Abstract

In order to develop lightweight and high angular resolution x-ray mirrors, we have investigated hot plastic deformation of 4 in. silicon (111) wafers. A sample wafer was deformed using hemispherical dies with a curvature radius of 1000mm. The measured radius of the deformed wafer was 1030mm, suggesting that further conditioning is indispensable for better shaping. For the first time to our knowledge, x-ray reflection on a deformed wafer was detected at Al Kα 1.49keV. An estimated surface roughness of <1nm from the x-ray reflection profile was comparable to that of a bare silicon wafer without deformation. Hence, no significant degradation of the microroughness was seen.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, A. J. Peacock, M. Beijersbergen, and S. Kraft, “Status of x-ray optics development for the XEUS Mission,” Proc. SPIE 5488, 829-836 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. See http://ixo.gsfc.nasa.gov/ and http://sci.esa.int/science-e/www/object/index.cfm?fobjectid=42271.
  3. G. W. Frazer, “Microchannel plate x-ray optics in the next generation of X-ray observatories,” in The Next Generation of X-Ray Observatories, M. J. L. Turner and M. G. Watson, eds., Leicester X-Ray Astronomy Group Special Report XRA97/02 (University of Leicester, 1997), p. 191.
  4. S. W. Wilkins, A. W. Stevenson, K. A. Nugent, H. Chapman, and S. Steenstrup, “On the concentration, focusing, and collimation of x-rays and neutrons using microchannel plates and configurations of holes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1026-1036(1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. J. Price, A. N. Brunton, M. W. Beijerbergen, G. W. Fraser, M. Bavdaz, J.-P. Boutot, R. Fairbend, S.-O. Flyckt, A. Peacock, and E. Tomaselli, “X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 490, 276-289 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, K. Mitsuda, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, Z. Yang, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Micro pore x-ray optics using anisotropic wet etching of (110) silicon wafers,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8932-8938 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, K. Mitsuda, T. Osawa, M. Suzuki, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Micromachined x-ray collector for space astronomy,” Sens. Actuators A 145-146, 201-206(2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Hudec, L. Pina, L, V. Semencova, A. Inneman, M. Skulinova, L. Sveda, M. Mika, V. Brozek, R. Kacerovsky, J. Prokop, and J. Sik, “Novel x-ray optics with Si wafers and formed glass,” Proc. SPIE 6266, 62661H (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Hudec, L. Pina, L, V. Semencova, A. Inneman, M. Skulinova, L. Sveda, M. Mika, V. Brozek, R. Kacerovsky, J. Prokop, and J. Sik, “Progress in x-ray optics development with formed glass and Si wafers,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668810 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Hudec, J. Sik, M. Lorenc, L. Pina, V. Semencova, M. Mika, A. Inneman, M. Skulinova, and L. Sveda, “Recent progress with x-ray optics based on Si wafers and glass foils,” Proc. SPIE 7011, 701116 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Ghigo, O. Citterio, F. Mazzoleni, G. Pareschi, B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, P. Friedrich, G. Hasinger, T. Dohring, H. Esemann, R. Jedamzik, E. Hoelzl, and G. Parodi, “The manufacturing of XEUS x-ray glass segmented mirrors: status of investigation and last results,” Proc. SPIE 5168, 180-195 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. Friedrich, B. Aschenbach, C. Braig, H. Brauninger, B. Budau, W. Burkert, M. J. Freyberg, G. Hartner, G. Hasinger, P. Predehl, V. Peter, B. Monika, S. Basso, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, G. Pareschi, U. Dinger, W. Egle, R. Lenke, G. Luichtel, and H. Schwarz, “Development of lightweight x-ray mirrors for the Constellation-X mission,” Proc. SPIE 6266, 62661G (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. W. Zhang, K-W. Chan, T. Hajimichael, J. P. Lehan, S. Owens, R. Petre, T. T. Saha, M. V. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, D. William, and S. L. O'Dell, “Development of lightweight x-ray mirrors for the Constellation-X mission,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. Nakajima, K. Fujiwara, W. Pan, and H. Okuda, “Shaped silicon-crystal wafers obtained by plastic deformation and their application to silicon-crystal lenses,” Nature Mater. 4, 47-50 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Ezoe, T. Shirata, T. Ohashi, M. Ishida, K. Mitsuda, K. Fujiwara, K. Morishita, and K. Nakajima, “Development of high-resolution and lightweight x-ray optics with deformed silicon wafers,” Proc. SPIE 7360, 73600B (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

Y. Ezoe, T. Shirata, T. Ohashi, M. Ishida, K. Mitsuda, K. Fujiwara, K. Morishita, and K. Nakajima, “Development of high-resolution and lightweight x-ray optics with deformed silicon wafers,” Proc. SPIE 7360, 73600B (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, K. Mitsuda, T. Osawa, M. Suzuki, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Micromachined x-ray collector for space astronomy,” Sens. Actuators A 145-146, 201-206(2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Hudec, J. Sik, M. Lorenc, L. Pina, V. Semencova, M. Mika, A. Inneman, M. Skulinova, and L. Sveda, “Recent progress with x-ray optics based on Si wafers and glass foils,” Proc. SPIE 7011, 701116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

