance and linear subspaces,” Proc. 8th IEEE Int. Conf. Computer Vision (2001), pp. 383-390.

Bergen, J.

E. H. Adelson and J. Bergen, “The plenoptic function and the elements of early vision,” in Computational Models of Visual Processing, M. Landy and J. Movshon, eds. (MIT, 1991), pp. 3-20.

Boyce, P. R.

P. R. Boyce, Human Factors in Lighting (Macmillan, 1981).

Cohen, M. F.

S. J. Gortler, R. Grzeszczuk, R. Szeliski, and M. F. Cohen, “The lumigraph,” in Computer Graphics, Proc. SIGGRAPH 96 (1996), pp. 43-54.

Cuttle, C.

C. Cuttle, “Cubic illumination,” Light. Res. Technol. 29, 1-14(1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Cuttle, “Lighting patterns and the flow of light,” Light. Res. Technol. 3, 171-189 (1971).

C. Cuttle, Lighting by Design (Architectural, 2003).

Debevec, P.

J. Unger, A. Wenger, T. Hawkins, A. Gardner, and P. Debevec, “Capturing and rendering with incident light fields,” in Proc. of the 14th Eurographics Workshop on Rendering (2003).

P. Debevec, “Rendering synthetic objects into real scenes: bridging traditional and image-based graphics with global illumination and high dynamic range photography,” in Proc. SIGGRAPH 98 (1998), pp. 189-198.

Epstein, R.

R. Epstein, P. Hallinan, and A. Yuille, “5 plus or minus 2 eigenimages suffice: an empirical investigation of low-dimensional lighting models,” in Proc. IEEE Workshop Physics-Based Modeling in Computer Vision (1995), pp. 108-116.

Gardner, A.

J. Unger, A. Wenger, T. Hawkins, A. Gardner, and P. Debevec, “Capturing and rendering with incident light fields,” in Proc. of the 14th Eurographics Workshop on Rendering (2003).

Gershun, A.

A. Gershun, “The light field,” Moscow (1936), translated by P. Moon and G. Tinoshenko in J. Math. Phys. 18, 51-151 (1939).

Gortler, S. J.

S. J. Gortler, R. Grzeszczuk, R. Szeliski, and M. F. Cohen, “The lumigraph,” in Computer Graphics, Proc. SIGGRAPH 96 (1996), pp. 43-54.

Greenberg, D.

G. Greger, P. Shirley, P. Hubbard, and D. Greenberg, “The irradiance volume,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 18, 32-43(1998).
[CrossRef]

Greger, G.

G. Greger, P. Shirley, P. Hubbard, and D. Greenberg, “The irradiance volume,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 18, 32-43(1998).
[CrossRef]

Grzeszczuk, R.

S. J. Gortler, R. Grzeszczuk, R. Szeliski, and M. F. Cohen, “The lumigraph,” in Computer Graphics, Proc. SIGGRAPH 96 (1996), pp. 43-54.

Hallinan, P.

R. Epstein, P. Hallinan, and A. Yuille, “5 plus or minus 2 eigenimages suffice: an empirical investigation of low-dimensional lighting models,” in Proc. IEEE Workshop Physics-Based Modeling in Computer Vision (1995), pp. 108-116.

Hallinan, P. W.

P. W. Hallinan, “A low-dimensional representation of human faces for arbitrary lighting conditions,” in Proc. IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (1994), pp. 995-999.

Hanrahan, P.

Hawkins, T.

J. Unger, A. Wenger, T. Hawkins, A. Gardner, and P. Debevec, “Capturing and rendering with incident light fields,” in Proc. of the 14th Eurographics Workshop on Rendering (2003).

Hubbard, P.

G. Greger, P. Shirley, P. Hubbard, and D. Greenberg, “The irradiance volume,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 18, 32-43(1998).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, A.

A. Jacobs, MSc in Energy, Architecture and Sustainability: European Masters in the Integration of Renewable Energies into Buildings, RADIANCE Course (Advanced) (London Metropolitan University, 2004).

Jacobs, D.

