Abstract

High-contrast imaging techniques such as coronagraphy are expected to play an important role in the imaging of extrasolar planets. Instruments like the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) or the Spectro- Polar-Imetric High-Contrast Exoplanet Research (SPHERE) require high-dynamic range, achieved using coronagraphs to block light coming from the parent star. An extremely good adaptive optics (AO) system is required to reduce dynamic atmospheric wavefront errors to 50100nm  rms. Systematic wavefront errors must also be controlled at the nanometer-equivalent level to remove persistent speckle artifacts. While precision AO systems can control wavefront phase errors at this level, systematic amplitude or intensity errors can also produce speckle artifacts and are uncontrolled by traditional AO phase conjugation. On the Laboratory for Adaptive Optics (LAO) extreme AO testbed, we observed a discrepancy between the coronagraphic image profile and the profile predicted by simple simulations using the measured optical phase, which could potentially be explained by amplitude variations. Measurements showed up to 7%rms intensity changes across the microelectrical mechanical (MEM) plane of the system. We identified potential sources of amplitude variation and compared them to a Fresnel model of the system. One potential concern was the surface structure of the MEM system’s (MEMS) deformable mirror, but analysis shows that it induces at most 2%  rms variation. The bulk of the observed intensity variation is due to nonuniform illumination of the system by the input single-mode fiber and phase errors mixing into amplitude at the nonpupil-plane due to the Talbot effect, coupled with residual astigmatism in the pupil imager.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J.-P. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. Belikov, A. Give'on, J. T. Trauger, M. Carr, N. J. Kasdin, R. J. Vanderbei, F. Shi, K. Balasubramanian, and A. Kuhnert, “Toward 1010 contrast for terrestrial exoplanet detection: demonstration of wavefront correction in a shaped-pupil coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 626518 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. T. Trauger, C. Burrows, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, A. E. Lowman, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, and D. Wilson, “Coronagraph contrast demonstrations with the high-contrast imaging testbed,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330-1336 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. A. Severson, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, J. Evans, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, and L. Poyneer, “The extreme adaptive optics testbed at UCSC: current results and coronagraphic upgrade,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722J (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. A. Poyneer and B. Macintosh, “Spatially filtered wave-front sensor for high-order adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 810-819 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. W. Evans, G. Sommargren, B. A. Macintosh, S. Severson, and D. Dillon, “Effect of wavefront error on 10−7 contrast measurements,” Opt. Lett. 31, 565-567 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. W. Evans, B. Macintosh, L. Poyneer, K. Morzinski, S. Severson, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, and L. Reza, “Demonstrating sub-nm closed loop MEMS flattening,” Opt. Express 14, 5558-5570(2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. Bifano, P. Bierden, and J. Perreault, “Micromachined deformable mirrors for dynamic wavefront control,” Proc. SPIE 5553, 116 (2004).
  10. J. W. Evans, S. Thomas, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, D. Phillion, and B. Macintosh, “Amplitude variations on the ExAO testbed,” Proc. SPIE 6693, 669312 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. Marois, B. Macintosh, R. Soummer, L. Poyneer, and B. Bauman, “An end-to-end polychromatic Fresnel propagation model of GPI,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70151T (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. E. Lowman, J. T. Trauger, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, and F. Shi, “High-contrast imaging testbed for the Terrestrial Planet Finder coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1246-1254 (2004).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. C. Marois, D. W. Phillion, and B. Macintosh, “Exoplanet detection with simultaneous spectral differential imaging: effects of out-of-pupil-plane optical aberrations,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62693M (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Thomas, J. W. Evans, D. Phillion, D. Gavel, D. Dillon, and B. Macintosh, “Amplitude variations on the ExAO testbed: part II,” Proc. SPIE 6888, 68880J (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. N. J. Kasdin, R. J. Vanderbei, D. N. Spergel, and M. G. Littman, “Extrasolar planet finding via optimal apodized-pupil and shaped-pupil coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. 582, 1147-1161(2003).
    [CrossRef]
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2008 (3)

C. Marois, B. Macintosh, R. Soummer, L. Poyneer, and B. Bauman, “An end-to-end polychromatic Fresnel propagation model of GPI,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70151T (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Thomas, J. W. Evans, D. Phillion, D. Gavel, D. Dillon, and B. Macintosh, “Amplitude variations on the ExAO testbed: part II,” Proc. SPIE 6888, 68880J (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Poyneer, D. Dillon, S. Thomas, and B. A. Macintosh, “Laboratory demonstration of accurate and efficient nanometer-level wavefront control for extreme adaptive optics,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1317-1326 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

J. Trauger and W. Traub, “A laboratory demonstration of the capability to image an Earth-like extrasolar planet,” Nature 446, 771-773 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Evans, S. Thomas, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, D. Phillion, and B. Macintosh, “Amplitude variations on the ExAO testbed,” Proc. SPIE 6693, 669312 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (7)

