Abstract

We present a fiber sensor scheme for discriminative measurement of temperature and strain by space division multiplexing high-birefringence-fiber loop mirrors (HBFLMs). Discriminative measurement of temperature and strain can be realized by sequentially measuring the resonance wavelength shifts of two HBFLMs constructed with the same high-birefringence fiber. Experimental results show that the temperature and strain resolutions reach ±0.5°C and ±10με, respectively. This scheme can provide not only high resolutions in temperature and strain but also has potential applications in distributed HBFLM sensing.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Campbell, G. Zheng, A. S. Holmes-Smith, and P. A. Wallace, “A frequency-modulated continuous wave birefringent fibre-optic strain sensor based on a Sagnac ring configuration,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 218-224 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. De la Rosa, L. A. Zenteno, A. N. Starodumov, and D. Monzon, “All-fiber absolute temperature sensor using an unbalanced high-birefringence Sagnac loop,” Opt. Lett. 22, 481-483 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Y. Liu, B. Liu, X. Feng, W. Zhang, G. Zhou, S. Yuan, G. Kai, and X. Dong, “High-birefringence fiber loop mirrors and their applications as sensors,” Appl. Opt. 44, 2382-2390(2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. Bo, Z. Qida, L. Feng, G. Tuan, X. Lifang, L. Shuhong, and G. Hong, “Liquid-level sensor with a high-birefringence-fiber loop mirror,” Appl. Opt. 45, 7767-7771 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. Sun, D. S. Moon, and Y. Chung, “Simultaneous temperature and strain measurement using two types of high-birefringence fibers in Sagnac loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 2027-2029 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, and J. M. Baptista, “Strain and temperature discrimination using concatenated high-birefringence fiber loop mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1041-1135 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. O. Frazão, E. Diogo, A. B. Lucas, T. M. R. G. Maria, and B. M. Manuel, “Strain and temperature discrimination using high-birefringence erbium-doped fiber loop mirror with high pump power laser,” IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1033-1035 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. O. Frazão, L. M. Marques, S. Santos, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Simultaneous measurement for strain and temperature based on a long period grating combined with a high birefringence fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2407-2409 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. R. Pedrazzani, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1223-1225 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. P. Zhou, L. Wei, W. K. Liu, and John W. Y. Lit, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature based on a fiber Bragg grating combined with a high-birefringence fiber loop mirror,” Opt. Commun. 281, 4640-4643 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. Zhang, Z. Wu, L. Liang, Q. Zhao, G. Kai, Z. Liu, and X. Dong, “Analyses and measurement of strain and deflection of standard beam based on fiber grating,” Proc. SPIE 4579, 269-273 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. Jin, W. C. Michie, G. Thursby, M. Konstantaki, and B. Culshaw, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature: error analysis,” Opt. Eng. 36, 598-608 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (2)

O. Frazão, E. Diogo, A. B. Lucas, T. M. R. G. Maria, and B. M. Manuel, “Strain and temperature discrimination using high-birefringence erbium-doped fiber loop mirror with high pump power laser,” IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1033-1035 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Zhou, L. Wei, W. K. Liu, and John W. Y. Lit, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature based on a fiber Bragg grating combined with a high-birefringence fiber loop mirror,” Opt. Commun. 281, 4640-4643 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

G. Sun, D. S. Moon, and Y. Chung, “Simultaneous temperature and strain measurement using two types of high-birefringence fibers in Sagnac loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 2027-2029 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, and J. M. Baptista, “Strain and temperature discrimination using concatenated high-birefringence fiber loop mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1041-1135 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

O. Frazão, L. M. Marques, S. Santos, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Simultaneous measurement for strain and temperature based on a long period grating combined with a high birefringence fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2407-2409 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Bo, Z. Qida, L. Feng, G. Tuan, X. Lifang, L. Shuhong, and G. Hong, “Liquid-level sensor with a high-birefringence-fiber loop mirror,” Appl. Opt. 45, 7767-7771 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2001 (1)

W. Zhang, Z. Wu, L. Liang, Q. Zhao, G. Kai, Z. Liu, and X. Dong, “Analyses and measurement of strain and deflection of standard beam based on fiber grating,” Proc. SPIE 4579, 269-273 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. Campbell, G. Zheng, A. S. Holmes-Smith, and P. A. Wallace, “A frequency-modulated continuous wave birefringent fibre-optic strain sensor based on a Sagnac ring configuration,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 218-224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

