Abstract

Error compensation in optical monitoring was demonstrated many years ago for narrow bandpass and edge filters. It is shown here that the compensation effects can apply to a broader range of more general coatings. This is illustrated with a very broadband antireflection coating design of 20 layers and a ramp design of 13 layers. The choice of monitoring wavelength and monitoring strategy are important, and suggestions are made concerning those choices. The results are derived from and demonstrated by computer simulations of the monitoring processes. The importance of monitoring directly on only one part and with one wavelength throughout the process in order to obtain the benefits of error compensation is emphasized.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. R. Willey, “Monitoring thin films of the fence post design and its advantages for narrow bandpass filters,” Appl. Opt. 47, C147-C150 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. R. Willey, “Design and monitoring of narrow bandpass filters composed of non-quarter-wave thicknesses,” Proc. SPIE 7101, 710119 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Zöller, M. Boos, H. Hagedorn, and B. Romanov, “Computer simulation of coating processes with monochromatic monitoring,” Proc. SPIE 7101, 71010G (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. R. Willey and A. Zöller, “Computer simulation of monitoring of narrow bandpass filters at non-turning points,” in 52nd Society of Vacuum Coaters Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2009), paper O-7.
  5. H. A. Macleod, “Turning value monitoring of narrow-band all-dielectric thin-film optical filters,” Opt. Acta 19, 1-28 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Bousquet, A. Fornier, R. Kowalczyk, E. Pelletier, and P. Roche, “Optical filters: monitoring process allowing the auto-correction of thickness errors,” Thin Solid Films 13, 285-290 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. A. Macleod and E. Pelletier, “Error compensation mechanisms in some thin film monitoring systems,” Opt. Acta 25, 907-930 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Zhao, “Monitoring of periodic multilayers by the level method,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3339-3342 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. R. Willey, “Sensitivity of Monitoring Strategies for Periodic Multilayers,” in 30th Annual Society of Vacuum Coaters Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 1987), pp. 7-14.
  10. R. R. Willey, Practical Design of Optical Thin Films, 2nd ed. (Willey Optical, 2007), Appendix C.
  11. A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, T. V. Amotchkina, M. A. Kokerev, N. Kaiser, O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, and D. Gäbler, “New optimization algorithm for the synthesis of rugate optical coatings,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1515-1524 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. E. Morton, “Considerations and examples for determining precision of indirect optical monitoring,” in 44th Annual Society of Vacuum Coaters Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2001), pp. 324-327.
  13. R. R. Willey, “Design of optical thin films using the “fencepost” method,” in 50th Annual Society of Vacuum Coaters Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2007), pp. 365-368.
  14. A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, T. V. Amotchkina, and J. A. Dobrowolski, “Estimation of the average residual reflectance of broadband antireflection coatings,” Appl. Opt. 47, C124-C130 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. Kushneir, C. Gogol, and J. Blaise, “Reducing process variation through multiple point crystal sensor monitoring,” 39th Annual Society of Vacuum Coaters Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 1996), pp. 19-23.
  16. R. R. Willey, Practical Production of Optical Thin Films (Willey Optical, 2008), Sec. 4.3.3.

2008 (4)

R. R. Willey, “Monitoring thin films of the fence post design and its advantages for narrow bandpass filters,” Appl. Opt. 47, C147-C150 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Willey, “Design and monitoring of narrow bandpass filters composed of non-quarter-wave thicknesses,” Proc. SPIE 7101, 710119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Zöller, M. Boos, H. Hagedorn, and B. Romanov, “Computer simulation of coating processes with monochromatic monitoring,” Proc. SPIE 7101, 71010G (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, T. V. Amotchkina, and J. A. Dobrowolski, “Estimation of the average residual reflectance of broadband antireflection coatings,” Appl. Opt. 47, C124-C130 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

1985 (1)

1977 (1)

H. A. Macleod and E. Pelletier, “Error compensation mechanisms in some thin film monitoring systems,” Opt. Acta 25, 907-930 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1972 (2)

H. A. Macleod, “Turning value monitoring of narrow-band all-dielectric thin-film optical filters,” Opt. Acta 19, 1-28 (1972).
[CrossRef]

P. Bousquet, A. Fornier, R. Kowalczyk, E. Pelletier, and P. Roche, “Optical filters: monitoring process allowing the auto-correction of thickness errors,” Thin Solid Films 13, 285-290 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Amotchkina, T. V.