C. Marois, D. W. Phillion, and B. Macintosh, “Exoplanet detection with simultaneous spectral differential imaging: effects of out-of-pupil-plane optical aberrations,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62693M (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J.-P. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Fusco, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, C. Petit, J.-L. Beuzit, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, J. Charton, M. Nicolle, M. KasperP. Baudoz, and P. Puget, “High-order adaptive optics requirements for direct detection of extrasolar planets: application to the SPHERE instrument,” Opt. Express 14, 7515-7534 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Belikov, A. Give'on, J. T. Trauger, M. Carr, N. J. Kasdin, R. J. Vanderbei, F. Shi, K. Balasubramanian, and A. Kuhnert, “Toward 1010 contrast for terrestrial exoplanet detection: demonstration of wavefront correction in a shaped-pupil coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 626518 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Severson, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, J. Evans, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, and L. Poyneer, “The extreme adaptive optics testbed at UCSC: current results and coronagraphic upgrade,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722J (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Evans, G. Sommargren, B. A. Macintosh, S. Severson, and D. Dillon, “Effect of wavefront error on 10−7 contrast measurements,” Opt. Lett. 31, 565-567 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Evans, B. Macintosh, L. Poyneer, K. Morzinski, S. Severson, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, and L. Reza, “Demonstrating sub-nm closed loop MEMS flattening,” Opt. Express 14, 5558-5570(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

J. W. Evans, K. Morzinski, L. Reza, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. A. Macintosh, D. Dillon, G. Sommargren, D. Palmer, D. Gavel, and S. Olivier, “Extreme adaptive optics testbed: high contrast measurements with a MEMS deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 303-310 (2005).

2004 (4)

A. E. Lowman, J. T. Trauger, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, and F. Shi, “High-contrast imaging testbed for the Terrestrial Planet Finder coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1246-1254 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Bifano, P. Bierden, and J. Perreault, “Micromachined deformable mirrors for dynamic wavefront control,” Proc. SPIE 5553, 116 (2004).

L. A. Poyneer and B. Macintosh, “Spatially filtered wave-front sensor for high-order adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 810-819 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Trauger, C. Burrows, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, A. E. Lowman, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, and D. Wilson, “Coronagraph contrast demonstrations with the high-contrast imaging testbed,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330-1336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

N. J. Kasdin, R. J. Vanderbei, D. N. Spergel, and M. G. Littman, “Extrasolar planet finding via optimal apodized-pupil and shaped-pupil coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. 582, 1147-1161(2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Phillion, M. A. Johnson, N. Q. Nguyen, A. Barty, F. J. Snell, D. R. Dillon, and L. S. Bradsher, “100-picometer interferometry for EUVL,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 316-328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

C. Aime, R. Soummer, and A. Ferrari, “Interferometric apodization of rectangular apertures. Application to stellar coronagraphy,” Astron. Astrophys. 379, 697-707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1836 (1)

H. F. Talbot, “Facts relating to optical science,” Philos. Mag. 9, 401 (1836).

Aime, C.

C. Aime, R. Soummer, and A. Ferrari, “Interferometric apodization of rectangular apertures. Application to stellar coronagraphy,” Astron. Astrophys. 379, 697-707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Balasubramanian, K.

R. Belikov, A. Give'on, J. T. Trauger, M. Carr, N. J. Kasdin, R. J. Vanderbei, F. Shi, K. Balasubramanian, and A. Kuhnert, “Toward 1010 contrast for terrestrial exoplanet detection: demonstration of wavefront correction in a shaped-pupil coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 626518 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barty, A.

G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Phillion, M. A. Johnson, N. Q. Nguyen, A. Barty, F. J. Snell, D. R. Dillon, and L. S. Bradsher, “100-picometer interferometry for EUVL,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 316-328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baudoz, P.

Bauman, B.

C. Marois, B. Macintosh, R. Soummer, L. Poyneer, and B. Bauman, “An end-to-end polychromatic Fresnel propagation model of GPI,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70151T (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J.-P. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Severson, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, J. Evans, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, and L. Poyneer, “The extreme adaptive optics testbed at UCSC: current results and coronagraphic upgrade,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722J (2006).
[CrossRef]

Belikov, R.

R. Belikov, A. Give'on, J. T. Trauger, M. Carr, N. J. Kasdin, R. J. Vanderbei, F. Shi, K. Balasubramanian, and A. Kuhnert, “Toward 1010 contrast for terrestrial exoplanet detection: demonstration of wavefront correction in a shaped-pupil coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 626518 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beuzit, J.-L.

Bierden, P.

T. Bifano, P. Bierden, and J. Perreault, “Micromachined deformable mirrors for dynamic wavefront control,” Proc. SPIE 5553, 116 (2004).

Bifano, T.

