Abstract

This study investigates white light emitting diodes (LEDs), packaged with an omnidirectional reflector (ODR) and UV LED of 378nm. The current work designs an ODR to solve the problems of UV leak and low phosphors conversion efficiency with a thin film structure of S/(HLH)n/air modified from a quarter-wave stack. Since an ODR is a perfect dielectric mirror for UV light, the UV leak can be eliminated and recycled to enhance phosphors conversion efficiency. By measuring the emission spectrum of a white LED with an ODR, the orientation distribution of the color properties, and the radiation power, the current study did not detect any UV leak. The average luminous intensity enhancement is 15%.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Schlotter, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, “Luminescence conversion of blue light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. A 64, 417-418 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Schlotter, J. Baur, C. Hielscher, M. Kunzer, H. Obloh, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, “Fabrication and characterization of GaN/InGaN/AlGaN double heterostructure LEDs and their application in luminescence conversion LEDs,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 59, 390-394 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Nishida, T. Ban, and N. Kobayashi, “High-color-rendering light sources consisting of a 350 nm ultraviolet light-emitting diode and three-basal-color phosphors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3817-3819 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Z. Z. Chen, J. Zhao, Z. X. Qin, X. D. Hu, T. J. Yu, Y. Z. Tong, Z. J. Yang, X. Y. Zhou, G. Q. Yao, B. Zhang, and G. Y. Zhang, “Study on the stability of the high-brightness white LED,” Phys. Status Solidi B 241, 2664-2667 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. K. Kim, H. R. Kim, A. Tünnermann, and K. Oh, “Synthesis of pure white color and its equalpower, equal chromatic splitting through a novel 3×3 fiber optic visible multiplexer,” Opt. Express 16, 17319-17328 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. W. H. Southwell, “Omnidirectional mirror design with quarter-wave dielectric stacks,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5464-5467 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Thin Films on Glass, H. Bach and D. Krause, eds. (Springer, 1997).
  8. C.-C. Lee, C.-L. Tien, and J.-C. Hsu, “Internal stress and optical properties of Nb2O5 thin films deposited by ion-beam sputtering,” Appl. Opt. 41, 2043-2047 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters,2nd ed. (Macmillan, 1986), pp. 158-187.
  10. C. K. Hwangbo, Thin-Film Optics (Dasung, 1999), pp. 91-103.
  11. P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media (Wiley, 1988), pp. 118-128.
  12. J. Edlinger, J. Ramm, and H. Pulker, “Properties of ion-plated Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 175, 207-212 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Tabata, N. Matsuno, Y. Suzuoki, and T. Mizutani, “Optical properties and structure of SiO2 films prepared by ion-beam sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 289, 84-89 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S.-H. Kim and C. K. Hwangbo, “Design of omnidirectional high reflectors with quarter-wave dielectric stacks for optical telecommunication bands,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3187-3192 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2004

Z. Z. Chen, J. Zhao, Z. X. Qin, X. D. Hu, T. J. Yu, Y. Z. Tong, Z. J. Yang, X. Y. Zhou, G. Q. Yao, B. Zhang, and G. Y. Zhang, “Study on the stability of the high-brightness white LED,” Phys. Status Solidi B 241, 2664-2667 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

T. Nishida, T. Ban, and N. Kobayashi, “High-color-rendering light sources consisting of a 350 nm ultraviolet light-emitting diode and three-basal-color phosphors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3817-3819 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

1999

W. H. Southwell, “Omnidirectional mirror design with quarter-wave dielectric stacks,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5464-5467 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Schlotter, J. Baur, C. Hielscher, M. Kunzer, H. Obloh, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, “Fabrication and characterization of GaN/InGaN/AlGaN double heterostructure LEDs and their application in luminescence conversion LEDs,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 59, 390-394 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

P. Schlotter, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, “Luminescence conversion of blue light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. A 64, 417-418 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

A. Tabata, N. Matsuno, Y. Suzuoki, and T. Mizutani, “Optical properties and structure of SiO2 films prepared by ion-beam sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 289, 84-89 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1989

J. Edlinger, J. Ramm, and H. Pulker, “Properties of ion-plated Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 175, 207-212 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ban, T.