E. De la Rosa, L. A. Zenteno, A. N. Starodumov, and D. Monzon, “All-fiber absolute temperature sensor using an unbalanced high-birefringence Sagnac loop,” Opt. Lett. 22, 481-483 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Jin, W. C. Michie, G. Thursby, M. Konstantaki, and B. Culshaw, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature: error analysis,” Opt. Eng. 36, 598-608 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. R. Pedrazzani, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1223-1225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Baptista, J. M.

O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, and J. M. Baptista, “Strain and temperature discrimination using concatenated high-birefringence fiber loop mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1041-1135 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazão, L. M. Marques, S. Santos, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Simultaneous measurement for strain and temperature based on a long period grating combined with a high birefringence fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2407-2409 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bo, D.

Campbell, M.

M. Campbell, G. Zheng, A. S. Holmes-Smith, and P. A. Wallace, “A frequency-modulated continuous wave birefringent fibre-optic strain sensor based on a Sagnac ring configuration,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 218-224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chung, Y.

G. Sun, D. S. Moon, and Y. Chung, “Simultaneous temperature and strain measurement using two types of high-birefringence fibers in Sagnac loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 2027-2029 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Culshaw, B.

W. Jin, W. C. Michie, G. Thursby, M. Konstantaki, and B. Culshaw, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature: error analysis,” Opt. Eng. 36, 598-608 (1997).
[CrossRef]

De la Rosa, E.

Diogo, E.

O. Frazão, E. Diogo, A. B. Lucas, T. M. R. G. Maria, and B. M. Manuel, “Strain and temperature discrimination using high-birefringence erbium-doped fiber loop mirror with high pump power laser,” IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1033-1035 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dong, X.

Y. Liu, B. Liu, X. Feng, W. Zhang, G. Zhou, S. Yuan, G. Kai, and X. Dong, “High-birefringence fiber loop mirrors and their applications as sensors,” Appl. Opt. 44, 2382-2390(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, Z. Wu, L. Liang, Q. Zhao, G. Kai, Z. Liu, and X. Dong, “Analyses and measurement of strain and deflection of standard beam based on fiber grating,” Proc. SPIE 4579, 269-273 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Feng, L.

Feng, X.

Frazão, O.

O. Frazão, E. Diogo, A. B. Lucas, T. M. R. G. Maria, and B. M. Manuel, “Strain and temperature discrimination using high-birefringence erbium-doped fiber loop mirror with high pump power laser,” IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1033-1035 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, and J. M. Baptista, “Strain and temperature discrimination using concatenated high-birefringence fiber loop mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1041-1135 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazão, L. M. Marques, S. Santos, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Simultaneous measurement for strain and temperature based on a long period grating combined with a high birefringence fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2407-2409 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Holmes-Smith, A. S.

M. Campbell, G. Zheng, A. S. Holmes-Smith, and P. A. Wallace, “A frequency-modulated continuous wave birefringent fibre-optic strain sensor based on a Sagnac ring configuration,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 218-224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hong, G.

Jin, W.

W. Jin, W. C. Michie, G. Thursby, M. Konstantaki, and B. Culshaw, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature: error analysis,” Opt. Eng. 36, 598-608 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kai, G.

Y. Liu, B. Liu, X. Feng, W. Zhang, G. Zhou, S. Yuan, G. Kai, and X. Dong, “High-birefringence fiber loop mirrors and their applications as sensors,” Appl. Opt. 44, 2382-2390(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, Z. Wu, L. Liang, Q. Zhao, G. Kai, Z. Liu, and X. Dong, “Analyses and measurement of strain and deflection of standard beam based on fiber grating,” Proc. SPIE 4579, 269-273 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A. D.

H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. R. Pedrazzani, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1223-1225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Konstantaki, M.

W. Jin, W. C. Michie, G. Thursby, M. Konstantaki, and B. Culshaw, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature: error analysis,” Opt. Eng. 36, 598-608 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liang, L.