R. Hudec, L. Pina, L, V. Semencova, A. Inneman, M. Skulinova, L. Sveda, M. Mika, V. Brozek, R. Kacerovsky, J. Prokop, and J. Sik, “Progress in x-ray optics development with formed glass and Si wafers,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668810 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Zhang, K-W. Chan, T. Hajimichael, J. P. Lehan, S. Owens, R. Petre, T. T. Saha, M. V. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, D. William, and S. L. O'Dell, “Development of lightweight x-ray mirrors for the Constellation-X mission,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

P. Friedrich, B. Aschenbach, C. Braig, H. Brauninger, B. Budau, W. Burkert, M. J. Freyberg, G. Hartner, G. Hasinger, P. Predehl, V. Peter, B. Monika, S. Basso, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, G. Pareschi, U. Dinger, W. Egle, R. Lenke, G. Luichtel, and H. Schwarz, “Development of lightweight x-ray mirrors for the Constellation-X mission,” Proc. SPIE 6266, 62661G (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Hudec, L. Pina, L, V. Semencova, A. Inneman, M. Skulinova, L. Sveda, M. Mika, V. Brozek, R. Kacerovsky, J. Prokop, and J. Sik, “Novel x-ray optics with Si wafers and formed glass,” Proc. SPIE 6266, 62661H (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, K. Mitsuda, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, Z. Yang, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Micro pore x-ray optics using anisotropic wet etching of (110) silicon wafers,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8932-8938 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

K. Nakajima, K. Fujiwara, W. Pan, and H. Okuda, “Shaped silicon-crystal wafers obtained by plastic deformation and their application to silicon-crystal lenses,” Nature Mater. 4, 47-50 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

M. Ghigo, O. Citterio, F. Mazzoleni, G. Pareschi, B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, P. Friedrich, G. Hasinger, T. Dohring, H. Esemann, R. Jedamzik, E. Hoelzl, and G. Parodi, “The manufacturing of XEUS x-ray glass segmented mirrors: status of investigation and last results,” Proc. SPIE 5168, 180-195 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, A. J. Peacock, M. Beijersbergen, and S. Kraft, “Status of x-ray optics development for the XEUS Mission,” Proc. SPIE 5488, 829-836 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

G. J. Price, A. N. Brunton, M. W. Beijerbergen, G. W. Fraser, M. Bavdaz, J.-P. Boutot, R. Fairbend, S.-O. Flyckt, A. Peacock, and E. Tomaselli, “X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 490, 276-289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

S. W. Wilkins, A. W. Stevenson, K. A. Nugent, H. Chapman, and S. Steenstrup, “On the concentration, focusing, and collimation of x-rays and neutrons using microchannel plates and configurations of holes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1026-1036(1989).
[CrossRef]

Aschenbach, B.

P. Friedrich, B. Aschenbach, C. Braig, H. Brauninger, B. Budau, W. Burkert, M. J. Freyberg, G. Hartner, G. Hasinger, P. Predehl, V. Peter, B. Monika, S. Basso, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, G. Pareschi, U. Dinger, W. Egle, R. Lenke, G. Luichtel, and H. Schwarz, “Development of lightweight x-ray mirrors for the Constellation-X mission,” Proc. SPIE 6266, 62661G (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Ghigo, O. Citterio, F. Mazzoleni, G. Pareschi, B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, P. Friedrich, G. Hasinger, T. Dohring, H. Esemann, R. Jedamzik, E. Hoelzl, and G. Parodi, “The manufacturing of XEUS x-ray glass segmented mirrors: status of investigation and last results,” Proc. SPIE 5168, 180-195 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Basso, S.

P. Friedrich, B. Aschenbach, C. Braig, H. Brauninger, B. Budau, W. Burkert, M. J. Freyberg, G. Hartner, G. Hasinger, P. Predehl, V. Peter, B. Monika, S. Basso, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, G. Pareschi, U. Dinger, W. Egle, R. Lenke, G. Luichtel, and H. Schwarz, “Development of lightweight x-ray mirrors for the Constellation-X mission,” Proc. SPIE 6266, 62661G (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bavdaz, M.

M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, A. J. Peacock, M. Beijersbergen, and S. Kraft, “Status of x-ray optics development for the XEUS Mission,” Proc. SPIE 5488, 829-836 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Price, A. N. Brunton, M. W. Beijerbergen, G. W. Fraser, M. Bavdaz, J.-P. Boutot, R. Fairbend, S.-O. Flyckt, A. Peacock, and E. Tomaselli, “X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 490, 276-289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beijerbergen, M. W.

G. J. Price, A. N. Brunton, M. W. Beijerbergen, G. W. Fraser, M. Bavdaz, J.-P. Boutot, R. Fairbend, S.-O. Flyckt, A. Peacock, and E. Tomaselli, “X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 490, 276-289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beijersbergen, M.

M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, A. J. Peacock, M. Beijersbergen, and S. Kraft, “Status of x-ray optics development for the XEUS Mission,” Proc. SPIE 5488, 829-836 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boutot, J.-P.

G. J. Price, A. N. Brunton, M. W. Beijerbergen, G. W. Fraser, M. Bavdaz, J.-P. Boutot, R. Fairbend, S.-O. Flyckt, A. Peacock, and E. Tomaselli, “X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 490, 276-289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Braig, C.

P. Friedrich, B. Aschenbach, C. Braig, H. Brauninger, B. Budau, W. Burkert, M. J. Freyberg, G. Hartner, G. Hasinger, P. Predehl, V. Peter, B. Monika, S. Basso, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, G. Pareschi, U. Dinger, W. Egle, R. Lenke, G. Luichtel, and H. Schwarz, “Development of lightweight x-ray mirrors for the Constellation-X mission,” Proc. SPIE 6266, 62661G (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brauninger, H.