T. Bifano, P. Bierden, and J. Perreault, “Micromachined deformable mirrors for dynamic wavefront control,” Proc. SPIE 5553, 116 (2004).

Bradsher, L. S.

G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Phillion, M. A. Johnson, N. Q. Nguyen, A. Barty, F. J. Snell, D. R. Dillon, and L. S. Bradsher, “100-picometer interferometry for EUVL,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 316-328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, C.

J. T. Trauger, C. Burrows, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, A. E. Lowman, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, and D. Wilson, “Coronagraph contrast demonstrations with the high-contrast imaging testbed,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330-1336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Carr, M.

R. Belikov, A. Give'on, J. T. Trauger, M. Carr, N. J. Kasdin, R. J. Vanderbei, F. Shi, K. Balasubramanian, and A. Kuhnert, “Toward 1010 contrast for terrestrial exoplanet detection: demonstration of wavefront correction in a shaped-pupil coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 626518 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Charton, J.

Dillon, D.

S. Thomas, J. W. Evans, D. Phillion, D. Gavel, D. Dillon, and B. Macintosh, “Amplitude variations on the ExAO testbed: part II,” Proc. SPIE 6888, 68880J (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Poyneer, D. Dillon, S. Thomas, and B. A. Macintosh, “Laboratory demonstration of accurate and efficient nanometer-level wavefront control for extreme adaptive optics,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1317-1326 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Evans, S. Thomas, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, D. Phillion, and B. Macintosh, “Amplitude variations on the ExAO testbed,” Proc. SPIE 6693, 669312 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Severson, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, J. Evans, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, and L. Poyneer, “The extreme adaptive optics testbed at UCSC: current results and coronagraphic upgrade,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722J (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Evans, G. Sommargren, B. A. Macintosh, S. Severson, and D. Dillon, “Effect of wavefront error on 10−7 contrast measurements,” Opt. Lett. 31, 565-567 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Evans, B. Macintosh, L. Poyneer, K. Morzinski, S. Severson, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, and L. Reza, “Demonstrating sub-nm closed loop MEMS flattening,” Opt. Express 14, 5558-5570(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Evans, K. Morzinski, L. Reza, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. A. Macintosh, D. Dillon, G. Sommargren, D. Palmer, D. Gavel, and S. Olivier, “Extreme adaptive optics testbed: high contrast measurements with a MEMS deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 303-310 (2005).

Dillon, D. R.

G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Phillion, M. A. Johnson, N. Q. Nguyen, A. Barty, F. J. Snell, D. R. Dillon, and L. S. Bradsher, “100-picometer interferometry for EUVL,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 316-328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dohlen, K.

Doyon, R.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J.-P. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Erikson, D.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J.-P. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Evans, J.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J.-P. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Severson, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, J. Evans, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, and L. Poyneer, “The extreme adaptive optics testbed at UCSC: current results and coronagraphic upgrade,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722J (2006).
[CrossRef]

Evans, J. W.

S. Thomas, J. W. Evans, D. Phillion, D. Gavel, D. Dillon, and B. Macintosh, “Amplitude variations on the ExAO testbed: part II,” Proc. SPIE 6888, 68880J (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Evans, S. Thomas, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, D. Phillion, and B. Macintosh, “Amplitude variations on the ExAO testbed,” Proc. SPIE 6693, 669312 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Evans, B. Macintosh, L. Poyneer, K. Morzinski, S. Severson, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, and L. Reza, “Demonstrating sub-nm closed loop MEMS flattening,” Opt. Express 14, 5558-5570(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Evans, G. Sommargren, B. A. Macintosh, S. Severson, and D. Dillon, “Effect of wavefront error on 10−7 contrast measurements,” Opt. Lett. 31, 565-567 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Evans, K. Morzinski, L. Reza, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. A. Macintosh, D. Dillon, G. Sommargren, D. Palmer, D. Gavel, and S. Olivier, “Extreme adaptive optics testbed: high contrast measurements with a MEMS deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 303-310 (2005).

Ferrari, A.

C. Aime, R. Soummer, and A. Ferrari, “Interferometric apodization of rectangular apertures. Application to stellar coronagraphy,” Astron. Astrophys. 379, 697-707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fusco, T.

Gavel, D.

S. Thomas, J. W. Evans, D. Phillion, D. Gavel, D. Dillon, and B. Macintosh, “Amplitude variations on the ExAO testbed: part II,” Proc. SPIE 6888, 68880J (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Evans, S. Thomas, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, D. Phillion, and B. Macintosh, “Amplitude variations on the ExAO testbed,” Proc. SPIE 6693, 669312 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J.-P. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Evans, B. Macintosh, L. Poyneer, K. Morzinski, S. Severson, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, and L. Reza, “Demonstrating sub-nm closed loop MEMS flattening,” Opt. Express 14, 5558-5570(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Severson, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, J. Evans, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, and L. Poyneer, “The extreme adaptive optics testbed at UCSC: current results and coronagraphic upgrade,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722J (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Evans, K. Morzinski, L. Reza, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. A. Macintosh, D. Dillon, G. Sommargren, D. Palmer, D. Gavel, and S. Olivier, “Extreme adaptive optics testbed: high contrast measurements with a MEMS deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 303-310 (2005).

