Abstract

The growth behavior of B4C interlayers deposited at the interfaces of Mo/Si multilayers was investigated using x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, x-ray reflectivity, and x-ray diffraction measurements. We report an asymmetry in the formation of B4C at the B4C-on-Mo interface compared to the B4C-on-Si interface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiling shows that for B4C-on-Mo the formed stoichiometry is close to expectation (41 ratio), while for B4C-on-Si it is observed that carbon diffuses from the B4C interfaces into the multilayer, resulting in nonstochiometric growth (>41). As a result, there is a discrepancy in the optical response near 13.5nm wavelength, where B4C-on-Mo behaves according to model simulations, while B4C-on-Si does not. The as-deposited off-stoichiometric B4C-on-Si interface also explains why these interfaces show poor barrier properties against temperature induced interdiffusion. We show that the stoichiometry of B4C at the Mo-Si interfaces is connected to the structure of the layers onto which B4C is grown. Because of enhanced diffusion into the amorphous Si surface, we suggest that deposited boron and carbon atoms form SiXBY and SiXCY compounds. The low formation enthalpy of SiXCY ensures C depletion of any BXCY interlayer. Only after a saturated interfacial layer is formed, does further deposition of boron and carbon atoms result in actual B4C formation. In contrast to the off-stoichiometric B4C growth on top of Si, B4C grown on top of Mo retains the correct stoichiometry because of the higher formation enthalpies for MoXBY and MoXCY formation and the limited diffusion depth into the (poly)-crystalline Mo surface.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (1)

I. Nedelcu, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, and F. Bijkerk, “Thermally enhanced interdiffusion in Mo/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 083549 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

I. Nedelcu, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, and F. Bijkerk, “Temperature dependant nano-crystal formation in Mo/Si multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 1-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

R. W. E. van de Kruijs, E. Zoethout, A. E. Yakshin, I. Nedelcu, E. Louis, F. Tichelaar, H. Enkisch, G. Sipos, S. Müllender, and F. Bijkerk, “Nano-size crystallites in Mo/Si multilayers optics,” Thin Solid Films 515, 430-433 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

A. Gottwald, U. Kroth, M. Letz, H. Schoeppe, and M. Richter, “High-accuracy VUV reflectometry at selectable sample temperatures,” Proc. SPIE 5538, 157-164 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

T. Bottger, D. C. Meyer, S. Braun, M. Moss, H. Mai, and E. Beyer, “Thermal stability of Mo/Si multilayers with boron carbide interlayers,” Thin Solid Films 444, 165-173 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Tümmler, H. Blume, G. Brandt, J. Eden, B. Meyer, H. Scherr, F. Scholz, and G. Ulm, “Characterization of the PTB EUV reflectometry facility for large EUVL optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5037, 265-273 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

S. Yulin, T. Feigl, T. Kuhlmann, N. Kaiser, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, O. V. Poltseva, V. A. Sevryukova, A. Yu. Zolotaryov, and E. N. Zubarev, “Interlayer transition zones in Mo/Si superlattices,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 1216-1220(2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Bajt, J. Alameda, T. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. Kaufmann, and E. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo/Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1797-1804(2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Braun, H. Mai, M. Moss, R. Scolz, and A. Leson, “Mo/Si multilayers with different barrier layers for applications as extreme ultraviolet mirrors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4074-4081 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Gőrts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, E. L. Maas, M. J. Kessels, F. Bijkerk, M. Haidl, S. Müllender, M. Mertin, D. Schmitz, F. Scholze, and G. Ulm, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” Proc. SPIE 3997, 406-411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

E. Louis, H.-J. Voorma, N. B. Koster, F. Bijkerk, Yu. Ya. Platomov, S. Yu. Zuev, S. S. Andreev, E. A. Shamov, and N. N. Salashchenko, “Multilayer coated reflective optics for extreme UV lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 27, 235-238(1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

1989 (1)

K. Holloway, K. B. Do, and R. Sinclair, “Interfacial reactions on annealing molybdenum-silicon multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 474-480 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Alameda, J.

S. Bajt, J. Alameda, T. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. Kaufmann, and E. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo/Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1797-1804(2002).
[CrossRef]

Andreev, S. S.

E. Louis, H.-J. Voorma, N. B. Koster, F. Bijkerk, Yu. Ya. Platomov, S. Yu. Zuev, S. S. Andreev, E. A. Shamov, and N. N. Salashchenko, “Multilayer coated reflective optics for extreme UV lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 27, 235-238(1995).
[CrossRef]

Atwood, D.

D. Atwood, Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation, Principles and Applications (Cambridge University, 1999).

Bajt, S.

S. Bajt, J. Alameda, T. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. Kaufmann, and E. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo/Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1797-1804(2002).
[CrossRef]

Barbee, T.

S. Bajt, J. Alameda, T. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. Kaufmann, and E. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo/Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1797-1804(2002).
[CrossRef]

Beyer, E.

T. Bottger, D. C. Meyer, S. Braun, M. Moss, H. Mai, and E. Beyer, “Thermal stability of Mo/Si multilayers with boron carbide interlayers,” Thin Solid Films 444, 165-173 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bijkerk, F.