P. Friedrich, B. Aschenbach, C. Braig, H. Brauninger, B. Budau, W. Burkert, M. J. Freyberg, G. Hartner, G. Hasinger, P. Predehl, V. Peter, B. Monika, S. Basso, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, G. Pareschi, U. Dinger, W. Egle, R. Lenke, G. Luichtel, and H. Schwarz, “Development of lightweight x-ray mirrors for the Constellation-X mission,” Proc. SPIE 6266, 62661G (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Ghigo, O. Citterio, F. Mazzoleni, G. Pareschi, B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, P. Friedrich, G. Hasinger, T. Dohring, H. Esemann, R. Jedamzik, E. Hoelzl, and G. Parodi, “The manufacturing of XEUS x-ray glass segmented mirrors: status of investigation and last results,” Proc. SPIE 5168, 180-195 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brozek, V.

R. Hudec, L. Pina, L, V. Semencova, A. Inneman, M. Skulinova, L. Sveda, M. Mika, V. Brozek, R. Kacerovsky, J. Prokop, and J. Sik, “Progress in x-ray optics development with formed glass and Si wafers,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668810 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Hudec, L. Pina, L, V. Semencova, A. Inneman, M. Skulinova, L. Sveda, M. Mika, V. Brozek, R. Kacerovsky, J. Prokop, and J. Sik, “Novel x-ray optics with Si wafers and formed glass,” Proc. SPIE 6266, 62661H (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brunton, A. N.

G. J. Price, A. N. Brunton, M. W. Beijerbergen, G. W. Fraser, M. Bavdaz, J.-P. Boutot, R. Fairbend, S.-O. Flyckt, A. Peacock, and E. Tomaselli, “X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 490, 276-289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Budau, B.

P. Friedrich, B. Aschenbach, C. Braig, H. Brauninger, B. Budau, W. Burkert, M. J. Freyberg, G. Hartner, G. Hasinger, P. Predehl, V. Peter, B. Monika, S. Basso, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, G. Pareschi, U. Dinger, W. Egle, R. Lenke, G. Luichtel, and H. Schwarz, “Development of lightweight x-ray mirrors for the Constellation-X mission,” Proc. SPIE 6266, 62661G (2006).
[CrossRef]

Burkert, W.

P. Friedrich, B. Aschenbach, C. Braig, H. Brauninger, B. Budau, W. Burkert, M. J. Freyberg, G. Hartner, G. Hasinger, P. Predehl, V. Peter, B. Monika, S. Basso, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, G. Pareschi, U. Dinger, W. Egle, R. Lenke, G. Luichtel, and H. Schwarz, “Development of lightweight x-ray mirrors for the Constellation-X mission,” Proc. SPIE 6266, 62661G (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chan, K-W.

W. W. Zhang, K-W. Chan, T. Hajimichael, J. P. Lehan, S. Owens, R. Petre, T. T. Saha, M. V. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, D. William, and S. L. O'Dell, “Development of lightweight x-ray mirrors for the Constellation-X mission,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chapman, H.

S. W. Wilkins, A. W. Stevenson, K. A. Nugent, H. Chapman, and S. Steenstrup, “On the concentration, focusing, and collimation of x-rays and neutrons using microchannel plates and configurations of holes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1026-1036(1989).
[CrossRef]

Citterio, O.

P. Friedrich, B. Aschenbach, C. Braig, H. Brauninger, B. Budau, W. Burkert, M. J. Freyberg, G. Hartner, G. Hasinger, P. Predehl, V. Peter, B. Monika, S. Basso, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, G. Pareschi, U. Dinger, W. Egle, R. Lenke, G. Luichtel, and H. Schwarz, “Development of lightweight x-ray mirrors for the Constellation-X mission,” Proc. SPIE 6266, 62661G (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Ghigo, O. Citterio, F. Mazzoleni, G. Pareschi, B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, P. Friedrich, G. Hasinger, T. Dohring, H. Esemann, R. Jedamzik, E. Hoelzl, and G. Parodi, “The manufacturing of XEUS x-ray glass segmented mirrors: status of investigation and last results,” Proc. SPIE 5168, 180-195 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dinger, U.

P. Friedrich, B. Aschenbach, C. Braig, H. Brauninger, B. Budau, W. Burkert, M. J. Freyberg, G. Hartner, G. Hasinger, P. Predehl, V. Peter, B. Monika, S. Basso, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, G. Pareschi, U. Dinger, W. Egle, R. Lenke, G. Luichtel, and H. Schwarz, “Development of lightweight x-ray mirrors for the Constellation-X mission,” Proc. SPIE 6266, 62661G (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dohring, T.

M. Ghigo, O. Citterio, F. Mazzoleni, G. Pareschi, B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, P. Friedrich, G. Hasinger, T. Dohring, H. Esemann, R. Jedamzik, E. Hoelzl, and G. Parodi, “The manufacturing of XEUS x-ray glass segmented mirrors: status of investigation and last results,” Proc. SPIE 5168, 180-195 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Egle, W.

P. Friedrich, B. Aschenbach, C. Braig, H. Brauninger, B. Budau, W. Burkert, M. J. Freyberg, G. Hartner, G. Hasinger, P. Predehl, V. Peter, B. Monika, S. Basso, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, G. Pareschi, U. Dinger, W. Egle, R. Lenke, G. Luichtel, and H. Schwarz, “Development of lightweight x-ray mirrors for the Constellation-X mission,” Proc. SPIE 6266, 62661G (2006).
[CrossRef]

Esemann, H.