Give'on, A.

R. Belikov, A. Give'on, J. T. Trauger, M. Carr, N. J. Kasdin, R. J. Vanderbei, F. Shi, K. Balasubramanian, and A. Kuhnert, “Toward 1010 contrast for terrestrial exoplanet detection: demonstration of wavefront correction in a shaped-pupil coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 626518 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, B.

J. T. Trauger, C. Burrows, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, A. E. Lowman, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, and D. Wilson, “Coronagraph contrast demonstrations with the high-contrast imaging testbed,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330-1336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Lowman, J. T. Trauger, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, and F. Shi, “High-contrast imaging testbed for the Terrestrial Planet Finder coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1246-1254 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Graham, J.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J.-P. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Graham, Berkeley Astronomy Department, University of California, 601 Campbell Hall, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (private communication, 2008).

Green, J. J.

A. E. Lowman, J. T. Trauger, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, and F. Shi, “High-contrast imaging testbed for the Terrestrial Planet Finder coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1246-1254 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Trauger, C. Burrows, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, A. E. Lowman, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, and D. Wilson, “Coronagraph contrast demonstrations with the high-contrast imaging testbed,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330-1336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, M. A.

G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Phillion, M. A. Johnson, N. Q. Nguyen, A. Barty, F. J. Snell, D. R. Dillon, and L. S. Bradsher, “100-picometer interferometry for EUVL,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 316-328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kasdin, N. J.

R. Belikov, A. Give'on, J. T. Trauger, M. Carr, N. J. Kasdin, R. J. Vanderbei, F. Shi, K. Balasubramanian, and A. Kuhnert, “Toward 1010 contrast for terrestrial exoplanet detection: demonstration of wavefront correction in a shaped-pupil coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 626518 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Kasdin, R. J. Vanderbei, D. N. Spergel, and M. G. Littman, “Extrasolar planet finding via optimal apodized-pupil and shaped-pupil coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. 582, 1147-1161(2003).
[CrossRef]

Kasper, M.

Kuhnert, A.

R. Belikov, A. Give'on, J. T. Trauger, M. Carr, N. J. Kasdin, R. J. Vanderbei, F. Shi, K. Balasubramanian, and A. Kuhnert, “Toward 1010 contrast for terrestrial exoplanet detection: demonstration of wavefront correction in a shaped-pupil coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 626518 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Larkin, J.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J.-P. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Littman, M. G.

N. J. Kasdin, R. J. Vanderbei, D. N. Spergel, and M. G. Littman, “Extrasolar planet finding via optimal apodized-pupil and shaped-pupil coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. 582, 1147-1161(2003).
[CrossRef]

Lowman, A. E.

A. E. Lowman, J. T. Trauger, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, and F. Shi, “High-contrast imaging testbed for the Terrestrial Planet Finder coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1246-1254 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Trauger, C. Burrows, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, A. E. Lowman, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, and D. Wilson, “Coronagraph contrast demonstrations with the high-contrast imaging testbed,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330-1336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Macintosh, B.

C. Marois, B. Macintosh, R. Soummer, L. Poyneer, and B. Bauman, “An end-to-end polychromatic Fresnel propagation model of GPI,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70151T (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Thomas, J. W. Evans, D. Phillion, D. Gavel, D. Dillon, and B. Macintosh, “Amplitude variations on the ExAO testbed: part II,” Proc. SPIE 6888, 68880J (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Evans, S. Thomas, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, D. Phillion, and B. Macintosh, “Amplitude variations on the ExAO testbed,” Proc. SPIE 6693, 669312 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Marois, D. W. Phillion, and B. Macintosh, “Exoplanet detection with simultaneous spectral differential imaging: effects of out-of-pupil-plane optical aberrations,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62693M (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Severson, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, J. Evans, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, and L. Poyneer, “The extreme adaptive optics testbed at UCSC: current results and coronagraphic upgrade,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722J (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Evans, B. Macintosh, L. Poyneer, K. Morzinski, S. Severson, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, and L. Reza, “Demonstrating sub-nm closed loop MEMS flattening,” Opt. Express 14, 5558-5570(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J.-P. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Poyneer and B. Macintosh, “Spatially filtered wave-front sensor for high-order adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 810-819 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Macintosh, B. A.

Marois, C.

C. Marois, B. Macintosh, R. Soummer, L. Poyneer, and B. Bauman, “An end-to-end polychromatic Fresnel propagation model of GPI,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70151T (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Marois, D. W. Phillion, and B. Macintosh, “Exoplanet detection with simultaneous spectral differential imaging: effects of out-of-pupil-plane optical aberrations,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62693M (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moody, D.