R. Basri and D. Jacobs, “Lambertian reflectance and linear subspaces,” Proc. 8th IEEE Int. Conf. Computer Vision (2001), pp. 383-390.

Kao, D.

V. Verma, D. Kao, and A. Pang, “A flow-guided streamlines seeding strategy,” Proc. IEEE Visualization (2000), pp. 163-170.

Kappers, A. M. L.

J. J. Koenderink, S. C. Pont, A. J. van Doorn, A. M. L. Kappers, and J. T. Todd, “The visual light field,” Perception 36, 1595-1610 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koenderink, J. J.

J. J. Koenderink, S. C. Pont, A. J. van Doorn, A. M. L. Kappers, and J. T. Todd, “The visual light field,” Perception 36, 1595-1610 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Mury, S. C. Pont, and J. J. Koenderink, “Light field constancy within natural scenes,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7308-7316(2007).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Mury, S. C. Pont, and J. J. Koenderink, “Spatial properties of light fields in natural scenes,” in Proc. APGV 2007, ACM SIGGRAPH, S. N. Spencer, ed. (2007), p. 140.

Larson, G. W.

G. W. Larson and R. A. Shakespeare, Rendering with Radiance: the Art and Science of Lighting Visualization (Morgan Kaufmann, 1997).

Levoy, M.

M. Levoy and P. Hanrahan, “Light field rendering,” in Proc. SIGGRAPH 96 (1996), pp. 31-42.

Moon, P.

P. Moon and D. E. Spencer, The Photic Field (MIT, 1981).

Mury, A. A.

A. A. Mury, S. C. Pont, and J. J. Koenderink, “Light field constancy within natural scenes,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7308-7316(2007).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Mury, S. C. Pont, and J. J. Koenderink, “Spatial properties of light fields in natural scenes,” in Proc. APGV 2007, ACM SIGGRAPH, S. N. Spencer, ed. (2007), p. 140.

Pang, A.

V. Verma, D. Kao, and A. Pang, “A flow-guided streamlines seeding strategy,” Proc. IEEE Visualization (2000), pp. 163-170.

Pont, S. C.

J. J. Koenderink, S. C. Pont, A. J. van Doorn, A. M. L. Kappers, and J. T. Todd, “The visual light field,” Perception 36, 1595-1610 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Mury, S. C. Pont, and J. J. Koenderink, “Light field constancy within natural scenes,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7308-7316(2007).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Mury, S. C. Pont, and J. J. Koenderink, “Spatial properties of light fields in natural scenes,” in Proc. APGV 2007, ACM SIGGRAPH, S. N. Spencer, ed. (2007), p. 140.

Ramamoorthi, R.

Shakespeare, R. A.

G. W. Larson and R. A. Shakespeare, Rendering with Radiance: the Art and Science of Lighting Visualization (Morgan Kaufmann, 1997).

Shirley, P.

G. Greger, P. Shirley, P. Hubbard, and D. Greenberg, “The irradiance volume,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 18, 32-43(1998).
[CrossRef]

Spencer, D. E.

P. Moon and D. E. Spencer, The Photic Field (MIT, 1981).

Szeliski, R.

S. J. Gortler, R. Grzeszczuk, R. Szeliski, and M. F. Cohen, “The lumigraph,” in Computer Graphics, Proc. SIGGRAPH 96 (1996), pp. 43-54.

Todd, J. T.

J. J. Koenderink, S. C. Pont, A. J. van Doorn, A. M. L. Kappers, and J. T. Todd, “The visual light field,” Perception 36, 1595-1610 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Unger, J.

J. Unger, A. Wenger, T. Hawkins, A. Gardner, and P. Debevec, “Capturing and rendering with incident light fields,” in Proc. of the 14th Eurographics Workshop on Rendering (2003).

van Doorn, A. J.

J. J. Koenderink, S. C. Pont, A. J. van Doorn, A. M. L. Kappers, and J. T. Todd, “The visual light field,” Perception 36, 1595-1610 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Verma, V.