I. Nedelcu, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, and F. Bijkerk, “Thermally enhanced interdiffusion in Mo/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 083549 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Nedelcu, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, and F. Bijkerk, “Temperature dependant nano-crystal formation in Mo/Si multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 1-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. W. E. van de Kruijs, E. Zoethout, A. E. Yakshin, I. Nedelcu, E. Louis, F. Tichelaar, H. Enkisch, G. Sipos, S. Müllender, and F. Bijkerk, “Nano-size crystallites in Mo/Si multilayers optics,” Thin Solid Films 515, 430-433 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Gőrts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, E. L. Maas, M. J. Kessels, F. Bijkerk, M. Haidl, S. Müllender, M. Mertin, D. Schmitz, F. Scholze, and G. Ulm, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” Proc. SPIE 3997, 406-411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Louis, H.-J. Voorma, N. B. Koster, F. Bijkerk, Yu. Ya. Platomov, S. Yu. Zuev, S. S. Andreev, E. A. Shamov, and N. N. Salashchenko, “Multilayer coated reflective optics for extreme UV lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 27, 235-238(1995).
[CrossRef]

R. W. E. van de Kruijs, E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. Suter, E. Zoethout, F. Bijkerk, S. Müllender, H. Enkisch, H. Trenkler, M. Wedowski, M. Weiss, B. Mertens, B. Wolschrijn, R. Jansen, A. Duisterwinkel, A. van de Runstraat, R. Klein, S. Plőger, and F. Scholze, “Optimization of protective capping layers for EUVL optics,” Poster 122, Proceedings of the 2nd International EUV Lithography Symposium (Antwerp, 2003).

Blume, H.

J. Tümmler, H. Blume, G. Brandt, J. Eden, B. Meyer, H. Scherr, F. Scholz, and G. Ulm, “Characterization of the PTB EUV reflectometry facility for large EUVL optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5037, 265-273 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boom, R.

F. R. de Boer, R. Boom, W. C. M. Mattens, A. R. Miedema, and A. K. Niessen, Cohesion in Metals: Transition Metal Alloys (North-Holland Physics, 1988).

Bottger, T.

T. Bottger, D. C. Meyer, S. Braun, M. Moss, H. Mai, and E. Beyer, “Thermal stability of Mo/Si multilayers with boron carbide interlayers,” Thin Solid Films 444, 165-173 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brandt, G.

J. Tümmler, H. Blume, G. Brandt, J. Eden, B. Meyer, H. Scherr, F. Scholz, and G. Ulm, “Characterization of the PTB EUV reflectometry facility for large EUVL optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5037, 265-273 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Braun, S.

T. Bottger, D. C. Meyer, S. Braun, M. Moss, H. Mai, and E. Beyer, “Thermal stability of Mo/Si multilayers with boron carbide interlayers,” Thin Solid Films 444, 165-173 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Braun, H. Mai, M. Moss, R. Scolz, and A. Leson, “Mo/Si multilayers with different barrier layers for applications as extreme ultraviolet mirrors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4074-4081 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.

Chirkov, V. A.

Clift, W. M.

S. Bajt, J. Alameda, T. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. Kaufmann, and E. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo/Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1797-1804(2002).
[CrossRef]

Conarroe, J. L.

V. N. Patel and J. L. Conarroe, “Amorphous switching device with residual crystallization retardation,” U.S. patent 4,433,342 (21 February 1984).

de Boer, F. R.

F. R. de Boer, R. Boom, W. C. M. Mattens, A. R. Miedema, and A. K. Niessen, Cohesion in Metals: Transition Metal Alloys (North-Holland Physics, 1988).

Do, K. B.

K. Holloway, K. B. Do, and R. Sinclair, “Interfacial reactions on annealing molybdenum-silicon multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 474-480 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Duisterwinkel, A.

R. W. E. van de Kruijs, E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. Suter, E. Zoethout, F. Bijkerk, S. Müllender, H. Enkisch, H. Trenkler, M. Wedowski, M. Weiss, B. Mertens, B. Wolschrijn, R. Jansen, A. Duisterwinkel, A. van de Runstraat, R. Klein, S. Plőger, and F. Scholze, “Optimization of protective capping layers for EUVL optics,” Poster 122, Proceedings of the 2nd International EUV Lithography Symposium (Antwerp, 2003).

Eden, J.

J. Tümmler, H. Blume, G. Brandt, J. Eden, B. Meyer, H. Scherr, F. Scholz, and G. Ulm, “Characterization of the PTB EUV reflectometry facility for large EUVL optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5037, 265-273 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Enkisch, H.

R. W. E. van de Kruijs, E. Zoethout, A. E. Yakshin, I. Nedelcu, E. Louis, F. Tichelaar, H. Enkisch, G. Sipos, S. Müllender, and F. Bijkerk, “Nano-size crystallites in Mo/Si multilayers optics,” Thin Solid Films 515, 430-433 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. W. E. van de Kruijs, E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. Suter, E. Zoethout, F. Bijkerk, S. Müllender, H. Enkisch, H. Trenkler, M. Wedowski, M. Weiss, B. Mertens, B. Wolschrijn, R. Jansen, A. Duisterwinkel, A. van de Runstraat, R. Klein, S. Plőger, and F. Scholze, “Optimization of protective capping layers for EUVL optics,” Poster 122, Proceedings of the 2nd International EUV Lithography Symposium (Antwerp, 2003).

Fedorenko, A. I.

S. Yulin, T. Feigl, T. Kuhlmann, N. Kaiser, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, O. V. Poltseva, V. A. Sevryukova, A. Yu. Zolotaryov, and E. N. Zubarev, “Interlayer transition zones in Mo/Si superlattices,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 1216-1220(2002).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Kondratenko, Yu. P. Perschin, O. V. Poltseva, A. I. Fedorenko, E. N. Zubarev, S. A. Yulin, I. V. Kozhevnikov, S. I. Sagitov, V. A. Chirkov, V. E. Levashov, and A. V. Vinogradov, “Thermal stability of soft Mo-Si and MoSi2-Si multilayer mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 32, 1811-1816(1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feigl, T.