A. E. Lowman, J. T. Trauger, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, and F. Shi, “High-contrast imaging testbed for the Terrestrial Planet Finder coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1246-1254 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Trauger, C. Burrows, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, A. E. Lowman, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, and D. Wilson, “Coronagraph contrast demonstrations with the high-contrast imaging testbed,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330-1336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Morzinski, K.

S. A. Severson, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, J. Evans, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, and L. Poyneer, “The extreme adaptive optics testbed at UCSC: current results and coronagraphic upgrade,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722J (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Evans, B. Macintosh, L. Poyneer, K. Morzinski, S. Severson, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, and L. Reza, “Demonstrating sub-nm closed loop MEMS flattening,” Opt. Express 14, 5558-5570(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J.-P. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Evans, K. Morzinski, L. Reza, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. A. Macintosh, D. Dillon, G. Sommargren, D. Palmer, D. Gavel, and S. Olivier, “Extreme adaptive optics testbed: high contrast measurements with a MEMS deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 303-310 (2005).

Mouillet, D.

Nguyen, N. Q.

G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Phillion, M. A. Johnson, N. Q. Nguyen, A. Barty, F. J. Snell, D. R. Dillon, and L. S. Bradsher, “100-picometer interferometry for EUVL,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 316-328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nicolle, M.

Niessner, A. F.

J. T. Trauger, C. Burrows, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, A. E. Lowman, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, and D. Wilson, “Coronagraph contrast demonstrations with the high-contrast imaging testbed,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330-1336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Lowman, J. T. Trauger, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, and F. Shi, “High-contrast imaging testbed for the Terrestrial Planet Finder coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1246-1254 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Olivier, S.

J. W. Evans, K. Morzinski, L. Reza, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. A. Macintosh, D. Dillon, G. Sommargren, D. Palmer, D. Gavel, and S. Olivier, “Extreme adaptive optics testbed: high contrast measurements with a MEMS deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 303-310 (2005).

Oppenheimer, B.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J.-P. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, D.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J.-P. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Severson, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, J. Evans, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, and L. Poyneer, “The extreme adaptive optics testbed at UCSC: current results and coronagraphic upgrade,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722J (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Evans, K. Morzinski, L. Reza, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. A. Macintosh, D. Dillon, G. Sommargren, D. Palmer, D. Gavel, and S. Olivier, “Extreme adaptive optics testbed: high contrast measurements with a MEMS deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 303-310 (2005).

Perreault, J.

T. Bifano, P. Bierden, and J. Perreault, “Micromachined deformable mirrors for dynamic wavefront control,” Proc. SPIE 5553, 116 (2004).

Petit, C.

Phillion, D.

S. Thomas, J. W. Evans, D. Phillion, D. Gavel, D. Dillon, and B. Macintosh, “Amplitude variations on the ExAO testbed: part II,” Proc. SPIE 6888, 68880J (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Evans, S. Thomas, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, D. Phillion, and B. Macintosh, “Amplitude variations on the ExAO testbed,” Proc. SPIE 6693, 669312 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J.-P. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phillion, D. W.

C. Marois, D. W. Phillion, and B. Macintosh, “Exoplanet detection with simultaneous spectral differential imaging: effects of out-of-pupil-plane optical aberrations,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62693M (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Phillion, M. A. Johnson, N. Q. Nguyen, A. Barty, F. J. Snell, D. R. Dillon, and L. S. Bradsher, “100-picometer interferometry for EUVL,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 316-328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Poyneer, L.

C. Marois, B. Macintosh, R. Soummer, L. Poyneer, and B. Bauman, “An end-to-end polychromatic Fresnel propagation model of GPI,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70151T (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J.-P. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Severson, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, J. Evans, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, and L. Poyneer, “The extreme adaptive optics testbed at UCSC: current results and coronagraphic upgrade,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722J (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Evans, B. Macintosh, L. Poyneer, K. Morzinski, S. Severson, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, and L. Reza, “Demonstrating sub-nm closed loop MEMS flattening,” Opt. Express 14, 5558-5570(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Evans, K. Morzinski, L. Reza, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. A. Macintosh, D. Dillon, G. Sommargren, D. Palmer, D. Gavel, and S. Olivier, “Extreme adaptive optics testbed: high contrast measurements with a MEMS deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 303-310 (2005).

Poyneer, L. A.

Puget, P.

Reza, L.

J. W. Evans, B. Macintosh, L. Poyneer, K. Morzinski, S. Severson, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, and L. Reza, “Demonstrating sub-nm closed loop MEMS flattening,” Opt. Express 14, 5558-5570(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Evans, K. Morzinski, L. Reza, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. A. Macintosh, D. Dillon, G. Sommargren, D. Palmer, D. Gavel, and S. Olivier, “Extreme adaptive optics testbed: high contrast measurements with a MEMS deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 303-310 (2005).

