Abstract

A variant of laser saturation spectroscopy has been applied to the determination of spatially resolved temperature in low-pressure supersonic flows. By copropagating a pump and probe beam with a small crossing angle, the full Doppler profile is retained, but the signal is limited to the volume where both beams are overlapped. The technique was demonstrated on several rovibrational lines of the I2XΣ1(0g+)BΠ3(0u+) transition in a Mach 2 Laval nozzle. A temperature of 146K±1.5K was extracted from measurements of the I2 P(46) 17-1 spectral line with a spatial resolution of 2.4mm3. Application of the technique to the turbulent gain medium of a chemical oxygen–iodine laser is discussed.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. B. Keating, C. A. Helms, B. T. Anderson, T. L. Rittenhouse, K. A. Truesdell, and G. D. Hager, “Two-dimensional gain and cavity temperature maps of a small-scale supersonic COIL,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers '96, 194-201, V.J.Corcoran and T.A.Goldman, eds. (STS Press, 1997).
  2. G. P. Perram, “Chemical lasers,” in Wiley Encyclopedia of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, J. G. Webster, ed. (Wiley, 1999), Vol. 3.
  3. V. S. Letokhov and V. P. Chebotayev, Nonlinear Laser Spectroscopy (Springer-Verlag1977).
  4. V. S. Letokhov, “Saturation spectroscopy,” in High-Resolution Laser Spectroscopy, Vol. 13 of Topics in Applied Physics, K. Shimoda, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1976).
  5. W. Demtroder, Laser Spectroscopy, 3rd ed. (Springer-Verlag, 2003).
  6. G. R. Hanes and C. E. Dahlstrom, “Iodine hyperfine structure observed in saturated absorption at 633 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 362-364 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. W. Hansch, M. D. Levenson, and A. L. Schawlow, “Complete hyperfine structure of molecular iodine line,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 26, 946-949 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. D. Levenson and A. L. Schawlow, “Hyperfine interactions in molecular iodine,” Phys. Rev. A 6, 10-20 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Cerez, A. Brillet, and F. Hartmann, “Metrological properties of the R(127) line of iodine studied by laser saturated absorption,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 23, 526-528 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. Couillaud and A. Ducasse, “Saturated absorption experiments using a free running CW dye laser,” Opt. Commun. 13, 398-401 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. J. Bennett and P. Cerez, “Hyperfine structure in iodine at the 612 nm and 640 nm helium-neon,” Opt. Commun. , 343-347 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. C. Xu, R. van Dierendonck, W. Hogervorst, and W. Ubachs, “A dense grid of reference iodine lines for optical frequency calibration in the range 595-696 nm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 201, 256-266 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. G. T. Phillips and G. P. Perram, “Pressure broadening by argon in the hyperfine resolved P(10) and P(70) (17,1) transitions of I2XΣ1(0g+)→B3Π(0u+) using sub-Doppler laser saturation spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 109, 1875 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. S. Sorem and A. L. Schawlow, “Saturation spectroscopy in molecular iodine by intermodulated fluorescence,” Opt. Commun. 5, 148-151 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. S. Sorem, T. W. Hansch, and A. L. Schawlow, “Nuclear quadrupole coupling in the 1Σg+ and 3π0u+ states of molecular iodine,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 17, 300-302 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. J. Foth and F. Spieweck, “Hyperfine structure of the R(98), 58-1 line of 127I2 at 514.5 nm,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 65, 347-352(1979).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Vander Linde, C. D. P. Levy, P. Bicchi, and F. W. Dalby, “Polarizability of the B state of I2 from intermodulated fluorescence saturation spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 30, 1325-1330(1984).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. G. Astill, A. J. McCaffery, M. J. Proctor, E. A. Sedon, and B. J. Whitaker, “Pressure broadening of the nuclear hyperfine spectrum of 127I2 by He and Xe,” J. Phys. B 18, 3745-3757(1985).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Rakowsky, D. Zimmermann, and W. E. Ernst, “Accurate determination of wavenumbers for iodine molecular lines in the red spectral region,” Appl. Phys. B 48, 463-466 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  20. G. T. Phillips, “Spatially resolved temperature diagnostic for supersonic flow using cross-beam Doppler-limited laser saturation spectroscopy,” Ph.D. dissertation (Air Force Institute of Technology, 2006).
  21. R. J. Hartfield, S. D. Hollo, and J. C. McDaniel, “Planar temperature measurement in compressible flows using laser-induced iodine fluorescence,” Opt. Lett. 8, 51-53(1983).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. J. Hartfield, S. D. Hollo, and J. C. McDaniel, “Planar measurement technique for compressible flows using laser induced iodine fluorescence,” AIAA J. 31, 483-490 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. E. M. Goldsmith, “Spatially resolved saturated absorption spectroscopy in flames,” Opt. Lett. 6, 525-527 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. G. Kychakoff, R. D. Howe, and R. K. Hanson, “Spatially resolved combustion measurements using cross-beam saturated absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1303-1305(1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. G. Zizak, F. Cignoli, and S. Benecchi, “Spatially resolved saturation absorption measurements of OH in methane-air flames,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4293-4297 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. T. Van Marter, M. C. Heaven, and D. Plummer, “Measurement of the rate constant for the quenching of I(2P1/2) by O2(X) at 150 K,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 260, 201-207 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. Yokozeki and J. S. Muenter, “Laser fluorescence state selected and detected molecular beam magnetic resonance in I2,” J. Chem. Phys. 72, 3796-3804 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  28. D. G. Fletcher and J. C. McDaniel, “Temperature measurement in a compressible flow field using laser-induced iodine fluorescence,” Opt. Lett. 12, 16 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. E. Hirai, K. Teshima, K. Kurita, and S. Takahara, “Velocity measurements of free jets using nuclear hyperfine structure of I2*,” Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng. Int. J. B 40, 501 (1997).