S. Yulin, T. Feigl, T. Kuhlmann, N. Kaiser, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, O. V. Poltseva, V. A. Sevryukova, A. Yu. Zolotaryov, and E. N. Zubarev, “Interlayer transition zones in Mo/Si superlattices,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 1216-1220(2002).
[CrossRef]

Folta, J. A.

S. Bajt, J. Alameda, T. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. Kaufmann, and E. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo/Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1797-1804(2002).
[CrossRef]

Gorts, P. C.

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Gőrts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, E. L. Maas, M. J. Kessels, F. Bijkerk, M. Haidl, S. Müllender, M. Mertin, D. Schmitz, F. Scholze, and G. Ulm, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” Proc. SPIE 3997, 406-411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gottwald, A.

A. Gottwald, U. Kroth, M. Letz, H. Schoeppe, and M. Richter, “High-accuracy VUV reflectometry at selectable sample temperatures,” Proc. SPIE 5538, 157-164 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Haidl, M.

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Gőrts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, E. L. Maas, M. J. Kessels, F. Bijkerk, M. Haidl, S. Müllender, M. Mertin, D. Schmitz, F. Scholze, and G. Ulm, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” Proc. SPIE 3997, 406-411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Holloway, K.

K. Holloway, K. B. Do, and R. Sinclair, “Interfacial reactions on annealing molybdenum-silicon multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 474-480 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Jansen, R.

R. W. E. van de Kruijs, E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. Suter, E. Zoethout, F. Bijkerk, S. Müllender, H. Enkisch, H. Trenkler, M. Wedowski, M. Weiss, B. Mertens, B. Wolschrijn, R. Jansen, A. Duisterwinkel, A. van de Runstraat, R. Klein, S. Plőger, and F. Scholze, “Optimization of protective capping layers for EUVL optics,” Poster 122, Proceedings of the 2nd International EUV Lithography Symposium (Antwerp, 2003).

Kaiser, N.

S. Yulin, T. Feigl, T. Kuhlmann, N. Kaiser, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, O. V. Poltseva, V. A. Sevryukova, A. Yu. Zolotaryov, and E. N. Zubarev, “Interlayer transition zones in Mo/Si superlattices,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 1216-1220(2002).
[CrossRef]

Kassner, M. E.

Kaufmann, B.

S. Bajt, J. Alameda, T. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. Kaufmann, and E. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo/Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1797-1804(2002).
[CrossRef]

Kessels, M. J.

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Gőrts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, E. L. Maas, M. J. Kessels, F. Bijkerk, M. Haidl, S. Müllender, M. Mertin, D. Schmitz, F. Scholze, and G. Ulm, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” Proc. SPIE 3997, 406-411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Klein, R.

R. W. E. van de Kruijs, E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. Suter, E. Zoethout, F. Bijkerk, S. Müllender, H. Enkisch, H. Trenkler, M. Wedowski, M. Weiss, B. Mertens, B. Wolschrijn, R. Jansen, A. Duisterwinkel, A. van de Runstraat, R. Klein, S. Plőger, and F. Scholze, “Optimization of protective capping layers for EUVL optics,” Poster 122, Proceedings of the 2nd International EUV Lithography Symposium (Antwerp, 2003).

Kondratenko, V. V.

S. Yulin, T. Feigl, T. Kuhlmann, N. Kaiser, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, O. V. Poltseva, V. A. Sevryukova, A. Yu. Zolotaryov, and E. N. Zubarev, “Interlayer transition zones in Mo/Si superlattices,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 1216-1220(2002).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Kondratenko, Yu. P. Perschin, O. V. Poltseva, A. I. Fedorenko, E. N. Zubarev, S. A. Yulin, I. V. Kozhevnikov, S. I. Sagitov, V. A. Chirkov, V. E. Levashov, and A. V. Vinogradov, “Thermal stability of soft Mo-Si and MoSi2-Si multilayer mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 32, 1811-1816(1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koster, N. B.

E. Louis, H.-J. Voorma, N. B. Koster, F. Bijkerk, Yu. Ya. Platomov, S. Yu. Zuev, S. S. Andreev, E. A. Shamov, and N. N. Salashchenko, “Multilayer coated reflective optics for extreme UV lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 27, 235-238(1995).
[CrossRef]

Kozhevnikov, I. V.

Kroth, U.

A. Gottwald, U. Kroth, M. Letz, H. Schoeppe, and M. Richter, “High-accuracy VUV reflectometry at selectable sample temperatures,” Proc. SPIE 5538, 157-164 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuhlmann, T.

S. Yulin, T. Feigl, T. Kuhlmann, N. Kaiser, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, O. V. Poltseva, V. A. Sevryukova, A. Yu. Zolotaryov, and E. N. Zubarev, “Interlayer transition zones in Mo/Si superlattices,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 1216-1220(2002).
[CrossRef]

Leson, A.

S. Braun, H. Mai, M. Moss, R. Scolz, and A. Leson, “Mo/Si multilayers with different barrier layers for applications as extreme ultraviolet mirrors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4074-4081 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Letz, M.

