Abstract

Four distinct conditions for primitive-lattice-vector-direction equal contrasts in four-beam interference are introduced and described. By maximizing the absolute contrast subject to an equal contrast condition, lithographically useful interference patterns are found. Each condition is described in terms of the corresponding constraints on the plane wave wave vectors, polarizations, and intensities. The resulting locations of global intensity maxima, minima, and saddle points are presented. Subordinate conditions for unity absolute contrast are also developed. Three lattices are treated for each condition: simple cubic, face-centered cubic, and body-centered cubic.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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