Blaise, J.

J. Kushneir, C. Gogol, and J. Blaise, “Reducing process variation through multiple point crystal sensor monitoring,” 39th Annual Society of Vacuum Coaters Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 1996), pp. 19-23.

Boos, M.

A. Zöller, M. Boos, H. Hagedorn, and B. Romanov, “Computer simulation of coating processes with monochromatic monitoring,” Proc. SPIE 7101, 71010G (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bousquet, P.

P. Bousquet, A. Fornier, R. Kowalczyk, E. Pelletier, and P. Roche, “Optical filters: monitoring process allowing the auto-correction of thickness errors,” Thin Solid Films 13, 285-290 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Dobrowolski, J. A.

Fornier, A.

P. Bousquet, A. Fornier, R. Kowalczyk, E. Pelletier, and P. Roche, “Optical filters: monitoring process allowing the auto-correction of thickness errors,” Thin Solid Films 13, 285-290 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Gäbler, D.

Gogol, C.

J. Kushneir, C. Gogol, and J. Blaise, “Reducing process variation through multiple point crystal sensor monitoring,” 39th Annual Society of Vacuum Coaters Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 1996), pp. 19-23.

Hagedorn, H.

A. Zöller, M. Boos, H. Hagedorn, and B. Romanov, “Computer simulation of coating processes with monochromatic monitoring,” Proc. SPIE 7101, 71010G (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, N.

Kokerev, M. A.

Kowalczyk, R.

P. Bousquet, A. Fornier, R. Kowalczyk, E. Pelletier, and P. Roche, “Optical filters: monitoring process allowing the auto-correction of thickness errors,” Thin Solid Films 13, 285-290 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kushneir, J.

J. Kushneir, C. Gogol, and J. Blaise, “Reducing process variation through multiple point crystal sensor monitoring,” 39th Annual Society of Vacuum Coaters Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 1996), pp. 19-23.

Macleod, H. A.

H. A. Macleod and E. Pelletier, “Error compensation mechanisms in some thin film monitoring systems,” Opt. Acta 25, 907-930 (1977).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Macleod, “Turning value monitoring of narrow-band all-dielectric thin-film optical filters,” Opt. Acta 19, 1-28 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Morton, D. E.

D. E. Morton, “Considerations and examples for determining precision of indirect optical monitoring,” in 44th Annual Society of Vacuum Coaters Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2001), pp. 324-327.

Pelletier, E.

H. A. Macleod and E. Pelletier, “Error compensation mechanisms in some thin film monitoring systems,” Opt. Acta 25, 907-930 (1977).
[CrossRef]

P. Bousquet, A. Fornier, R. Kowalczyk, E. Pelletier, and P. Roche, “Optical filters: monitoring process allowing the auto-correction of thickness errors,” Thin Solid Films 13, 285-290 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Roche, P.

P. Bousquet, A. Fornier, R. Kowalczyk, E. Pelletier, and P. Roche, “Optical filters: monitoring process allowing the auto-correction of thickness errors,” Thin Solid Films 13, 285-290 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Romanov, B.

A. Zöller, M. Boos, H. Hagedorn, and B. Romanov, “Computer simulation of coating processes with monochromatic monitoring,” Proc. SPIE 7101, 71010G (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stenzel, O.

Tikhonravov, A. V.

Trubetskov, M. K.

Wilbrandt, S.

Willey, R. R.

R. R. Willey, “Monitoring thin films of the fence post design and its advantages for narrow bandpass filters,” Appl. Opt. 47, C147-C150 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Willey, “Design and monitoring of narrow bandpass filters composed of non-quarter-wave thicknesses,” Proc. SPIE 7101, 710119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Willey, “Sensitivity of Monitoring Strategies for Periodic Multilayers,” in 30th Annual Society of Vacuum Coaters Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 1987), pp. 7-14.

R. R. Willey, Practical Design of Optical Thin Films, 2nd ed. (Willey Optical, 2007), Appendix C.

R. R. Willey and A. Zöller, “Computer simulation of monitoring of narrow bandpass filters at non-turning points,” in 52nd Society of Vacuum Coaters Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2009), paper O-7.