A. Gottwald, U. Kroth, M. Letz, H. Schoeppe, and M. Richter, “High-accuracy VUV reflectometry at selectable sample temperatures,” Proc. SPIE 5538, 157-164 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Levashov, V. E.

Louis, E.

R. W. E. van de Kruijs, E. Zoethout, A. E. Yakshin, I. Nedelcu, E. Louis, F. Tichelaar, H. Enkisch, G. Sipos, S. Müllender, and F. Bijkerk, “Nano-size crystallites in Mo/Si multilayers optics,” Thin Solid Films 515, 430-433 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Gőrts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, E. L. Maas, M. J. Kessels, F. Bijkerk, M. Haidl, S. Müllender, M. Mertin, D. Schmitz, F. Scholze, and G. Ulm, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” Proc. SPIE 3997, 406-411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Louis, H.-J. Voorma, N. B. Koster, F. Bijkerk, Yu. Ya. Platomov, S. Yu. Zuev, S. S. Andreev, E. A. Shamov, and N. N. Salashchenko, “Multilayer coated reflective optics for extreme UV lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 27, 235-238(1995).
[CrossRef]

R. W. E. van de Kruijs, E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. Suter, E. Zoethout, F. Bijkerk, S. Müllender, H. Enkisch, H. Trenkler, M. Wedowski, M. Weiss, B. Mertens, B. Wolschrijn, R. Jansen, A. Duisterwinkel, A. van de Runstraat, R. Klein, S. Plőger, and F. Scholze, “Optimization of protective capping layers for EUVL optics,” Poster 122, Proceedings of the 2nd International EUV Lithography Symposium (Antwerp, 2003).

Maas, E. L.

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Gőrts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, E. L. Maas, M. J. Kessels, F. Bijkerk, M. Haidl, S. Müllender, M. Mertin, D. Schmitz, F. Scholze, and G. Ulm, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” Proc. SPIE 3997, 406-411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mai, H.

T. Bottger, D. C. Meyer, S. Braun, M. Moss, H. Mai, and E. Beyer, “Thermal stability of Mo/Si multilayers with boron carbide interlayers,” Thin Solid Films 444, 165-173 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Braun, H. Mai, M. Moss, R. Scolz, and A. Leson, “Mo/Si multilayers with different barrier layers for applications as extreme ultraviolet mirrors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4074-4081 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mattens, W. C. M.

F. R. de Boer, R. Boom, W. C. M. Mattens, A. R. Miedema, and A. K. Niessen, Cohesion in Metals: Transition Metal Alloys (North-Holland Physics, 1988).

Mertens, B.

R. W. E. van de Kruijs, E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. Suter, E. Zoethout, F. Bijkerk, S. Müllender, H. Enkisch, H. Trenkler, M. Wedowski, M. Weiss, B. Mertens, B. Wolschrijn, R. Jansen, A. Duisterwinkel, A. van de Runstraat, R. Klein, S. Plőger, and F. Scholze, “Optimization of protective capping layers for EUVL optics,” Poster 122, Proceedings of the 2nd International EUV Lithography Symposium (Antwerp, 2003).

Mertin, M.

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Gőrts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, E. L. Maas, M. J. Kessels, F. Bijkerk, M. Haidl, S. Müllender, M. Mertin, D. Schmitz, F. Scholze, and G. Ulm, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” Proc. SPIE 3997, 406-411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, B.

J. Tümmler, H. Blume, G. Brandt, J. Eden, B. Meyer, H. Scherr, F. Scholz, and G. Ulm, “Characterization of the PTB EUV reflectometry facility for large EUVL optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5037, 265-273 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, D. C.

T. Bottger, D. C. Meyer, S. Braun, M. Moss, H. Mai, and E. Beyer, “Thermal stability of Mo/Si multilayers with boron carbide interlayers,” Thin Solid Films 444, 165-173 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Miedema, A. R.

F. R. de Boer, R. Boom, W. C. M. Mattens, A. R. Miedema, and A. K. Niessen, Cohesion in Metals: Transition Metal Alloys (North-Holland Physics, 1988).

Moss, M.

T. Bottger, D. C. Meyer, S. Braun, M. Moss, H. Mai, and E. Beyer, “Thermal stability of Mo/Si multilayers with boron carbide interlayers,” Thin Solid Films 444, 165-173 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Braun, H. Mai, M. Moss, R. Scolz, and A. Leson, “Mo/Si multilayers with different barrier layers for applications as extreme ultraviolet mirrors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4074-4081 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Müllender, S.

R. W. E. van de Kruijs, E. Zoethout, A. E. Yakshin, I. Nedelcu, E. Louis, F. Tichelaar, H. Enkisch, G. Sipos, S. Müllender, and F. Bijkerk, “Nano-size crystallites in Mo/Si multilayers optics,” Thin Solid Films 515, 430-433 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Gőrts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, E. L. Maas, M. J. Kessels, F. Bijkerk, M. Haidl, S. Müllender, M. Mertin, D. Schmitz, F. Scholze, and G. Ulm, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” Proc. SPIE 3997, 406-411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. W. E. van de Kruijs, E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. Suter, E. Zoethout, F. Bijkerk, S. Müllender, H. Enkisch, H. Trenkler, M. Wedowski, M. Weiss, B. Mertens, B. Wolschrijn, R. Jansen, A. Duisterwinkel, A. van de Runstraat, R. Klein, S. Plőger, and F. Scholze, “Optimization of protective capping layers for EUVL optics,” Poster 122, Proceedings of the 2nd International EUV Lithography Symposium (Antwerp, 2003).