M. Ghigo, O. Citterio, F. Mazzoleni, G. Pareschi, B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, P. Friedrich, G. Hasinger, T. Dohring, H. Esemann, R. Jedamzik, E. Hoelzl, and G. Parodi, “The manufacturing of XEUS x-ray glass segmented mirrors: status of investigation and last results,” Proc. SPIE 5168, 180-195 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ezoe, Y.

Y. Ezoe, T. Shirata, T. Ohashi, M. Ishida, K. Mitsuda, K. Fujiwara, K. Morishita, and K. Nakajima, “Development of high-resolution and lightweight x-ray optics with deformed silicon wafers,” Proc. SPIE 7360, 73600B (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, K. Mitsuda, T. Osawa, M. Suzuki, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Micromachined x-ray collector for space astronomy,” Sens. Actuators A 145-146, 201-206(2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, K. Mitsuda, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, Z. Yang, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Micro pore x-ray optics using anisotropic wet etching of (110) silicon wafers,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8932-8938 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fairbend, R.

G. J. Price, A. N. Brunton, M. W. Beijerbergen, G. W. Fraser, M. Bavdaz, J.-P. Boutot, R. Fairbend, S.-O. Flyckt, A. Peacock, and E. Tomaselli, “X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 490, 276-289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Flyckt, S.-O.

G. J. Price, A. N. Brunton, M. W. Beijerbergen, G. W. Fraser, M. Bavdaz, J.-P. Boutot, R. Fairbend, S.-O. Flyckt, A. Peacock, and E. Tomaselli, “X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 490, 276-289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, G. W.

G. J. Price, A. N. Brunton, M. W. Beijerbergen, G. W. Fraser, M. Bavdaz, J.-P. Boutot, R. Fairbend, S.-O. Flyckt, A. Peacock, and E. Tomaselli, “X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 490, 276-289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Frazer, G. W.

G. W. Frazer, “Microchannel plate x-ray optics in the next generation of X-ray observatories,” in The Next Generation of X-Ray Observatories, M. J. L. Turner and M. G. Watson, eds., Leicester X-Ray Astronomy Group Special Report XRA97/02 (University of Leicester, 1997), p. 191.

Freyberg, M. J.

P. Friedrich, B. Aschenbach, C. Braig, H. Brauninger, B. Budau, W. Burkert, M. J. Freyberg, G. Hartner, G. Hasinger, P. Predehl, V. Peter, B. Monika, S. Basso, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, G. Pareschi, U. Dinger, W. Egle, R. Lenke, G. Luichtel, and H. Schwarz, “Development of lightweight x-ray mirrors for the Constellation-X mission,” Proc. SPIE 6266, 62661G (2006).
[CrossRef]

Friedrich, P.

P. Friedrich, B. Aschenbach, C. Braig, H. Brauninger, B. Budau, W. Burkert, M. J. Freyberg, G. Hartner, G. Hasinger, P. Predehl, V. Peter, B. Monika, S. Basso, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, G. Pareschi, U. Dinger, W. Egle, R. Lenke, G. Luichtel, and H. Schwarz, “Development of lightweight x-ray mirrors for the Constellation-X mission,” Proc. SPIE 6266, 62661G (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Ghigo, O. Citterio, F. Mazzoleni, G. Pareschi, B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, P. Friedrich, G. Hasinger, T. Dohring, H. Esemann, R. Jedamzik, E. Hoelzl, and G. Parodi, “The manufacturing of XEUS x-ray glass segmented mirrors: status of investigation and last results,” Proc. SPIE 5168, 180-195 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, K.

Y. Ezoe, T. Shirata, T. Ohashi, M. Ishida, K. Mitsuda, K. Fujiwara, K. Morishita, and K. Nakajima, “Development of high-resolution and lightweight x-ray optics with deformed silicon wafers,” Proc. SPIE 7360, 73600B (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakajima, K. Fujiwara, W. Pan, and H. Okuda, “Shaped silicon-crystal wafers obtained by plastic deformation and their application to silicon-crystal lenses,” Nature Mater. 4, 47-50 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ghigo, M.

P. Friedrich, B. Aschenbach, C. Braig, H. Brauninger, B. Budau, W. Burkert, M. J. Freyberg, G. Hartner, G. Hasinger, P. Predehl, V. Peter, B. Monika, S. Basso, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, G. Pareschi, U. Dinger, W. Egle, R. Lenke, G. Luichtel, and H. Schwarz, “Development of lightweight x-ray mirrors for the Constellation-X mission,” Proc. SPIE 6266, 62661G (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Ghigo, O. Citterio, F. Mazzoleni, G. Pareschi, B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, P. Friedrich, G. Hasinger, T. Dohring, H. Esemann, R. Jedamzik, E. Hoelzl, and G. Parodi, “The manufacturing of XEUS x-ray glass segmented mirrors: status of investigation and last results,” Proc. SPIE 5168, 180-195 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gubarev, M. V.

W. W. Zhang, K-W. Chan, T. Hajimichael, J. P. Lehan, S. Owens, R. Petre, T. T. Saha, M. V. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, D. William, and S. L. O'Dell, “Development of lightweight x-ray mirrors for the Constellation-X mission,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hajimichael, T.