T. Nishida, T. Ban, and N. Kobayashi, “High-color-rendering light sources consisting of a 350 nm ultraviolet light-emitting diode and three-basal-color phosphors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3817-3819 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baur, J.

P. Schlotter, J. Baur, C. Hielscher, M. Kunzer, H. Obloh, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, “Fabrication and characterization of GaN/InGaN/AlGaN double heterostructure LEDs and their application in luminescence conversion LEDs,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 59, 390-394 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z. Z.

Z. Z. Chen, J. Zhao, Z. X. Qin, X. D. Hu, T. J. Yu, Y. Z. Tong, Z. J. Yang, X. Y. Zhou, G. Q. Yao, B. Zhang, and G. Y. Zhang, “Study on the stability of the high-brightness white LED,” Phys. Status Solidi B 241, 2664-2667 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Edlinger, J.

J. Edlinger, J. Ramm, and H. Pulker, “Properties of ion-plated Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 175, 207-212 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hielscher, C.

P. Schlotter, J. Baur, C. Hielscher, M. Kunzer, H. Obloh, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, “Fabrication and characterization of GaN/InGaN/AlGaN double heterostructure LEDs and their application in luminescence conversion LEDs,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 59, 390-394 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, J.-C.

Hu, X. D.

Z. Z. Chen, J. Zhao, Z. X. Qin, X. D. Hu, T. J. Yu, Y. Z. Tong, Z. J. Yang, X. Y. Zhou, G. Q. Yao, B. Zhang, and G. Y. Zhang, “Study on the stability of the high-brightness white LED,” Phys. Status Solidi B 241, 2664-2667 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hwangbo, C. K.

Kim, H. R.

Kim, J. K.

Kim, S.-H.

Kobayashi, N.

T. Nishida, T. Ban, and N. Kobayashi, “High-color-rendering light sources consisting of a 350 nm ultraviolet light-emitting diode and three-basal-color phosphors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3817-3819 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kunzer, M.

P. Schlotter, J. Baur, C. Hielscher, M. Kunzer, H. Obloh, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, “Fabrication and characterization of GaN/InGaN/AlGaN double heterostructure LEDs and their application in luminescence conversion LEDs,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 59, 390-394 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-C.

Macleod, H. A.

H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters,2nd ed. (Macmillan, 1986), pp. 158-187.

Matsuno, N.

A. Tabata, N. Matsuno, Y. Suzuoki, and T. Mizutani, “Optical properties and structure of SiO2 films prepared by ion-beam sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 289, 84-89 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mizutani, T.

A. Tabata, N. Matsuno, Y. Suzuoki, and T. Mizutani, “Optical properties and structure of SiO2 films prepared by ion-beam sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 289, 84-89 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nishida, T.

T. Nishida, T. Ban, and N. Kobayashi, “High-color-rendering light sources consisting of a 350 nm ultraviolet light-emitting diode and three-basal-color phosphors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3817-3819 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Obloh, H.

P. Schlotter, J. Baur, C. Hielscher, M. Kunzer, H. Obloh, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, “Fabrication and characterization of GaN/InGaN/AlGaN double heterostructure LEDs and their application in luminescence conversion LEDs,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 59, 390-394 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Oh, K.

Pulker, H.

J. Edlinger, J. Ramm, and H. Pulker, “Properties of ion-plated Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 175, 207-212 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Qin, Z. X.

Z. Z. Chen, J. Zhao, Z. X. Qin, X. D. Hu, T. J. Yu, Y. Z. Tong, Z. J. Yang, X. Y. Zhou, G. Q. Yao, B. Zhang, and G. Y. Zhang, “Study on the stability of the high-brightness white LED,” Phys. Status Solidi B 241, 2664-2667 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ramm, J.

J. Edlinger, J. Ramm, and H. Pulker, “Properties of ion-plated Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 175, 207-212 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Schlotter, P.