W. Zhang, Z. Wu, L. Liang, Q. Zhao, G. Kai, Z. Liu, and X. Dong, “Analyses and measurement of strain and deflection of standard beam based on fiber grating,” Proc. SPIE 4579, 269-273 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lifang, X.

Lit, John W. Y.

D. P. Zhou, L. Wei, W. K. Liu, and John W. Y. Lit, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature based on a fiber Bragg grating combined with a high-birefringence fiber loop mirror,” Opt. Commun. 281, 4640-4643 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, B.

Liu, W. K.

D. P. Zhou, L. Wei, W. K. Liu, and John W. Y. Lit, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature based on a fiber Bragg grating combined with a high-birefringence fiber loop mirror,” Opt. Commun. 281, 4640-4643 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Liu, Z.

W. Zhang, Z. Wu, L. Liang, Q. Zhao, G. Kai, Z. Liu, and X. Dong, “Analyses and measurement of strain and deflection of standard beam based on fiber grating,” Proc. SPIE 4579, 269-273 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lucas, A. B.

O. Frazão, E. Diogo, A. B. Lucas, T. M. R. G. Maria, and B. M. Manuel, “Strain and temperature discrimination using high-birefringence erbium-doped fiber loop mirror with high pump power laser,” IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1033-1035 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Manuel, B. M.

O. Frazão, E. Diogo, A. B. Lucas, T. M. R. G. Maria, and B. M. Manuel, “Strain and temperature discrimination using high-birefringence erbium-doped fiber loop mirror with high pump power laser,” IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1033-1035 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Maria, T. M. R. G.

O. Frazão, E. Diogo, A. B. Lucas, T. M. R. G. Maria, and B. M. Manuel, “Strain and temperature discrimination using high-birefringence erbium-doped fiber loop mirror with high pump power laser,” IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1033-1035 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Marques, L. M.

O. Frazão, L. M. Marques, S. Santos, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Simultaneous measurement for strain and temperature based on a long period grating combined with a high birefringence fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2407-2409 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Michie, W. C.

W. Jin, W. C. Michie, G. Thursby, M. Konstantaki, and B. Culshaw, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature: error analysis,” Opt. Eng. 36, 598-608 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Monzon, D.

Moon, D. S.

G. Sun, D. S. Moon, and Y. Chung, “Simultaneous temperature and strain measurement using two types of high-birefringence fibers in Sagnac loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 2027-2029 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Patrick, H. J.

H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. R. Pedrazzani, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1223-1225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pedrazzani, J. R.

H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. R. Pedrazzani, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1223-1225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Qida, Z.

Santos, J. L.

O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, and J. M. Baptista, “Strain and temperature discrimination using concatenated high-birefringence fiber loop mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1041-1135 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazão, L. M. Marques, S. Santos, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Simultaneous measurement for strain and temperature based on a long period grating combined with a high birefringence fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2407-2409 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Santos, S.

O. Frazão, L. M. Marques, S. Santos, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Simultaneous measurement for strain and temperature based on a long period grating combined with a high birefringence fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2407-2409 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shuhong, L.

Starodumov, A. N.

Sun, G.

G. Sun, D. S. Moon, and Y. Chung, “Simultaneous temperature and strain measurement using two types of high-birefringence fibers in Sagnac loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 2027-2029 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thursby, G.

W. Jin, W. C. Michie, G. Thursby, M. Konstantaki, and B. Culshaw, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature: error analysis,” Opt. Eng. 36, 598-608 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tuan, G.

Vengsarkar, A. M.

H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. R. Pedrazzani, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1223-1225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, P. A.

M. Campbell, G. Zheng, A. S. Holmes-Smith, and P. A. Wallace, “A frequency-modulated continuous wave birefringent fibre-optic strain sensor based on a Sagnac ring configuration,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 218-224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wei, L.

D. P. Zhou, L. Wei, W. K. Liu, and John W. Y. Lit, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature based on a fiber Bragg grating combined with a high-birefringence fiber loop mirror,” Opt. Commun. 281, 4640-4643 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Williams, G. M.

H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. R. Pedrazzani, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1223-1225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z.

W. Zhang, Z. Wu, L. Liang, Q. Zhao, G. Kai, Z. Liu, and X. Dong, “Analyses and measurement of strain and deflection of standard beam based on fiber grating,” Proc. SPIE 4579, 269-273 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, S.