W. W. Zhang, K-W. Chan, T. Hajimichael, J. P. Lehan, S. Owens, R. Petre, T. T. Saha, M. V. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, D. William, and S. L. O'Dell, “Development of lightweight x-ray mirrors for the Constellation-X mission,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hartner, G.

P. Friedrich, B. Aschenbach, C. Braig, H. Brauninger, B. Budau, W. Burkert, M. J. Freyberg, G. Hartner, G. Hasinger, P. Predehl, V. Peter, B. Monika, S. Basso, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, G. Pareschi, U. Dinger, W. Egle, R. Lenke, G. Luichtel, and H. Schwarz, “Development of lightweight x-ray mirrors for the Constellation-X mission,” Proc. SPIE 6266, 62661G (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hasinger, G.

P. Friedrich, B. Aschenbach, C. Braig, H. Brauninger, B. Budau, W. Burkert, M. J. Freyberg, G. Hartner, G. Hasinger, P. Predehl, V. Peter, B. Monika, S. Basso, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, G. Pareschi, U. Dinger, W. Egle, R. Lenke, G. Luichtel, and H. Schwarz, “Development of lightweight x-ray mirrors for the Constellation-X mission,” Proc. SPIE 6266, 62661G (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Ghigo, O. Citterio, F. Mazzoleni, G. Pareschi, B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, P. Friedrich, G. Hasinger, T. Dohring, H. Esemann, R. Jedamzik, E. Hoelzl, and G. Parodi, “The manufacturing of XEUS x-ray glass segmented mirrors: status of investigation and last results,” Proc. SPIE 5168, 180-195 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hoelzl, E.

M. Ghigo, O. Citterio, F. Mazzoleni, G. Pareschi, B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, P. Friedrich, G. Hasinger, T. Dohring, H. Esemann, R. Jedamzik, E. Hoelzl, and G. Parodi, “The manufacturing of XEUS x-ray glass segmented mirrors: status of investigation and last results,” Proc. SPIE 5168, 180-195 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hoshino, A.

Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, K. Mitsuda, T. Osawa, M. Suzuki, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Micromachined x-ray collector for space astronomy,” Sens. Actuators A 145-146, 201-206(2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, K. Mitsuda, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, Z. Yang, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Micro pore x-ray optics using anisotropic wet etching of (110) silicon wafers,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8932-8938 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hudec, R.

R. Hudec, J. Sik, M. Lorenc, L. Pina, V. Semencova, M. Mika, A. Inneman, M. Skulinova, and L. Sveda, “Recent progress with x-ray optics based on Si wafers and glass foils,” Proc. SPIE 7011, 701116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Hudec, L. Pina, L, V. Semencova, A. Inneman, M. Skulinova, L. Sveda, M. Mika, V. Brozek, R. Kacerovsky, J. Prokop, and J. Sik, “Progress in x-ray optics development with formed glass and Si wafers,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668810 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Hudec, L. Pina, L, V. Semencova, A. Inneman, M. Skulinova, L. Sveda, M. Mika, V. Brozek, R. Kacerovsky, J. Prokop, and J. Sik, “Novel x-ray optics with Si wafers and formed glass,” Proc. SPIE 6266, 62661H (2006).
[CrossRef]

Inneman, A.

R. Hudec, J. Sik, M. Lorenc, L. Pina, V. Semencova, M. Mika, A. Inneman, M. Skulinova, and L. Sveda, “Recent progress with x-ray optics based on Si wafers and glass foils,” Proc. SPIE 7011, 701116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Hudec, L. Pina, L, V. Semencova, A. Inneman, M. Skulinova, L. Sveda, M. Mika, V. Brozek, R. Kacerovsky, J. Prokop, and J. Sik, “Progress in x-ray optics development with formed glass and Si wafers,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668810 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Hudec, L. Pina, L, V. Semencova, A. Inneman, M. Skulinova, L. Sveda, M. Mika, V. Brozek, R. Kacerovsky, J. Prokop, and J. Sik, “Novel x-ray optics with Si wafers and formed glass,” Proc. SPIE 6266, 62661H (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ishida, M.

Y. Ezoe, T. Shirata, T. Ohashi, M. Ishida, K. Mitsuda, K. Fujiwara, K. Morishita, and K. Nakajima, “Development of high-resolution and lightweight x-ray optics with deformed silicon wafers,” Proc. SPIE 7360, 73600B (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ishisaki, Y.

Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, K. Mitsuda, T. Osawa, M. Suzuki, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Micromachined x-ray collector for space astronomy,” Sens. Actuators A 145-146, 201-206(2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, K. Mitsuda, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, Z. Yang, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Micro pore x-ray optics using anisotropic wet etching of (110) silicon wafers,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8932-8938 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jedamzik, R.

M. Ghigo, O. Citterio, F. Mazzoleni, G. Pareschi, B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, P. Friedrich, G. Hasinger, T. Dohring, H. Esemann, R. Jedamzik, E. Hoelzl, and G. Parodi, “The manufacturing of XEUS x-ray glass segmented mirrors: status of investigation and last results,” Proc. SPIE 5168, 180-195 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jones, W. D.

W. W. Zhang, K-W. Chan, T. Hajimichael, J. P. Lehan, S. Owens, R. Petre, T. T. Saha, M. V. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, D. William, and S. L. O'Dell, “Development of lightweight x-ray mirrors for the Constellation-X mission,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kacerovsky, R.