Rousset, G.

Saddlemyer, L.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J.-P. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sauvage, J.-F.

Severson, S.

J. W. Evans, B. Macintosh, L. Poyneer, K. Morzinski, S. Severson, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, and L. Reza, “Demonstrating sub-nm closed loop MEMS flattening,” Opt. Express 14, 5558-5570(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Evans, G. Sommargren, B. A. Macintosh, S. Severson, and D. Dillon, “Effect of wavefront error on 10−7 contrast measurements,” Opt. Lett. 31, 565-567 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Evans, K. Morzinski, L. Reza, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. A. Macintosh, D. Dillon, G. Sommargren, D. Palmer, D. Gavel, and S. Olivier, “Extreme adaptive optics testbed: high contrast measurements with a MEMS deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 303-310 (2005).

Severson, S. A.

S. A. Severson, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, J. Evans, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, and L. Poyneer, “The extreme adaptive optics testbed at UCSC: current results and coronagraphic upgrade,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722J (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shi, F.

R. Belikov, A. Give'on, J. T. Trauger, M. Carr, N. J. Kasdin, R. J. Vanderbei, F. Shi, K. Balasubramanian, and A. Kuhnert, “Toward 1010 contrast for terrestrial exoplanet detection: demonstration of wavefront correction in a shaped-pupil coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 626518 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Trauger, C. Burrows, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, A. E. Lowman, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, and D. Wilson, “Coronagraph contrast demonstrations with the high-contrast imaging testbed,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330-1336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Lowman, J. T. Trauger, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, and F. Shi, “High-contrast imaging testbed for the Terrestrial Planet Finder coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1246-1254 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, 1986).

Sivaramakrishnan, A.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J.-P. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Snell, F. J.

G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Phillion, M. A. Johnson, N. Q. Nguyen, A. Barty, F. J. Snell, D. R. Dillon, and L. S. Bradsher, “100-picometer interferometry for EUVL,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 316-328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sommargren, G.

J. W. Evans, G. Sommargren, B. A. Macintosh, S. Severson, and D. Dillon, “Effect of wavefront error on 10−7 contrast measurements,” Opt. Lett. 31, 565-567 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Evans, K. Morzinski, L. Reza, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. A. Macintosh, D. Dillon, G. Sommargren, D. Palmer, D. Gavel, and S. Olivier, “Extreme adaptive optics testbed: high contrast measurements with a MEMS deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 303-310 (2005).

Sommargren, G. E.

G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Phillion, M. A. Johnson, N. Q. Nguyen, A. Barty, F. J. Snell, D. R. Dillon, and L. S. Bradsher, “100-picometer interferometry for EUVL,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 316-328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Soummer, R.

C. Marois, B. Macintosh, R. Soummer, L. Poyneer, and B. Bauman, “An end-to-end polychromatic Fresnel propagation model of GPI,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70151T (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J.-P. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Aime, R. Soummer, and A. Ferrari, “Interferometric apodization of rectangular apertures. Application to stellar coronagraphy,” Astron. Astrophys. 379, 697-707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Spergel, D. N.

N. J. Kasdin, R. J. Vanderbei, D. N. Spergel, and M. G. Littman, “Extrasolar planet finding via optimal apodized-pupil and shaped-pupil coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. 582, 1147-1161(2003).
[CrossRef]

Talbot, H. F.

H. F. Talbot, “Facts relating to optical science,” Philos. Mag. 9, 401 (1836).

Thibault, S.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J.-P. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, S.

L. A. Poyneer, D. Dillon, S. Thomas, and B. A. Macintosh, “Laboratory demonstration of accurate and efficient nanometer-level wavefront control for extreme adaptive optics,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1317-1326 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Thomas, J. W. Evans, D. Phillion, D. Gavel, D. Dillon, and B. Macintosh, “Amplitude variations on the ExAO testbed: part II,” Proc. SPIE 6888, 68880J (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Evans, S. Thomas, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, D. Phillion, and B. Macintosh, “Amplitude variations on the ExAO testbed,” Proc. SPIE 6693, 669312 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Traub, W.

J. Trauger and W. Traub, “A laboratory demonstration of the capability to image an Earth-like extrasolar planet,” Nature 446, 771-773 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trauger, J.

J. Trauger and W. Traub, “A laboratory demonstration of the capability to image an Earth-like extrasolar planet,” Nature 446, 771-773 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trauger, J. T.