Nedelcu, I.

I. Nedelcu, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, and F. Bijkerk, “Thermally enhanced interdiffusion in Mo/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 083549 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Nedelcu, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, and F. Bijkerk, “Temperature dependant nano-crystal formation in Mo/Si multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 1-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. W. E. van de Kruijs, E. Zoethout, A. E. Yakshin, I. Nedelcu, E. Louis, F. Tichelaar, H. Enkisch, G. Sipos, S. Müllender, and F. Bijkerk, “Nano-size crystallites in Mo/Si multilayers optics,” Thin Solid Films 515, 430-433 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Niessen, A. K.

F. R. de Boer, R. Boom, W. C. M. Mattens, A. R. Miedema, and A. K. Niessen, Cohesion in Metals: Transition Metal Alloys (North-Holland Physics, 1988).

Oestreich, S.

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Gőrts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, E. L. Maas, M. J. Kessels, F. Bijkerk, M. Haidl, S. Müllender, M. Mertin, D. Schmitz, F. Scholze, and G. Ulm, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” Proc. SPIE 3997, 406-411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Patel, V. N.

V. N. Patel and J. L. Conarroe, “Amorphous switching device with residual crystallization retardation,” U.S. patent 4,433,342 (21 February 1984).

Perschin, Yu. P.

Platomov, Yu. Ya.

E. Louis, H.-J. Voorma, N. B. Koster, F. Bijkerk, Yu. Ya. Platomov, S. Yu. Zuev, S. S. Andreev, E. A. Shamov, and N. N. Salashchenko, “Multilayer coated reflective optics for extreme UV lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 27, 235-238(1995).
[CrossRef]

Ploger, S.

R. W. E. van de Kruijs, E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. Suter, E. Zoethout, F. Bijkerk, S. Müllender, H. Enkisch, H. Trenkler, M. Wedowski, M. Weiss, B. Mertens, B. Wolschrijn, R. Jansen, A. Duisterwinkel, A. van de Runstraat, R. Klein, S. Plőger, and F. Scholze, “Optimization of protective capping layers for EUVL optics,” Poster 122, Proceedings of the 2nd International EUV Lithography Symposium (Antwerp, 2003).

Poltseva, O. V.

S. Yulin, T. Feigl, T. Kuhlmann, N. Kaiser, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, O. V. Poltseva, V. A. Sevryukova, A. Yu. Zolotaryov, and E. N. Zubarev, “Interlayer transition zones in Mo/Si superlattices,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 1216-1220(2002).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Kondratenko, Yu. P. Perschin, O. V. Poltseva, A. I. Fedorenko, E. N. Zubarev, S. A. Yulin, I. V. Kozhevnikov, S. I. Sagitov, V. A. Chirkov, V. E. Levashov, and A. V. Vinogradov, “Thermal stability of soft Mo-Si and MoSi2-Si multilayer mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 32, 1811-1816(1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richter, M.

A. Gottwald, U. Kroth, M. Letz, H. Schoeppe, and M. Richter, “High-accuracy VUV reflectometry at selectable sample temperatures,” Proc. SPIE 5538, 157-164 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rosen, R. S.

Runstraat, A. van de

R. W. E. van de Kruijs, E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. Suter, E. Zoethout, F. Bijkerk, S. Müllender, H. Enkisch, H. Trenkler, M. Wedowski, M. Weiss, B. Mertens, B. Wolschrijn, R. Jansen, A. Duisterwinkel, A. van de Runstraat, R. Klein, S. Plőger, and F. Scholze, “Optimization of protective capping layers for EUVL optics,” Poster 122, Proceedings of the 2nd International EUV Lithography Symposium (Antwerp, 2003).

Sagitov, S. I.

Salashchenko, N. N.

E. Louis, H.-J. Voorma, N. B. Koster, F. Bijkerk, Yu. Ya. Platomov, S. Yu. Zuev, S. S. Andreev, E. A. Shamov, and N. N. Salashchenko, “Multilayer coated reflective optics for extreme UV lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 27, 235-238(1995).
[CrossRef]

Scherr, H.

J. Tümmler, H. Blume, G. Brandt, J. Eden, B. Meyer, H. Scherr, F. Scholz, and G. Ulm, “Characterization of the PTB EUV reflectometry facility for large EUVL optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5037, 265-273 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schmitz, D.

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Gőrts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, E. L. Maas, M. J. Kessels, F. Bijkerk, M. Haidl, S. Müllender, M. Mertin, D. Schmitz, F. Scholze, and G. Ulm, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” Proc. SPIE 3997, 406-411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schoeppe, H.

A. Gottwald, U. Kroth, M. Letz, H. Schoeppe, and M. Richter, “High-accuracy VUV reflectometry at selectable sample temperatures,” Proc. SPIE 5538, 157-164 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Scholz, F.

J. Tümmler, H. Blume, G. Brandt, J. Eden, B. Meyer, H. Scherr, F. Scholz, and G. Ulm, “Characterization of the PTB EUV reflectometry facility for large EUVL optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5037, 265-273 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Scholze, F.

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Gőrts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, E. L. Maas, M. J. Kessels, F. Bijkerk, M. Haidl, S. Müllender, M. Mertin, D. Schmitz, F. Scholze, and G. Ulm, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” Proc. SPIE 3997, 406-411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. W. E. van de Kruijs, E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. Suter, E. Zoethout, F. Bijkerk, S. Müllender, H. Enkisch, H. Trenkler, M. Wedowski, M. Weiss, B. Mertens, B. Wolschrijn, R. Jansen, A. Duisterwinkel, A. van de Runstraat, R. Klein, S. Plőger, and F. Scholze, “Optimization of protective capping layers for EUVL optics,” Poster 122, Proceedings of the 2nd International EUV Lithography Symposium (Antwerp, 2003).