R. Hudec, L. Pina, L, V. Semencova, A. Inneman, M. Skulinova, L. Sveda, M. Mika, V. Brozek, R. Kacerovsky, J. Prokop, and J. Sik, “Progress in x-ray optics development with formed glass and Si wafers,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668810 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Hudec, L. Pina, L, V. Semencova, A. Inneman, M. Skulinova, L. Sveda, M. Mika, V. Brozek, R. Kacerovsky, J. Prokop, and J. Sik, “Novel x-ray optics with Si wafers and formed glass,” Proc. SPIE 6266, 62661H (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koshiishi, M.

Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, K. Mitsuda, T. Osawa, M. Suzuki, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Micromachined x-ray collector for space astronomy,” Sens. Actuators A 145-146, 201-206(2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, K. Mitsuda, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, Z. Yang, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Micro pore x-ray optics using anisotropic wet etching of (110) silicon wafers,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8932-8938 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kraft, S.

M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, A. J. Peacock, M. Beijersbergen, and S. Kraft, “Status of x-ray optics development for the XEUS Mission,” Proc. SPIE 5488, 829-836 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lehan, J. P.

W. W. Zhang, K-W. Chan, T. Hajimichael, J. P. Lehan, S. Owens, R. Petre, T. T. Saha, M. V. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, D. William, and S. L. O'Dell, “Development of lightweight x-ray mirrors for the Constellation-X mission,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lenke, R.

P. Friedrich, B. Aschenbach, C. Braig, H. Brauninger, B. Budau, W. Burkert, M. J. Freyberg, G. Hartner, G. Hasinger, P. Predehl, V. Peter, B. Monika, S. Basso, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, G. Pareschi, U. Dinger, W. Egle, R. Lenke, G. Luichtel, and H. Schwarz, “Development of lightweight x-ray mirrors for the Constellation-X mission,” Proc. SPIE 6266, 62661G (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lorenc, M.

R. Hudec, J. Sik, M. Lorenc, L. Pina, V. Semencova, M. Mika, A. Inneman, M. Skulinova, and L. Sveda, “Recent progress with x-ray optics based on Si wafers and glass foils,” Proc. SPIE 7011, 701116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luichtel, G.

P. Friedrich, B. Aschenbach, C. Braig, H. Brauninger, B. Budau, W. Burkert, M. J. Freyberg, G. Hartner, G. Hasinger, P. Predehl, V. Peter, B. Monika, S. Basso, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, G. Pareschi, U. Dinger, W. Egle, R. Lenke, G. Luichtel, and H. Schwarz, “Development of lightweight x-ray mirrors for the Constellation-X mission,” Proc. SPIE 6266, 62661G (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lumb, D. H.

M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, A. J. Peacock, M. Beijersbergen, and S. Kraft, “Status of x-ray optics development for the XEUS Mission,” Proc. SPIE 5488, 829-836 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, R.

Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, K. Mitsuda, T. Osawa, M. Suzuki, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Micromachined x-ray collector for space astronomy,” Sens. Actuators A 145-146, 201-206(2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, K. Mitsuda, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, Z. Yang, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Micro pore x-ray optics using anisotropic wet etching of (110) silicon wafers,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8932-8938 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maeda, Y.

Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, K. Mitsuda, T. Osawa, M. Suzuki, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Micromachined x-ray collector for space astronomy,” Sens. Actuators A 145-146, 201-206(2008).
[CrossRef]

Mazzoleni, F.

P. Friedrich, B. Aschenbach, C. Braig, H. Brauninger, B. Budau, W. Burkert, M. J. Freyberg, G. Hartner, G. Hasinger, P. Predehl, V. Peter, B. Monika, S. Basso, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, G. Pareschi, U. Dinger, W. Egle, R. Lenke, G. Luichtel, and H. Schwarz, “Development of lightweight x-ray mirrors for the Constellation-X mission,” Proc. SPIE 6266, 62661G (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Ghigo, O. Citterio, F. Mazzoleni, G. Pareschi, B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, P. Friedrich, G. Hasinger, T. Dohring, H. Esemann, R. Jedamzik, E. Hoelzl, and G. Parodi, “The manufacturing of XEUS x-ray glass segmented mirrors: status of investigation and last results,” Proc. SPIE 5168, 180-195 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mika, M.

R. Hudec, J. Sik, M. Lorenc, L. Pina, V. Semencova, M. Mika, A. Inneman, M. Skulinova, and L. Sveda, “Recent progress with x-ray optics based on Si wafers and glass foils,” Proc. SPIE 7011, 701116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Hudec, L. Pina, L, V. Semencova, A. Inneman, M. Skulinova, L. Sveda, M. Mika, V. Brozek, R. Kacerovsky, J. Prokop, and J. Sik, “Progress in x-ray optics development with formed glass and Si wafers,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668810 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Hudec, L. Pina, L, V. Semencova, A. Inneman, M. Skulinova, L. Sveda, M. Mika, V. Brozek, R. Kacerovsky, J. Prokop, and J. Sik, “Novel x-ray optics with Si wafers and formed glass,” Proc. SPIE 6266, 62661H (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mita, M.

Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, K. Mitsuda, T. Osawa, M. Suzuki, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Micromachined x-ray collector for space astronomy,” Sens. Actuators A 145-146, 201-206(2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, K. Mitsuda, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, Z. Yang, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Micro pore x-ray optics using anisotropic wet etching of (110) silicon wafers,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8932-8938 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitsuda, K.