R. Belikov, A. Give'on, J. T. Trauger, M. Carr, N. J. Kasdin, R. J. Vanderbei, F. Shi, K. Balasubramanian, and A. Kuhnert, “Toward 1010 contrast for terrestrial exoplanet detection: demonstration of wavefront correction in a shaped-pupil coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 626518 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Trauger, C. Burrows, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, A. E. Lowman, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, and D. Wilson, “Coronagraph contrast demonstrations with the high-contrast imaging testbed,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330-1336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Lowman, J. T. Trauger, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, and F. Shi, “High-contrast imaging testbed for the Terrestrial Planet Finder coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1246-1254 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vanderbei, R. J.

R. Belikov, A. Give'on, J. T. Trauger, M. Carr, N. J. Kasdin, R. J. Vanderbei, F. Shi, K. Balasubramanian, and A. Kuhnert, “Toward 1010 contrast for terrestrial exoplanet detection: demonstration of wavefront correction in a shaped-pupil coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 626518 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Kasdin, R. J. Vanderbei, D. N. Spergel, and M. G. Littman, “Extrasolar planet finding via optimal apodized-pupil and shaped-pupil coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. 582, 1147-1161(2003).
[CrossRef]

Veran, J.-P.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J.-P. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, J. K.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J.-P. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, D.

J. T. Trauger, C. Burrows, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, A. E. Lowman, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, and D. Wilson, “Coronagraph contrast demonstrations with the high-contrast imaging testbed,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330-1336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Astron. Astrophys. (1)

C. Aime, R. Soummer, and A. Ferrari, “Interferometric apodization of rectangular apertures. Application to stellar coronagraphy,” Astron. Astrophys. 379, 697-707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J. (1)

N. J. Kasdin, R. J. Vanderbei, D. N. Spergel, and M. G. Littman, “Extrasolar planet finding via optimal apodized-pupil and shaped-pupil coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. 582, 1147-1161(2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nature (1)

J. Trauger and W. Traub, “A laboratory demonstration of the capability to image an Earth-like extrasolar planet,” Nature 446, 771-773 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Philos. Mag. (1)

H. F. Talbot, “Facts relating to optical science,” Philos. Mag. 9, 401 (1836).

Proc. SPIE (12)

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J.-P. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Evans, K. Morzinski, L. Reza, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. A. Macintosh, D. Dillon, G. Sommargren, D. Palmer, D. Gavel, and S. Olivier, “Extreme adaptive optics testbed: high contrast measurements with a MEMS deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 303-310 (2005).

G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Phillion, M. A. Johnson, N. Q. Nguyen, A. Barty, F. J. Snell, D. R. Dillon, and L. S. Bradsher, “100-picometer interferometry for EUVL,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 316-328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Marois, D. W. Phillion, and B. Macintosh, “Exoplanet detection with simultaneous spectral differential imaging: effects of out-of-pupil-plane optical aberrations,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62693M (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Thomas, J. W. Evans, D. Phillion, D. Gavel, D. Dillon, and B. Macintosh, “Amplitude variations on the ExAO testbed: part II,” Proc. SPIE 6888, 68880J (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Bifano, P. Bierden, and J. Perreault, “Micromachined deformable mirrors for dynamic wavefront control,” Proc. SPIE 5553, 116 (2004).

J. W. Evans, S. Thomas, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, D. Phillion, and B. Macintosh, “Amplitude variations on the ExAO testbed,” Proc. SPIE 6693, 669312 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Marois, B. Macintosh, R. Soummer, L. Poyneer, and B. Bauman, “An end-to-end polychromatic Fresnel propagation model of GPI,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70151T (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Lowman, J. T. Trauger, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, and F. Shi, “High-contrast imaging testbed for the Terrestrial Planet Finder coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1246-1254 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Belikov, A. Give'on, J. T. Trauger, M. Carr, N. J. Kasdin, R. J. Vanderbei, F. Shi, K. Balasubramanian, and A. Kuhnert, “Toward 1010 contrast for terrestrial exoplanet detection: demonstration of wavefront correction in a shaped-pupil coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 626518 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Trauger, C. Burrows, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, A. E. Lowman, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, and D. Wilson, “Coronagraph contrast demonstrations with the high-contrast imaging testbed,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330-1336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Severson, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, J. Evans, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, and L. Poyneer, “The extreme adaptive optics testbed at UCSC: current results and coronagraphic upgrade,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722J (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. Graham, Berkeley Astronomy Department, University of California, 601 Campbell Hall, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (private communication, 2008).

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, 1986).