R. R. Willey, “Design of optical thin films using the “fencepost” method,” in 50th Annual Society of Vacuum Coaters Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2007), pp. 365-368.

R. R. Willey, Practical Production of Optical Thin Films (Willey Optical, 2008), Sec. 4.3.3.

Zhao, F.

Zöller, A.

A. Zöller, M. Boos, H. Hagedorn, and B. Romanov, “Computer simulation of coating processes with monochromatic monitoring,” Proc. SPIE 7101, 71010G (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Willey and A. Zöller, “Computer simulation of monitoring of narrow bandpass filters at non-turning points,” in 52nd Society of Vacuum Coaters Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2009), paper O-7.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Opt. Acta (2)

H. A. Macleod and E. Pelletier, “Error compensation mechanisms in some thin film monitoring systems,” Opt. Acta 25, 907-930 (1977).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Macleod, “Turning value monitoring of narrow-band all-dielectric thin-film optical filters,” Opt. Acta 19, 1-28 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

R. R. Willey, “Design and monitoring of narrow bandpass filters composed of non-quarter-wave thicknesses,” Proc. SPIE 7101, 710119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Zöller, M. Boos, H. Hagedorn, and B. Romanov, “Computer simulation of coating processes with monochromatic monitoring,” Proc. SPIE 7101, 71010G (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

P. Bousquet, A. Fornier, R. Kowalczyk, E. Pelletier, and P. Roche, “Optical filters: monitoring process allowing the auto-correction of thickness errors,” Thin Solid Films 13, 285-290 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

R. R. Willey, “Sensitivity of Monitoring Strategies for Periodic Multilayers,” in 30th Annual Society of Vacuum Coaters Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 1987), pp. 7-14.

R. R. Willey, Practical Design of Optical Thin Films, 2nd ed. (Willey Optical, 2007), Appendix C.

R. R. Willey and A. Zöller, “Computer simulation of monitoring of narrow bandpass filters at non-turning points,” in 52nd Society of Vacuum Coaters Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2009), paper O-7.

J. Kushneir, C. Gogol, and J. Blaise, “Reducing process variation through multiple point crystal sensor monitoring,” 39th Annual Society of Vacuum Coaters Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 1996), pp. 19-23.

R. R. Willey, Practical Production of Optical Thin Films (Willey Optical, 2008), Sec. 4.3.3.

D. E. Morton, “Considerations and examples for determining precision of indirect optical monitoring,” in 44th Annual Society of Vacuum Coaters Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2001), pp. 324-327.

R. R. Willey, “Design of optical thin films using the “fencepost” method,” in 50th Annual Society of Vacuum Coaters Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2007), pp. 365-368.

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Figures (19)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectral reflectance of 20-layer VBBAR design.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral reflectance of 13-layer ramp design, after [11].

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Index versus thickness of 20-layer VBBAR design.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Refractive index profiles of the first five broadband antireflection designs from Table 1 of [14].

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical monitoring simulation at 360 nm for VBBAR design.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Simulation of physical thickness monitoring of all layers with 1% random uncompensated errors.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Simulation of physical thickness monitoring of all layers with 3% random uncompensated errors.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Ramp design with 1.0% random errors.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Ramp design with 4.0% random errors.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Ramp design monitored at 405 nm with 0.1 % T and 1.0 % P random errors.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Ramp design monitored at 475 nm with 0.1 % T and 1.0 % P random errors.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Simulation of all layers monitored optically at 390 nm with 0.05 % T errors.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Simulation of all layers monitored optically at 390 nm with 0.1 % T errors.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Simulation of all layers monitored optically at 360 nm with 0.05 % T errors.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Simulation of all layers monitored optically at 360 nm with 0.1 % T errors.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Simulation of mixed physical monitoring where layers are < 35 nm and optical monitoring at 390 nm with 0.05 % T and 0.5 % P errors.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Simulation of mixed physical monitoring where layers are < 35 nm and optical monitoring at 390 nm with 0.1 % T and 1.0 % P errors.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Simulation of mixed physical monitoring where layers are < 35 nm and optical monitoring at 360 nm with 0.05 % T and 0.5 % P errors.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Simulation of mixed physical monitoring where layers are < 35 nm and optical monitoring at 360 nm with 0.1 % T and 1.0 % P errors.

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