P. Schlotter, J. Baur, C. Hielscher, M. Kunzer, H. Obloh, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, “Fabrication and characterization of GaN/InGaN/AlGaN double heterostructure LEDs and their application in luminescence conversion LEDs,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 59, 390-394 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Schlotter, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, “Luminescence conversion of blue light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. A 64, 417-418 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, R.

P. Schlotter, J. Baur, C. Hielscher, M. Kunzer, H. Obloh, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, “Fabrication and characterization of GaN/InGaN/AlGaN double heterostructure LEDs and their application in luminescence conversion LEDs,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 59, 390-394 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Schlotter, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, “Luminescence conversion of blue light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. A 64, 417-418 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, J.

P. Schlotter, J. Baur, C. Hielscher, M. Kunzer, H. Obloh, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, “Fabrication and characterization of GaN/InGaN/AlGaN double heterostructure LEDs and their application in luminescence conversion LEDs,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 59, 390-394 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Schlotter, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, “Luminescence conversion of blue light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. A 64, 417-418 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Southwell, W. H.

Suzuoki, Y.

A. Tabata, N. Matsuno, Y. Suzuoki, and T. Mizutani, “Optical properties and structure of SiO2 films prepared by ion-beam sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 289, 84-89 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tabata, A.

A. Tabata, N. Matsuno, Y. Suzuoki, and T. Mizutani, “Optical properties and structure of SiO2 films prepared by ion-beam sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 289, 84-89 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tien, C.-L.

Tong, Y. Z.

Z. Z. Chen, J. Zhao, Z. X. Qin, X. D. Hu, T. J. Yu, Y. Z. Tong, Z. J. Yang, X. Y. Zhou, G. Q. Yao, B. Zhang, and G. Y. Zhang, “Study on the stability of the high-brightness white LED,” Phys. Status Solidi B 241, 2664-2667 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

Yang, Z. J.

Z. Z. Chen, J. Zhao, Z. X. Qin, X. D. Hu, T. J. Yu, Y. Z. Tong, Z. J. Yang, X. Y. Zhou, G. Q. Yao, B. Zhang, and G. Y. Zhang, “Study on the stability of the high-brightness white LED,” Phys. Status Solidi B 241, 2664-2667 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yao, G. Q.

Z. Z. Chen, J. Zhao, Z. X. Qin, X. D. Hu, T. J. Yu, Y. Z. Tong, Z. J. Yang, X. Y. Zhou, G. Q. Yao, B. Zhang, and G. Y. Zhang, “Study on the stability of the high-brightness white LED,” Phys. Status Solidi B 241, 2664-2667 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, P.

P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media (Wiley, 1988), pp. 118-128.

Yu, T. J.

Z. Z. Chen, J. Zhao, Z. X. Qin, X. D. Hu, T. J. Yu, Y. Z. Tong, Z. J. Yang, X. Y. Zhou, G. Q. Yao, B. Zhang, and G. Y. Zhang, “Study on the stability of the high-brightness white LED,” Phys. Status Solidi B 241, 2664-2667 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

Z. Z. Chen, J. Zhao, Z. X. Qin, X. D. Hu, T. J. Yu, Y. Z. Tong, Z. J. Yang, X. Y. Zhou, G. Q. Yao, B. Zhang, and G. Y. Zhang, “Study on the stability of the high-brightness white LED,” Phys. Status Solidi B 241, 2664-2667 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G. Y.

Z. Z. Chen, J. Zhao, Z. X. Qin, X. D. Hu, T. J. Yu, Y. Z. Tong, Z. J. Yang, X. Y. Zhou, G. Q. Yao, B. Zhang, and G. Y. Zhang, “Study on the stability of the high-brightness white LED,” Phys. Status Solidi B 241, 2664-2667 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

Z. Z. Chen, J. Zhao, Z. X. Qin, X. D. Hu, T. J. Yu, Y. Z. Tong, Z. J. Yang, X. Y. Zhou, G. Q. Yao, B. Zhang, and G. Y. Zhang, “Study on the stability of the high-brightness white LED,” Phys. Status Solidi B 241, 2664-2667 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X. Y.