Y. Ezoe, T. Shirata, T. Ohashi, M. Ishida, K. Mitsuda, K. Fujiwara, K. Morishita, and K. Nakajima, “Development of high-resolution and lightweight x-ray optics with deformed silicon wafers,” Proc. SPIE 7360, 73600B (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, K. Mitsuda, T. Osawa, M. Suzuki, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Micromachined x-ray collector for space astronomy,” Sens. Actuators A 145-146, 201-206(2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, K. Mitsuda, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, Z. Yang, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Micro pore x-ray optics using anisotropic wet etching of (110) silicon wafers,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8932-8938 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monika, B.

P. Friedrich, B. Aschenbach, C. Braig, H. Brauninger, B. Budau, W. Burkert, M. J. Freyberg, G. Hartner, G. Hasinger, P. Predehl, V. Peter, B. Monika, S. Basso, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, G. Pareschi, U. Dinger, W. Egle, R. Lenke, G. Luichtel, and H. Schwarz, “Development of lightweight x-ray mirrors for the Constellation-X mission,” Proc. SPIE 6266, 62661G (2006).
[CrossRef]

Morishita, K.

Y. Ezoe, T. Shirata, T. Ohashi, M. Ishida, K. Mitsuda, K. Fujiwara, K. Morishita, and K. Nakajima, “Development of high-resolution and lightweight x-ray optics with deformed silicon wafers,” Proc. SPIE 7360, 73600B (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, K.

Y. Ezoe, T. Shirata, T. Ohashi, M. Ishida, K. Mitsuda, K. Fujiwara, K. Morishita, and K. Nakajima, “Development of high-resolution and lightweight x-ray optics with deformed silicon wafers,” Proc. SPIE 7360, 73600B (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakajima, K. Fujiwara, W. Pan, and H. Okuda, “Shaped silicon-crystal wafers obtained by plastic deformation and their application to silicon-crystal lenses,” Nature Mater. 4, 47-50 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nugent, K. A.

S. W. Wilkins, A. W. Stevenson, K. A. Nugent, H. Chapman, and S. Steenstrup, “On the concentration, focusing, and collimation of x-rays and neutrons using microchannel plates and configurations of holes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1026-1036(1989).
[CrossRef]

O'Dell, S. L.

W. W. Zhang, K-W. Chan, T. Hajimichael, J. P. Lehan, S. Owens, R. Petre, T. T. Saha, M. V. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, D. William, and S. L. O'Dell, “Development of lightweight x-ray mirrors for the Constellation-X mission,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ohashi, T.

Y. Ezoe, T. Shirata, T. Ohashi, M. Ishida, K. Mitsuda, K. Fujiwara, K. Morishita, and K. Nakajima, “Development of high-resolution and lightweight x-ray optics with deformed silicon wafers,” Proc. SPIE 7360, 73600B (2009).
[CrossRef]

Okuda, H.

K. Nakajima, K. Fujiwara, W. Pan, and H. Okuda, “Shaped silicon-crystal wafers obtained by plastic deformation and their application to silicon-crystal lenses,” Nature Mater. 4, 47-50 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Osawa, T.

Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, K. Mitsuda, T. Osawa, M. Suzuki, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Micromachined x-ray collector for space astronomy,” Sens. Actuators A 145-146, 201-206(2008).
[CrossRef]

Owens, S.

W. W. Zhang, K-W. Chan, T. Hajimichael, J. P. Lehan, S. Owens, R. Petre, T. T. Saha, M. V. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, D. William, and S. L. O'Dell, “Development of lightweight x-ray mirrors for the Constellation-X mission,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pan, W.

K. Nakajima, K. Fujiwara, W. Pan, and H. Okuda, “Shaped silicon-crystal wafers obtained by plastic deformation and their application to silicon-crystal lenses,” Nature Mater. 4, 47-50 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pareschi, G.

P. Friedrich, B. Aschenbach, C. Braig, H. Brauninger, B. Budau, W. Burkert, M. J. Freyberg, G. Hartner, G. Hasinger, P. Predehl, V. Peter, B. Monika, S. Basso, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, G. Pareschi, U. Dinger, W. Egle, R. Lenke, G. Luichtel, and H. Schwarz, “Development of lightweight x-ray mirrors for the Constellation-X mission,” Proc. SPIE 6266, 62661G (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Ghigo, O. Citterio, F. Mazzoleni, G. Pareschi, B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, P. Friedrich, G. Hasinger, T. Dohring, H. Esemann, R. Jedamzik, E. Hoelzl, and G. Parodi, “The manufacturing of XEUS x-ray glass segmented mirrors: status of investigation and last results,” Proc. SPIE 5168, 180-195 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Parodi, G.

M. Ghigo, O. Citterio, F. Mazzoleni, G. Pareschi, B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, P. Friedrich, G. Hasinger, T. Dohring, H. Esemann, R. Jedamzik, E. Hoelzl, and G. Parodi, “The manufacturing of XEUS x-ray glass segmented mirrors: status of investigation and last results,” Proc. SPIE 5168, 180-195 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Peacock, A.

G. J. Price, A. N. Brunton, M. W. Beijerbergen, G. W. Fraser, M. Bavdaz, J.-P. Boutot, R. Fairbend, S.-O. Flyckt, A. Peacock, and E. Tomaselli, “X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 490, 276-289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Peacock, A. J.