2008 (1)

G. T. Phillips and G. P. Perram, “Pressure broadening by argon in the hyperfine resolved P(10) and P(70) (17,1) transitions of I2XΣ1(0g+)→B3Π(0u+) using sub-Doppler laser saturation spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 109, 1875 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. C. Xu, R. van Dierendonck, W. Hogervorst, and W. Ubachs, “A dense grid of reference iodine lines for optical frequency calibration in the range 595-696 nm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 201, 256-266 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

E. Hirai, K. Teshima, K. Kurita, and S. Takahara, “Velocity measurements of free jets using nuclear hyperfine structure of I2*,” Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng. Int. J. B 40, 501 (1997).

1996 (1)

T. Van Marter, M. C. Heaven, and D. Plummer, “Measurement of the rate constant for the quenching of I(2P1/2) by O2(X) at 150 K,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 260, 201-207 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

R. J. Hartfield, S. D. Hollo, and J. C. McDaniel, “Planar measurement technique for compressible flows using laser induced iodine fluorescence,” AIAA J. 31, 483-490 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

S. Rakowsky, D. Zimmermann, and W. E. Ernst, “Accurate determination of wavenumbers for iodine molecular lines in the red spectral region,” Appl. Phys. B 48, 463-466 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

1985 (1)

A. G. Astill, A. J. McCaffery, M. J. Proctor, E. A. Sedon, and B. J. Whitaker, “Pressure broadening of the nuclear hyperfine spectrum of 127I2 by He and Xe,” J. Phys. B 18, 3745-3757(1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (2)

J. Vander Linde, C. D. P. Levy, P. Bicchi, and F. W. Dalby, “Polarizability of the B state of I2 from intermodulated fluorescence saturation spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 30, 1325-1330(1984).
[CrossRef]

G. Kychakoff, R. D. Howe, and R. K. Hanson, “Spatially resolved combustion measurements using cross-beam saturated absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1303-1305(1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

A. Yokozeki and J. S. Muenter, “Laser fluorescence state selected and detected molecular beam magnetic resonance in I2,” J. Chem. Phys. 72, 3796-3804 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

H. J. Foth and F. Spieweck, “Hyperfine structure of the R(98), 58-1 line of 127I2 at 514.5 nm,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 65, 347-352(1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

S. J. Bennett and P. Cerez, “Hyperfine structure in iodine at the 612 nm and 640 nm helium-neon,” Opt. Commun. , 343-347 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

B. Couillaud and A. Ducasse, “Saturated absorption experiments using a free running CW dye laser,” Opt. Commun. 13, 398-401 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