Scolz, R.

S. Braun, H. Mai, M. Moss, R. Scolz, and A. Leson, “Mo/Si multilayers with different barrier layers for applications as extreme ultraviolet mirrors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4074-4081 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sevryukova, V. A.

S. Yulin, T. Feigl, T. Kuhlmann, N. Kaiser, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, O. V. Poltseva, V. A. Sevryukova, A. Yu. Zolotaryov, and E. N. Zubarev, “Interlayer transition zones in Mo/Si superlattices,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 1216-1220(2002).
[CrossRef]

Shamov, E. A.

E. Louis, H.-J. Voorma, N. B. Koster, F. Bijkerk, Yu. Ya. Platomov, S. Yu. Zuev, S. S. Andreev, E. A. Shamov, and N. N. Salashchenko, “Multilayer coated reflective optics for extreme UV lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 27, 235-238(1995).
[CrossRef]

Sinclair, R.

K. Holloway, K. B. Do, and R. Sinclair, “Interfacial reactions on annealing molybdenum-silicon multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 474-480 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sipos, G.

R. W. E. van de Kruijs, E. Zoethout, A. E. Yakshin, I. Nedelcu, E. Louis, F. Tichelaar, H. Enkisch, G. Sipos, S. Müllender, and F. Bijkerk, “Nano-size crystallites in Mo/Si multilayers optics,” Thin Solid Films 515, 430-433 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Spiller, E.

S. Bajt, J. Alameda, T. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. Kaufmann, and E. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo/Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1797-1804(2002).
[CrossRef]

Stearns, D. G.

Stuik, R.

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Gőrts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, E. L. Maas, M. J. Kessels, F. Bijkerk, M. Haidl, S. Müllender, M. Mertin, D. Schmitz, F. Scholze, and G. Ulm, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” Proc. SPIE 3997, 406-411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Suter, P.

R. W. E. van de Kruijs, E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. Suter, E. Zoethout, F. Bijkerk, S. Müllender, H. Enkisch, H. Trenkler, M. Wedowski, M. Weiss, B. Mertens, B. Wolschrijn, R. Jansen, A. Duisterwinkel, A. van de Runstraat, R. Klein, S. Plőger, and F. Scholze, “Optimization of protective capping layers for EUVL optics,” Poster 122, Proceedings of the 2nd International EUV Lithography Symposium (Antwerp, 2003).

Tichelaar, F.

R. W. E. van de Kruijs, E. Zoethout, A. E. Yakshin, I. Nedelcu, E. Louis, F. Tichelaar, H. Enkisch, G. Sipos, S. Müllender, and F. Bijkerk, “Nano-size crystallites in Mo/Si multilayers optics,” Thin Solid Films 515, 430-433 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Trenkler, H.

R. W. E. van de Kruijs, E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. Suter, E. Zoethout, F. Bijkerk, S. Müllender, H. Enkisch, H. Trenkler, M. Wedowski, M. Weiss, B. Mertens, B. Wolschrijn, R. Jansen, A. Duisterwinkel, A. van de Runstraat, R. Klein, S. Plőger, and F. Scholze, “Optimization of protective capping layers for EUVL optics,” Poster 122, Proceedings of the 2nd International EUV Lithography Symposium (Antwerp, 2003).

Tümmler, J.

J. Tümmler, H. Blume, G. Brandt, J. Eden, B. Meyer, H. Scherr, F. Scholz, and G. Ulm, “Characterization of the PTB EUV reflectometry facility for large EUVL optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5037, 265-273 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ulm, G.

J. Tümmler, H. Blume, G. Brandt, J. Eden, B. Meyer, H. Scherr, F. Scholz, and G. Ulm, “Characterization of the PTB EUV reflectometry facility for large EUVL optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5037, 265-273 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Gőrts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, E. L. Maas, M. J. Kessels, F. Bijkerk, M. Haidl, S. Müllender, M. Mertin, D. Schmitz, F. Scholze, and G. Ulm, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” Proc. SPIE 3997, 406-411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

van de Kruijs, R. W. E.

I. Nedelcu, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, and F. Bijkerk, “Thermally enhanced interdiffusion in Mo/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 083549 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Nedelcu, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, and F. Bijkerk, “Temperature dependant nano-crystal formation in Mo/Si multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 1-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. W. E. van de Kruijs, E. Zoethout, A. E. Yakshin, I. Nedelcu, E. Louis, F. Tichelaar, H. Enkisch, G. Sipos, S. Müllender, and F. Bijkerk, “Nano-size crystallites in Mo/Si multilayers optics,” Thin Solid Films 515, 430-433 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. W. E. van de Kruijs, E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. Suter, E. Zoethout, F. Bijkerk, S. Müllender, H. Enkisch, H. Trenkler, M. Wedowski, M. Weiss, B. Mertens, B. Wolschrijn, R. Jansen, A. Duisterwinkel, A. van de Runstraat, R. Klein, S. Plőger, and F. Scholze, “Optimization of protective capping layers for EUVL optics,” Poster 122, Proceedings of the 2nd International EUV Lithography Symposium (Antwerp, 2003).

Vernon, S. P.

Viliardos, M. A.

Vinogradov, A. V.