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Figures (19)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

High-contrast far-field image (right) using a flattened MEMS DM located near the prolate pupil mask (left). The asterisk indicates the location of the core of the PSF (which is blocked by a focal plane mask). The “secondary” PSF is due to scatter from the regular surface ripple of the MEMS at the actuator spacing. On the region of interest, light intensity is a factor of 10 6 less than at the core. The image is log stretched.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fractional loss in reflectivity relative to a thickness of gold of 100 nm for different wavelengths. The plain line is 532 nm , the dotted line is 658 nm , and the dashed one is 1600 nm . The loss in reflectivity is affected more rapidly at 532 nm than at longer wavelengths. For the GPI instrument, the wavelength will be 1600 nm for which the degradation is not as important.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Variation in the ratio of gold to silicon. Measurements were taken from 12 positions at 100 μm intervals from the center and the four corners of a 140 actuator, unwired MEMS device.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Veeco measurements of one MEMS’ actuator for two windowless devices. On the left is W297#15. The peak to valley of the irregularities is 93.23 nm , and the rms error is 15.88 nm . On the right side is W10#X. The peak to valley of the irregularities is 54.40 nm and the rms error is 5.32 nm . The size of the region is 612 μm by 459 μm at a sampling of 957 nm per pixels. For high-contrast imaging, small regular print-through structures, even though large, to some extend do not matter since they scatter the light only to large separations, outside the planet discovery region. However, we note that it is clear W10#X is preferable due to his lower roughness on these scales.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Zygo measurements of the MEMS. On the left is W297#15 and on the right W10#X. The peak to valley of the phase is 600 nm . The mirrors were unpowered and high-pass filtered. The scalloping is worse at the edges. The intensity scale is the same for both images.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Reflectivity map of the MEMS at 700 nm . We can see the etched hole but most surface effects observed in phase do not show as intensity variations directly at the MEMS planes. However, Talbot imaging of the surface aberrations can introduce amplitude variations downstream of the MEMS as explained in the text.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Schematic of the Phase II ExAO testbed. The PSDI front end located at the top left feeds the test (measurement) and reference fibers for the system. The far-field camera is out-of-plane to reduce astigmatism introduced by the spherical mirrors (M1 and M2). CI is the coronagraph input, or the first focal plane of the system and LS is the reimages pupil or the location of the Lyot stop for a Lyot-style coronagraph.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Schematic of the simplified testbed used for wave-optic simulations, from pupil plane to focal plane. The mirrors are approximated by lenses. The focal length of M2 can either be 1 m in “far-field imaging mode” or 50 cm in pupil imaging mode. In the “pupil imaging mode” we can image the Lyot plane or pupil plane or the plane conjugated to the MEMS.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Top row: measured intensity distribution in the pupil plane image (right) and the MEMS plane image (left). Data are taken at 532 nm . Bottom row: intensity distribution of the image estimated after propagation through the system up to the pupil-plane image (right) and the MEMS plane image (left). Simulations done at 532 nm .

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Radial average of the power spectrum of the image obtained after propagation through the system up to the MEMS plane image (left) and the pupil-plane image (right). The plain lines correspond to the data (2 measurements per position), and the dotted line corresponds to the simulations.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Power spectrum of the image obtained after propagation through the system up the MEMS plane image using the intensity obtained with a flat as an amplitude in the simulation at the MEMS plane. On the left is W10#X and on the right W297X15. The plain lines correspond to the data (2 measurements per position), and the dotted line corresponds to the simulations.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Left: power spectrum of the image obtained after propagation through the system up the MEMS plane image in the case where the imaging camera is defocused by 0.75 mm . The level of the bumps match better. Right: value of the maximum of the power spectrum peak at 23 cycles per aperture as a function of the position of the imaging camera around the MEMS image plane.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Left: power spectrum of the intensity when applying 32 nm rms astigmatism in the simulations. The astigmatism has been applied to mirror M1. Right: value of the maximum of the power spectrum peak at 23 cycles per aperture as a function of the position of the imaging camera around the MEMS image plane. The amount of astigmatism was still 32 nm rms on a 25 mm aperture at the mirror M1 plane.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Images of the second pupil plane. On the left is the simulation and on the right the data. We can see some artifacts due to Fresnel ringing off of the focal plane stop on the edges of the both image. We used the central 8 mm within the 10 mm diameter pupil to compare the data and the simulations to emphasize the Talbot imaging effects in the comparison. On the data image, we see some dots that come from dust in the system and might increase the amplitude variations by about 1%.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Radial average of experimentally measured contrast (using a flat mirror in place of DM and a prolate-shaped pupil) is compared to a simulation from measured phase alone (Simulation, 2), measured amplitude alone (Simulation, 3), and measured phase and amplitude (Simulation, 4). Simulation 1 shows the case with no phase or amplitude errors. Amplitude errors are the limiting factor when the phase errors are smaller than about 1 nm .

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Effect of the amplitude errors on the contrast using MEMS devices. The left graph shows simulation results for W10#X, and the right one shows the results for W297#15. The horizontal line shows the 10 7 contrast ratio. The average was done over an 8 ° angle.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Effect of defocus on the contrast for W10#X. The horizontal line shows the 10 7 contrast ratio. The average was done over a 4 ° angle.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Final contrast images. The left image corresponds to the data and the right to the simulation.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Comparison of the results with the data. We used the phase from the PSDI and the amplitude from the Lyot imaging mode.

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