P. Cerez, A. Brillet, and F. Hartmann, “Metrological properties of the R(127) line of iodine studied by laser saturated absorption,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 23, 526-528 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972 (3)

M. D. Levenson and A. L. Schawlow, “Hyperfine interactions in molecular iodine,” Phys. Rev. A 6, 10-20 (1972).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Sorem and A. L. Schawlow, “Saturation spectroscopy in molecular iodine by intermodulated fluorescence,” Opt. Commun. 5, 148-151 (1972).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Sorem, T. W. Hansch, and A. L. Schawlow, “Nuclear quadrupole coupling in the 1Σg+ and 3π0u+ states of molecular iodine,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 17, 300-302 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

T. W. Hansch, M. D. Levenson, and A. L. Schawlow, “Complete hyperfine structure of molecular iodine line,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 26, 946-949 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

G. R. Hanes and C. E. Dahlstrom, “Iodine hyperfine structure observed in saturated absorption at 633 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 362-364 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, B. T.

P. B. Keating, C. A. Helms, B. T. Anderson, T. L. Rittenhouse, K. A. Truesdell, and G. D. Hager, “Two-dimensional gain and cavity temperature maps of a small-scale supersonic COIL,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers '96, 194-201, V.J.Corcoran and T.A.Goldman, eds. (STS Press, 1997).

Astill, A. G.

A. G. Astill, A. J. McCaffery, M. J. Proctor, E. A. Sedon, and B. J. Whitaker, “Pressure broadening of the nuclear hyperfine spectrum of 127I2 by He and Xe,” J. Phys. B 18, 3745-3757(1985).
[CrossRef]

Benecchi, S.

Bennett, S. J.

S. J. Bennett and P. Cerez, “Hyperfine structure in iodine at the 612 nm and 640 nm helium-neon,” Opt. Commun. , 343-347 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Bicchi, P.

J. Vander Linde, C. D. P. Levy, P. Bicchi, and F. W. Dalby, “Polarizability of the B state of I2 from intermodulated fluorescence saturation spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 30, 1325-1330(1984).
[CrossRef]

Brillet, A.

P. Cerez, A. Brillet, and F. Hartmann, “Metrological properties of the R(127) line of iodine studied by laser saturated absorption,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 23, 526-528 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Cerez, P.

S. J. Bennett and P. Cerez, “Hyperfine structure in iodine at the 612 nm and 640 nm helium-neon,” Opt. Commun. , 343-347 (1978).
[CrossRef]

P. Cerez, A. Brillet, and F. Hartmann, “Metrological properties of the R(127) line of iodine studied by laser saturated absorption,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 23, 526-528 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Chebotayev, V. P.

V. S. Letokhov and V. P. Chebotayev, Nonlinear Laser Spectroscopy (Springer-Verlag1977).

Cignoli, F.

Couillaud, B.

B. Couillaud and A. Ducasse, “Saturated absorption experiments using a free running CW dye laser,” Opt. Commun. 13, 398-401 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Dahlstrom, C. E.

G. R. Hanes and C. E. Dahlstrom, “Iodine hyperfine structure observed in saturated absorption at 633 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 362-364 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Dalby, F. W.

J. Vander Linde, C. D. P. Levy, P. Bicchi, and F. W. Dalby, “Polarizability of the B state of I2 from intermodulated fluorescence saturation spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 30, 1325-1330(1984).
[CrossRef]

Demtroder, W.

W. Demtroder, Laser Spectroscopy, 3rd ed. (Springer-Verlag, 2003).

Ducasse, A.

B. Couillaud and A. Ducasse, “Saturated absorption experiments using a free running CW dye laser,” Opt. Commun. 13, 398-401 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Ernst, W. E.

S. Rakowsky, D. Zimmermann, and W. E. Ernst, “Accurate determination of wavenumbers for iodine molecular lines in the red spectral region,” Appl. Phys. B 48, 463-466 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Fletcher, D. G.

Foth, H. J.

H. J. Foth and F. Spieweck, “Hyperfine structure of the R(98), 58-1 line of 127I2 at 514.5 nm,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 65, 347-352(1979).
[CrossRef]

Goldsmith, J. E. M.

Hager, G. D.