Voorma, H.-J.

E. Louis, H.-J. Voorma, N. B. Koster, F. Bijkerk, Yu. Ya. Platomov, S. Yu. Zuev, S. S. Andreev, E. A. Shamov, and N. N. Salashchenko, “Multilayer coated reflective optics for extreme UV lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 27, 235-238(1995).
[CrossRef]

Wedowski, M.

R. W. E. van de Kruijs, E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. Suter, E. Zoethout, F. Bijkerk, S. Müllender, H. Enkisch, H. Trenkler, M. Wedowski, M. Weiss, B. Mertens, B. Wolschrijn, R. Jansen, A. Duisterwinkel, A. van de Runstraat, R. Klein, S. Plőger, and F. Scholze, “Optimization of protective capping layers for EUVL optics,” Poster 122, Proceedings of the 2nd International EUV Lithography Symposium (Antwerp, 2003).

Weiss, M.

R. W. E. van de Kruijs, E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. Suter, E. Zoethout, F. Bijkerk, S. Müllender, H. Enkisch, H. Trenkler, M. Wedowski, M. Weiss, B. Mertens, B. Wolschrijn, R. Jansen, A. Duisterwinkel, A. van de Runstraat, R. Klein, S. Plőger, and F. Scholze, “Optimization of protective capping layers for EUVL optics,” Poster 122, Proceedings of the 2nd International EUV Lithography Symposium (Antwerp, 2003).

Windt, David L.

IMD, version 4.1.1, written by David L. Windt, (2000).

Wolschrijn, B.

R. W. E. van de Kruijs, E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. Suter, E. Zoethout, F. Bijkerk, S. Müllender, H. Enkisch, H. Trenkler, M. Wedowski, M. Weiss, B. Mertens, B. Wolschrijn, R. Jansen, A. Duisterwinkel, A. van de Runstraat, R. Klein, S. Plőger, and F. Scholze, “Optimization of protective capping layers for EUVL optics,” Poster 122, Proceedings of the 2nd International EUV Lithography Symposium (Antwerp, 2003).

Yakshin, A. E.

I. Nedelcu, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, and F. Bijkerk, “Thermally enhanced interdiffusion in Mo/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 083549 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Nedelcu, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, and F. Bijkerk, “Temperature dependant nano-crystal formation in Mo/Si multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 1-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. W. E. van de Kruijs, E. Zoethout, A. E. Yakshin, I. Nedelcu, E. Louis, F. Tichelaar, H. Enkisch, G. Sipos, S. Müllender, and F. Bijkerk, “Nano-size crystallites in Mo/Si multilayers optics,” Thin Solid Films 515, 430-433 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Gőrts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, E. L. Maas, M. J. Kessels, F. Bijkerk, M. Haidl, S. Müllender, M. Mertin, D. Schmitz, F. Scholze, and G. Ulm, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” Proc. SPIE 3997, 406-411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. W. E. van de Kruijs, E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. Suter, E. Zoethout, F. Bijkerk, S. Müllender, H. Enkisch, H. Trenkler, M. Wedowski, M. Weiss, B. Mertens, B. Wolschrijn, R. Jansen, A. Duisterwinkel, A. van de Runstraat, R. Klein, S. Plőger, and F. Scholze, “Optimization of protective capping layers for EUVL optics,” Poster 122, Proceedings of the 2nd International EUV Lithography Symposium (Antwerp, 2003).

Yulin, S.

S. Yulin, T. Feigl, T. Kuhlmann, N. Kaiser, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, O. V. Poltseva, V. A. Sevryukova, A. Yu. Zolotaryov, and E. N. Zubarev, “Interlayer transition zones in Mo/Si superlattices,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 1216-1220(2002).
[CrossRef]

Yulin, S. A.

Zoethout, E.

R. W. E. van de Kruijs, E. Zoethout, A. E. Yakshin, I. Nedelcu, E. Louis, F. Tichelaar, H. Enkisch, G. Sipos, S. Müllender, and F. Bijkerk, “Nano-size crystallites in Mo/Si multilayers optics,” Thin Solid Films 515, 430-433 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. W. E. van de Kruijs, E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. Suter, E. Zoethout, F. Bijkerk, S. Müllender, H. Enkisch, H. Trenkler, M. Wedowski, M. Weiss, B. Mertens, B. Wolschrijn, R. Jansen, A. Duisterwinkel, A. van de Runstraat, R. Klein, S. Plőger, and F. Scholze, “Optimization of protective capping layers for EUVL optics,” Poster 122, Proceedings of the 2nd International EUV Lithography Symposium (Antwerp, 2003).

Zolotaryov, A. Yu.

S. Yulin, T. Feigl, T. Kuhlmann, N. Kaiser, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, O. V. Poltseva, V. A. Sevryukova, A. Yu. Zolotaryov, and E. N. Zubarev, “Interlayer transition zones in Mo/Si superlattices,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 1216-1220(2002).
[CrossRef]

Zubarev, E. N.

S. Yulin, T. Feigl, T. Kuhlmann, N. Kaiser, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, O. V. Poltseva, V. A. Sevryukova, A. Yu. Zolotaryov, and E. N. Zubarev, “Interlayer transition zones in Mo/Si superlattices,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 1216-1220(2002).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Kondratenko, Yu. P. Perschin, O. V. Poltseva, A. I. Fedorenko, E. N. Zubarev, S. A. Yulin, I. V. Kozhevnikov, S. I. Sagitov, V. A. Chirkov, V. E. Levashov, and A. V. Vinogradov, “Thermal stability of soft Mo-Si and MoSi2-Si multilayer mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 32, 1811-1816(1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zuev, S. Yu.