V. Verma, D. Kao, and A. Pang, “A flow-guided streamlines seeding strategy,” Proc. IEEE Visualization (2000), pp. 163-170.

Wenger, A.

J. Unger, A. Wenger, T. Hawkins, A. Gardner, and P. Debevec, “Capturing and rendering with incident light fields,” in Proc. of the 14th Eurographics Workshop on Rendering (2003).

Yuille, A.

R. Epstein, P. Hallinan, and A. Yuille, “5 plus or minus 2 eigenimages suffice: an empirical investigation of low-dimensional lighting models,” in Proc. IEEE Workshop Physics-Based Modeling in Computer Vision (1995), pp. 108-116.

Appl. Opt.

IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl.

G. Greger, P. Shirley, P. Hubbard, and D. Greenberg, “The irradiance volume,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 18, 32-43(1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Math. Phys.

A. Gershun, “The light field,” Moscow (1936), translated by P. Moon and G. Tinoshenko in J. Math. Phys. 18, 51-151 (1939).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Light. Res. Technol.

C. Cuttle, “Lighting patterns and the flow of light,” Light. Res. Technol. 3, 171-189 (1971).

C. Cuttle, “Cubic illumination,” Light. Res. Technol. 29, 1-14(1997).
[CrossRef]

Perception

J. J. Koenderink, S. C. Pont, A. J. van Doorn, A. M. L. Kappers, and J. T. Todd, “The visual light field,” Perception 36, 1595-1610 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other

G. W. Larson and R. A. Shakespeare, Rendering with Radiance: the Art and Science of Lighting Visualization (Morgan Kaufmann, 1997).

A. Jacobs, MSc in Energy, Architecture and Sustainability: European Masters in the Integration of Renewable Energies into Buildings, RADIANCE Course (Advanced) (London Metropolitan University, 2004).

V. Verma, D. Kao, and A. Pang, “A flow-guided streamlines seeding strategy,” Proc. IEEE Visualization (2000), pp. 163-170.

P. Moon and D. E. Spencer, The Photic Field (MIT, 1981).

P. R. Boyce, Human Factors in Lighting (Macmillan, 1981).

C. Cuttle, Lighting by Design (Architectural, 2003).

E. H. Adelson and J. Bergen, “The plenoptic function and the elements of early vision,” in Computational Models of Visual Processing, M. Landy and J. Movshon, eds. (MIT, 1991), pp. 3-20.

S. J. Gortler, R. Grzeszczuk, R. Szeliski, and M. F. Cohen, “The lumigraph,” in Computer Graphics, Proc. SIGGRAPH 96 (1996), pp. 43-54.

M. Levoy and P. Hanrahan, “Light field rendering,” in Proc. SIGGRAPH 96 (1996), pp. 31-42.

http://www.debevec.org/Probes/.

P. Debevec, “Rendering synthetic objects into real scenes: bridging traditional and image-based graphics with global illumination and high dynamic range photography,” in Proc. SIGGRAPH 98 (1998), pp. 189-198.

J. Unger, A. Wenger, T. Hawkins, A. Gardner, and P. Debevec, “Capturing and rendering with incident light fields,” in Proc. of the 14th Eurographics Workshop on Rendering (2003).

R. Epstein, P. Hallinan, and A. Yuille, “5 plus or minus 2 eigenimages suffice: an empirical investigation of low-dimensional lighting models,” in Proc. IEEE Workshop Physics-Based Modeling in Computer Vision (1995), pp. 108-116.

P. W. Hallinan, “A low-dimensional representation of human faces for arbitrary lighting conditions,” in Proc. IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (1994), pp. 995-999.

R. Basri and D. Jacobs, “Lambertian reflectance and linear subspaces,” Proc. 8th IEEE Int. Conf. Computer Vision (2001), pp. 383-390.

A. A. Mury, S. C. Pont, and J. J. Koenderink, “Spatial properties of light fields in natural scenes,” in Proc. APGV 2007, ACM SIGGRAPH, S. N. Spencer, ed. (2007), p. 140.

http://www.megatron.co.uk/cim/index.html.

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