P. B. Keating, C. A. Helms, B. T. Anderson, T. L. Rittenhouse, K. A. Truesdell, and G. D. Hager, “Two-dimensional gain and cavity temperature maps of a small-scale supersonic COIL,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers '96, 194-201, V.J.Corcoran and T.A.Goldman, eds. (STS Press, 1997).

Hanes, G. R.

G. R. Hanes and C. E. Dahlstrom, “Iodine hyperfine structure observed in saturated absorption at 633 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 362-364 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Hansch, T. W.

M. S. Sorem, T. W. Hansch, and A. L. Schawlow, “Nuclear quadrupole coupling in the 1Σg+ and 3π0u+ states of molecular iodine,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 17, 300-302 (1972).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Hansch, M. D. Levenson, and A. L. Schawlow, “Complete hyperfine structure of molecular iodine line,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 26, 946-949 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Hanson, R. K.

Hartfield, R. J.

R. J. Hartfield, S. D. Hollo, and J. C. McDaniel, “Planar measurement technique for compressible flows using laser induced iodine fluorescence,” AIAA J. 31, 483-490 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Hartfield, S. D. Hollo, and J. C. McDaniel, “Planar temperature measurement in compressible flows using laser-induced iodine fluorescence,” Opt. Lett. 8, 51-53(1983).
[CrossRef]

Hartmann, F.

P. Cerez, A. Brillet, and F. Hartmann, “Metrological properties of the R(127) line of iodine studied by laser saturated absorption,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 23, 526-528 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Heaven, M. C.

T. Van Marter, M. C. Heaven, and D. Plummer, “Measurement of the rate constant for the quenching of I(2P1/2) by O2(X) at 150 K,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 260, 201-207 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Helms, C. A.

P. B. Keating, C. A. Helms, B. T. Anderson, T. L. Rittenhouse, K. A. Truesdell, and G. D. Hager, “Two-dimensional gain and cavity temperature maps of a small-scale supersonic COIL,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers '96, 194-201, V.J.Corcoran and T.A.Goldman, eds. (STS Press, 1997).

Hirai, E.

E. Hirai, K. Teshima, K. Kurita, and S. Takahara, “Velocity measurements of free jets using nuclear hyperfine structure of I2*,” Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng. Int. J. B 40, 501 (1997).

Hogervorst, W.

S. C. Xu, R. van Dierendonck, W. Hogervorst, and W. Ubachs, “A dense grid of reference iodine lines for optical frequency calibration in the range 595-696 nm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 201, 256-266 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hollo, S. D.

R. J. Hartfield, S. D. Hollo, and J. C. McDaniel, “Planar measurement technique for compressible flows using laser induced iodine fluorescence,” AIAA J. 31, 483-490 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Hartfield, S. D. Hollo, and J. C. McDaniel, “Planar temperature measurement in compressible flows using laser-induced iodine fluorescence,” Opt. Lett. 8, 51-53(1983).
[CrossRef]

Howe, R. D.

Keating, P. B.

P. B. Keating, C. A. Helms, B. T. Anderson, T. L. Rittenhouse, K. A. Truesdell, and G. D. Hager, “Two-dimensional gain and cavity temperature maps of a small-scale supersonic COIL,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers '96, 194-201, V.J.Corcoran and T.A.Goldman, eds. (STS Press, 1997).

Kurita, K.

E. Hirai, K. Teshima, K. Kurita, and S. Takahara, “Velocity measurements of free jets using nuclear hyperfine structure of I2*,” Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng. Int. J. B 40, 501 (1997).

Kychakoff, G.

Letokhov, V. S.

V. S. Letokhov and V. P. Chebotayev, Nonlinear Laser Spectroscopy (Springer-Verlag1977).

V. S. Letokhov, “Saturation spectroscopy,” in High-Resolution Laser Spectroscopy, Vol. 13 of Topics in Applied Physics, K. Shimoda, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1976).

Levenson, M. D.

M. D. Levenson and A. L. Schawlow, “Hyperfine interactions in molecular iodine,” Phys. Rev. A 6, 10-20 (1972).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Hansch, M. D. Levenson, and A. L. Schawlow, “Complete hyperfine structure of molecular iodine line,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 26, 946-949 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Levy, C. D. P.

J. Vander Linde, C. D. P. Levy, P. Bicchi, and F. W. Dalby, “Polarizability of the B state of I2 from intermodulated fluorescence saturation spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 30, 1325-1330(1984).
[CrossRef]

McCaffery, A. J.