E. Louis, H.-J. Voorma, N. B. Koster, F. Bijkerk, Yu. Ya. Platomov, S. Yu. Zuev, S. S. Andreev, E. A. Shamov, and N. N. Salashchenko, “Multilayer coated reflective optics for extreme UV lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 27, 235-238(1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

I. Nedelcu, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, and F. Bijkerk, “Thermally enhanced interdiffusion in Mo/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 083549 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Yulin, T. Feigl, T. Kuhlmann, N. Kaiser, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, O. V. Poltseva, V. A. Sevryukova, A. Yu. Zolotaryov, and E. N. Zubarev, “Interlayer transition zones in Mo/Si superlattices,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 1216-1220(2002).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

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[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

E. Louis, H.-J. Voorma, N. B. Koster, F. Bijkerk, Yu. Ya. Platomov, S. Yu. Zuev, S. S. Andreev, E. A. Shamov, and N. N. Salashchenko, “Multilayer coated reflective optics for extreme UV lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 27, 235-238(1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

S. Bajt, J. Alameda, T. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. Kaufmann, and E. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo/Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1797-1804(2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

I. Nedelcu, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, and F. Bijkerk, “Temperature dependant nano-crystal formation in Mo/Si multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 1-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (3)

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Gőrts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, E. L. Maas, M. J. Kessels, F. Bijkerk, M. Haidl, S. Müllender, M. Mertin, D. Schmitz, F. Scholze, and G. Ulm, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” Proc. SPIE 3997, 406-411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Tümmler, H. Blume, G. Brandt, J. Eden, B. Meyer, H. Scherr, F. Scholz, and G. Ulm, “Characterization of the PTB EUV reflectometry facility for large EUVL optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5037, 265-273 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Gottwald, U. Kroth, M. Letz, H. Schoeppe, and M. Richter, “High-accuracy VUV reflectometry at selectable sample temperatures,” Proc. SPIE 5538, 157-164 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (2)

R. W. E. van de Kruijs, E. Zoethout, A. E. Yakshin, I. Nedelcu, E. Louis, F. Tichelaar, H. Enkisch, G. Sipos, S. Müllender, and F. Bijkerk, “Nano-size crystallites in Mo/Si multilayers optics,” Thin Solid Films 515, 430-433 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Bottger, D. C. Meyer, S. Braun, M. Moss, H. Mai, and E. Beyer, “Thermal stability of Mo/Si multilayers with boron carbide interlayers,” Thin Solid Films 444, 165-173 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Multilayer peak reflectivity as a function of the B 4 C thickness applied on Mo (light gray symbols) and on Si (dark gray symbols). Details on the model used to simulate reflectivities (dashed lines) of these multilayer structures are presented in the text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diffuse scattering as a function of the x-ray angle of incidence around the 5th order Bragg peak. This Bragg peak was chosen to obtain a reasonable rocking curve range at sufficient signal-to-noise ratio and to have the same specular peak intensity for all samples investigated. The Mo / Si multilayer (black line) is a reference. The multilayers containing B 4 C exhibit similar or lower off-specular reflected intensity than the reference sample, indicating lower multilayer roughness.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

XPS depth profile for multilayers with (a)  1.2 nm B 4 C on Mo and (b)  1.2 nm B 4 C on Si.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

B:C stoichiometry determined from the XPS depth profile, as a function of the B 4 C thickness deposited on Mo (black line) and on Si (gray line). The stoichiometry is 4 1 when B 4 C is deposited on Mo, independent of its thickness. The stoichiometry is 6 1 when B 4 C is deposited on Si for B 4 C thickness lower than 1.0 nm and 4 1 for B 4 C thickness higher than about 1.5 nm .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

XPS depth profile for multilayers with a 1.8 nm layer of B 4 C on Si as a function of sputtering energy. The ion sputtering energy was 500 eV (dashed lines) and 250 eV (continuous lines). The same depth profile was obtained for different ion sputtering energies, showing that the ions do not influence the diffusion at thin layer interfaces.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Energy-filtered TEM image using (a) the energy of B K-edge and (b) the derived intensity profile of a Mo / B 4 C / Si / B 4 C multilayer. The intensity profile (b) presents an asymmetry at the Mo-on- B 4 C interface, which suggests more intermixing at this interface.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Period compaction as a function of the multilayer temperature with 0.9 nm of B 4 C on Mo (empty diamonds) and 0.9 nm of B 4 C on Si (gray diamonds). A Mo / Si multilayer without B 4 C was used as a reference (black diamonds). Similar period compaction was observed for both multilayers containing B 4 C before they recrystallized into h - Mo Si 2 . The recrystallization temperature for samples containing a B 4 C barrier layers is 25 ° C higher than the recrystallization temperature of the reference sample.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Change in crystallite size as a function of the annealing temperature for multilayers with B 4 C on Mo (gray circles), B 4 C on Si (gray diamonds), and a reference without B 4 C (black squares). The recrystallization to h - Mo Si 2 , observed in the reference multilayer at temperatures higher than 300 ° C , also occurs for the multilayer with B 4 C on Mo for temperatures higher than 325 ° C . When B 4 C is deposited on Si, no recrystallization occurs in the investigated temperature range ( 20 425 ° C ).

Equations (1)

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X = 0.94 λ L cos ( θ ) ,

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