Zenteno, L. A.

Zhang, W.

Y. Liu, B. Liu, X. Feng, W. Zhang, G. Zhou, S. Yuan, G. Kai, and X. Dong, “High-birefringence fiber loop mirrors and their applications as sensors,” Appl. Opt. 44, 2382-2390(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, Z. Wu, L. Liang, Q. Zhao, G. Kai, Z. Liu, and X. Dong, “Analyses and measurement of strain and deflection of standard beam based on fiber grating,” Proc. SPIE 4579, 269-273 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Q.

W. Zhang, Z. Wu, L. Liang, Q. Zhao, G. Kai, Z. Liu, and X. Dong, “Analyses and measurement of strain and deflection of standard beam based on fiber grating,” Proc. SPIE 4579, 269-273 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, G.

M. Campbell, G. Zheng, A. S. Holmes-Smith, and P. A. Wallace, “A frequency-modulated continuous wave birefringent fibre-optic strain sensor based on a Sagnac ring configuration,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 218-224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, D. P.

D. P. Zhou, L. Wei, W. K. Liu, and John W. Y. Lit, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature based on a fiber Bragg grating combined with a high-birefringence fiber loop mirror,” Opt. Commun. 281, 4640-4643 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, G.

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

G. Sun, D. S. Moon, and Y. Chung, “Simultaneous temperature and strain measurement using two types of high-birefringence fibers in Sagnac loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 2027-2029 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, and J. M. Baptista, “Strain and temperature discrimination using concatenated high-birefringence fiber loop mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1041-1135 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazão, L. M. Marques, S. Santos, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Simultaneous measurement for strain and temperature based on a long period grating combined with a high birefringence fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2407-2409 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. R. Pedrazzani, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1223-1225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

O. Frazão, E. Diogo, A. B. Lucas, T. M. R. G. Maria, and B. M. Manuel, “Strain and temperature discrimination using high-birefringence erbium-doped fiber loop mirror with high pump power laser,” IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1033-1035 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

M. Campbell, G. Zheng, A. S. Holmes-Smith, and P. A. Wallace, “A frequency-modulated continuous wave birefringent fibre-optic strain sensor based on a Sagnac ring configuration,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 218-224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

D. P. Zhou, L. Wei, W. K. Liu, and John W. Y. Lit, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature based on a fiber Bragg grating combined with a high-birefringence fiber loop mirror,” Opt. Commun. 281, 4640-4643 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

W. Jin, W. C. Michie, G. Thursby, M. Konstantaki, and B. Culshaw, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature: error analysis,” Opt. Eng. 36, 598-608 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

W. Zhang, Z. Wu, L. Liang, Q. Zhao, G. Kai, Z. Liu, and X. Dong, “Analyses and measurement of strain and deflection of standard beam based on fiber grating,” Proc. SPIE 4579, 269-273 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SDM HBFLM sensing structure (inset shows the strain sensing structure.)

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission spectra of the HBFLM1 at different temperatures under zero strain.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission spectra of the HBFLM2 at different temperatures under zero strain.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Characteristics of HBFLM1 and HBFLM2 transmission spectra versus temperature.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relationship between the strain and the wavelength of HBFLM1 at different temperatures.

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

2 π l B λ = N 2 π ,
α = 1 l l T ,
ξ = 1 B B T ,
p e = 1 B B ε
ε = 6 L l e E b h 2 l F ,
( Δ λ 1 Δ λ 2 ) = ( K T 1 K ε 1 K T 2 0 ) ( Δ T ε ) ,
K T 1 = ( α + k l e l β + ξ ) λ 1 ,
K ε 1 = ( 1 + p e ) λ 1 ,
K T 2 = ( α + ξ ) λ 2
( δ ( Δ T ) δ ( ε ) ) = ± 1 | D | ( 0 | K ε 1 | | K T 2 | | K T 1 | ) ( | δ ( Δ λ 1 ) | | δ ( Δ λ 2 ) | ) ,
( Δ λ 1 Δ λ 2 ) = ( - 0.78 0 . 01362 - 1.01 0 ) ( Δ T ε ) .

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