A. G. Astill, A. J. McCaffery, M. J. Proctor, E. A. Sedon, and B. J. Whitaker, “Pressure broadening of the nuclear hyperfine spectrum of 127I2 by He and Xe,” J. Phys. B 18, 3745-3757(1985).
[CrossRef]

McDaniel, J. C.

Muenter, J. S.

A. Yokozeki and J. S. Muenter, “Laser fluorescence state selected and detected molecular beam magnetic resonance in I2,” J. Chem. Phys. 72, 3796-3804 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Perram, G. P.

G. T. Phillips and G. P. Perram, “Pressure broadening by argon in the hyperfine resolved P(10) and P(70) (17,1) transitions of I2XΣ1(0g+)→B3Π(0u+) using sub-Doppler laser saturation spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 109, 1875 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Perram, “Chemical lasers,” in Wiley Encyclopedia of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, J. G. Webster, ed. (Wiley, 1999), Vol. 3.

Phillips, G. T.

G. T. Phillips and G. P. Perram, “Pressure broadening by argon in the hyperfine resolved P(10) and P(70) (17,1) transitions of I2XΣ1(0g+)→B3Π(0u+) using sub-Doppler laser saturation spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 109, 1875 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Phillips, “Spatially resolved temperature diagnostic for supersonic flow using cross-beam Doppler-limited laser saturation spectroscopy,” Ph.D. dissertation (Air Force Institute of Technology, 2006).

Plummer, D.

T. Van Marter, M. C. Heaven, and D. Plummer, “Measurement of the rate constant for the quenching of I(2P1/2) by O2(X) at 150 K,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 260, 201-207 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Proctor, M. J.

A. G. Astill, A. J. McCaffery, M. J. Proctor, E. A. Sedon, and B. J. Whitaker, “Pressure broadening of the nuclear hyperfine spectrum of 127I2 by He and Xe,” J. Phys. B 18, 3745-3757(1985).
[CrossRef]

Rakowsky, S.

S. Rakowsky, D. Zimmermann, and W. E. Ernst, “Accurate determination of wavenumbers for iodine molecular lines in the red spectral region,” Appl. Phys. B 48, 463-466 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Rittenhouse, T. L.

P. B. Keating, C. A. Helms, B. T. Anderson, T. L. Rittenhouse, K. A. Truesdell, and G. D. Hager, “Two-dimensional gain and cavity temperature maps of a small-scale supersonic COIL,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers '96, 194-201, V.J.Corcoran and T.A.Goldman, eds. (STS Press, 1997).

Schawlow, A. L.

M. S. Sorem, T. W. Hansch, and A. L. Schawlow, “Nuclear quadrupole coupling in the 1Σg+ and 3π0u+ states of molecular iodine,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 17, 300-302 (1972).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Sorem and A. L. Schawlow, “Saturation spectroscopy in molecular iodine by intermodulated fluorescence,” Opt. Commun. 5, 148-151 (1972).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Levenson and A. L. Schawlow, “Hyperfine interactions in molecular iodine,” Phys. Rev. A 6, 10-20 (1972).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Hansch, M. D. Levenson, and A. L. Schawlow, “Complete hyperfine structure of molecular iodine line,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 26, 946-949 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Sedon, E. A.

A. G. Astill, A. J. McCaffery, M. J. Proctor, E. A. Sedon, and B. J. Whitaker, “Pressure broadening of the nuclear hyperfine spectrum of 127I2 by He and Xe,” J. Phys. B 18, 3745-3757(1985).
[CrossRef]

Sorem, M. S.

M. S. Sorem, T. W. Hansch, and A. L. Schawlow, “Nuclear quadrupole coupling in the 1Σg+ and 3π0u+ states of molecular iodine,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 17, 300-302 (1972).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Sorem and A. L. Schawlow, “Saturation spectroscopy in molecular iodine by intermodulated fluorescence,” Opt. Commun. 5, 148-151 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Spieweck, F.

H. J. Foth and F. Spieweck, “Hyperfine structure of the R(98), 58-1 line of 127I2 at 514.5 nm,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 65, 347-352(1979).
[CrossRef]

Takahara, S.