Z. Z. Chen, J. Zhao, Z. X. Qin, X. D. Hu, T. J. Yu, Y. Z. Tong, Z. J. Yang, X. Y. Zhou, G. Q. Yao, B. Zhang, and G. Y. Zhang, “Study on the stability of the high-brightness white LED,” Phys. Status Solidi B 241, 2664-2667 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. A

P. Schlotter, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, “Luminescence conversion of blue light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. A 64, 417-418 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

T. Nishida, T. Ban, and N. Kobayashi, “High-color-rendering light sources consisting of a 350 nm ultraviolet light-emitting diode and three-basal-color phosphors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3817-3819 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B

P. Schlotter, J. Baur, C. Hielscher, M. Kunzer, H. Obloh, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, “Fabrication and characterization of GaN/InGaN/AlGaN double heterostructure LEDs and their application in luminescence conversion LEDs,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 59, 390-394 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Status Solidi B

Z. Z. Chen, J. Zhao, Z. X. Qin, X. D. Hu, T. J. Yu, Y. Z. Tong, Z. J. Yang, X. Y. Zhou, G. Q. Yao, B. Zhang, and G. Y. Zhang, “Study on the stability of the high-brightness white LED,” Phys. Status Solidi B 241, 2664-2667 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

J. Edlinger, J. Ramm, and H. Pulker, “Properties of ion-plated Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 175, 207-212 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Tabata, N. Matsuno, Y. Suzuoki, and T. Mizutani, “Optical properties and structure of SiO2 films prepared by ion-beam sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 289, 84-89 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other

Thin Films on Glass, H. Bach and D. Krause, eds. (Springer, 1997).

H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters,2nd ed. (Macmillan, 1986), pp. 158-187.

C. K. Hwangbo, Thin-Film Optics (Dasung, 1999), pp. 91-103.

P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media (Wiley, 1988), pp. 118-128.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the package structure of white LED with ODR.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated reflectance versus wavelength for TM (dashed line) and TE (solid line) modes at normal, 20 ° , 40 ° , and 85 ° angles of incidence.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reflectance spectrum of an ODR with quarter-wave stack [ S / ( H L H ) n / air ] at incidence of normal and θ 0 = 85 ° of TM polarization.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparisons of emission spectra of the UV-excited white light LED with and without ODR.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Far-field distribution pattern of radiation power, color rendering index, and CIE chromaticity coordinates of white LED with ODR.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Luminous efficacy and the forward-bias voltage versus the forward-bias current for the white light LED packaged with/without ODR.

Equations (15)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S / ( H L H ) n / air ,
[ M 11 M 12 M 21 M 22 ] = [ cos δ H i sin δ H η H i η H sin δ H cos δ H ] [ cos δ L i sin δ L η L i η L sin δ L cos δ L ] [ cos δ H i sin δ H η H i η H sin δ H cos δ H ] ,
δ i = 2 π λ n i d i cos θ i ,
η i = n i cos θ i .
η i = n i / cos θ i .
δ i = π 2 λ 0 λ cos θ i .
M 11 + M 22 2 = 1.
( Z + 1 ) cos 2 δ H cos δ L Z cos ( 2 δ H δ L ) = 1 ,
Z = 1 2 ( η L η H + η H η L ) .
( Z + 1 ) ( cos 2 δ H 1 ) cos δ H Z cos δ H = 1.
cos δ H = 1 2 1 2 [ Z 1 Z + 1 ] 1 2 ,
cos δ H = 1 2 + 1 2 [ Z 1 Z + 1 ] 1 2 .
λ short ( θ 0 ) λ 0 = F ( θ 0 ) [ cos 1 [ 1 2 1 2 ( η H η L η H + η L ) ] ] 1 ,
λ long ( θ 0 ) λ 0 = F ( θ 0 ) [ cos 1 [ 1 2 + 1 2 ( η H η L η H + η L ) ] ] 1 ,
F ( θ 0 ) = π 4 [ n L ( n H 2 n 0 2 sin 2 θ 0 ) 1 2 + n H ( n L 2 n 0 2 sin 2 θ 0 ) 1 2 n H n L ] .

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