E. Hirai, K. Teshima, K. Kurita, and S. Takahara, “Velocity measurements of free jets using nuclear hyperfine structure of I2*,” Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng. Int. J. B 40, 501 (1997).

Teshima, K.

E. Hirai, K. Teshima, K. Kurita, and S. Takahara, “Velocity measurements of free jets using nuclear hyperfine structure of I2*,” Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng. Int. J. B 40, 501 (1997).

Truesdell, K. A.

P. B. Keating, C. A. Helms, B. T. Anderson, T. L. Rittenhouse, K. A. Truesdell, and G. D. Hager, “Two-dimensional gain and cavity temperature maps of a small-scale supersonic COIL,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers '96, 194-201, V.J.Corcoran and T.A.Goldman, eds. (STS Press, 1997).

Ubachs, W.

S. C. Xu, R. van Dierendonck, W. Hogervorst, and W. Ubachs, “A dense grid of reference iodine lines for optical frequency calibration in the range 595-696 nm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 201, 256-266 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Dierendonck, R.

S. C. Xu, R. van Dierendonck, W. Hogervorst, and W. Ubachs, “A dense grid of reference iodine lines for optical frequency calibration in the range 595-696 nm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 201, 256-266 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Marter, T.

T. Van Marter, M. C. Heaven, and D. Plummer, “Measurement of the rate constant for the quenching of I(2P1/2) by O2(X) at 150 K,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 260, 201-207 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vander Linde, J.

J. Vander Linde, C. D. P. Levy, P. Bicchi, and F. W. Dalby, “Polarizability of the B state of I2 from intermodulated fluorescence saturation spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 30, 1325-1330(1984).
[CrossRef]

Whitaker, B. J.

A. G. Astill, A. J. McCaffery, M. J. Proctor, E. A. Sedon, and B. J. Whitaker, “Pressure broadening of the nuclear hyperfine spectrum of 127I2 by He and Xe,” J. Phys. B 18, 3745-3757(1985).
[CrossRef]

Xu, S. C.

S. C. Xu, R. van Dierendonck, W. Hogervorst, and W. Ubachs, “A dense grid of reference iodine lines for optical frequency calibration in the range 595-696 nm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 201, 256-266 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yokozeki, A.

A. Yokozeki and J. S. Muenter, “Laser fluorescence state selected and detected molecular beam magnetic resonance in I2,” J. Chem. Phys. 72, 3796-3804 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, D.

S. Rakowsky, D. Zimmermann, and W. E. Ernst, “Accurate determination of wavenumbers for iodine molecular lines in the red spectral region,” Appl. Phys. B 48, 463-466 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Zizak, G.

AIAA J. (1)

R. J. Hartfield, S. D. Hollo, and J. C. McDaniel, “Planar measurement technique for compressible flows using laser induced iodine fluorescence,” AIAA J. 31, 483-490 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

S. Rakowsky, D. Zimmermann, and W. E. Ernst, “Accurate determination of wavenumbers for iodine molecular lines in the red spectral region,” Appl. Phys. B 48, 463-466 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross-beam intermodulated fluorescence (CBIMF) experiment.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Nozzle side view (upper schematic) and exploded assembly (lower schematic).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Sub-Doppler intermodulated fluorescence spectra of P ( 46 ) 17-1 at 164 mTorr I 2 pressure.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Theoretical spectral profile of P ( 46 ) 17-1 line for 298, 250, 200, 150, 100, 50, and 0.01 K .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) CBIMF spectra (°) of the I 2 P ( 46 ) 17-1 line in the supersonic nozzle and (−) fit to Eq. (4) and (b) the fit residuals.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) CBIMF spectra (°) of the I 2 P ( 31 ) 17-1 line in the supersonic nozzle and (−) fit to Eq. (4) and (b) the fit residuals.

Equations (4)

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g D ( ν ) = A i = 1 15 or 21 G ( ν ; f i hyp , ν o i , Δ ν D ) ,
G ( ν ) = 1 ν o i ( m c 2 2 π k B T ) 1 2 · exp ( m c 2 ( ν ν o i ) 2 2 k B T ν o i 2 ) ,
Δ ν D = ν o c · 8 k B T ln ( 2 ) m
S C B I M F ( ν ) = g D ( ν ) · exp ( k · g D ( ν ) ) + a · ν + b .

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