M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, A. J. Peacock, M. Beijersbergen, and S. Kraft, “Status of x-ray optics development for the XEUS Mission,” Proc. SPIE 5488, 829-836 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Peter, V.

P. Friedrich, B. Aschenbach, C. Braig, H. Brauninger, B. Budau, W. Burkert, M. J. Freyberg, G. Hartner, G. Hasinger, P. Predehl, V. Peter, B. Monika, S. Basso, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, G. Pareschi, U. Dinger, W. Egle, R. Lenke, G. Luichtel, and H. Schwarz, “Development of lightweight x-ray mirrors for the Constellation-X mission,” Proc. SPIE 6266, 62661G (2006).
[CrossRef]

Petre, R.

W. W. Zhang, K-W. Chan, T. Hajimichael, J. P. Lehan, S. Owens, R. Petre, T. T. Saha, M. V. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, D. William, and S. L. O'Dell, “Development of lightweight x-ray mirrors for the Constellation-X mission,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pina, L.

R. Hudec, J. Sik, M. Lorenc, L. Pina, V. Semencova, M. Mika, A. Inneman, M. Skulinova, and L. Sveda, “Recent progress with x-ray optics based on Si wafers and glass foils,” Proc. SPIE 7011, 701116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Hudec, L. Pina, L, V. Semencova, A. Inneman, M. Skulinova, L. Sveda, M. Mika, V. Brozek, R. Kacerovsky, J. Prokop, and J. Sik, “Progress in x-ray optics development with formed glass and Si wafers,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668810 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Hudec, L. Pina, L, V. Semencova, A. Inneman, M. Skulinova, L. Sveda, M. Mika, V. Brozek, R. Kacerovsky, J. Prokop, and J. Sik, “Novel x-ray optics with Si wafers and formed glass,” Proc. SPIE 6266, 62661H (2006).
[CrossRef]

Predehl, P.

P. Friedrich, B. Aschenbach, C. Braig, H. Brauninger, B. Budau, W. Burkert, M. J. Freyberg, G. Hartner, G. Hasinger, P. Predehl, V. Peter, B. Monika, S. Basso, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, G. Pareschi, U. Dinger, W. Egle, R. Lenke, G. Luichtel, and H. Schwarz, “Development of lightweight x-ray mirrors for the Constellation-X mission,” Proc. SPIE 6266, 62661G (2006).
[CrossRef]

Price, G. J.

G. J. Price, A. N. Brunton, M. W. Beijerbergen, G. W. Fraser, M. Bavdaz, J.-P. Boutot, R. Fairbend, S.-O. Flyckt, A. Peacock, and E. Tomaselli, “X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 490, 276-289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Prokop, J.

R. Hudec, L. Pina, L, V. Semencova, A. Inneman, M. Skulinova, L. Sveda, M. Mika, V. Brozek, R. Kacerovsky, J. Prokop, and J. Sik, “Progress in x-ray optics development with formed glass and Si wafers,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668810 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Hudec, L. Pina, L, V. Semencova, A. Inneman, M. Skulinova, L. Sveda, M. Mika, V. Brozek, R. Kacerovsky, J. Prokop, and J. Sik, “Novel x-ray optics with Si wafers and formed glass,” Proc. SPIE 6266, 62661H (2006).
[CrossRef]

Saha, T. T.

W. W. Zhang, K-W. Chan, T. Hajimichael, J. P. Lehan, S. Owens, R. Petre, T. T. Saha, M. V. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, D. William, and S. L. O'Dell, “Development of lightweight x-ray mirrors for the Constellation-X mission,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schwarz, H.

P. Friedrich, B. Aschenbach, C. Braig, H. Brauninger, B. Budau, W. Burkert, M. J. Freyberg, G. Hartner, G. Hasinger, P. Predehl, V. Peter, B. Monika, S. Basso, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, G. Pareschi, U. Dinger, W. Egle, R. Lenke, G. Luichtel, and H. Schwarz, “Development of lightweight x-ray mirrors for the Constellation-X mission,” Proc. SPIE 6266, 62661G (2006).
[CrossRef]

Semencova, L, V.

R. Hudec, L. Pina, L, V. Semencova, A. Inneman, M. Skulinova, L. Sveda, M. Mika, V. Brozek, R. Kacerovsky, J. Prokop, and J. Sik, “Progress in x-ray optics development with formed glass and Si wafers,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668810 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Hudec, L. Pina, L, V. Semencova, A. Inneman, M. Skulinova, L. Sveda, M. Mika, V. Brozek, R. Kacerovsky, J. Prokop, and J. Sik, “Novel x-ray optics with Si wafers and formed glass,” Proc. SPIE 6266, 62661H (2006).
[CrossRef]

Semencova, V.

R. Hudec, J. Sik, M. Lorenc, L. Pina, V. Semencova, M. Mika, A. Inneman, M. Skulinova, and L. Sveda, “Recent progress with x-ray optics based on Si wafers and glass foils,” Proc. SPIE 7011, 701116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shirata, T.

Y. Ezoe, T. Shirata, T. Ohashi, M. Ishida, K. Mitsuda, K. Fujiwara, K. Morishita, and K. Nakajima, “Development of high-resolution and lightweight x-ray optics with deformed silicon wafers,” Proc. SPIE 7360, 73600B (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sik, J.

R. Hudec, J. Sik, M. Lorenc, L. Pina, V. Semencova, M. Mika, A. Inneman, M. Skulinova, and L. Sveda, “Recent progress with x-ray optics based on Si wafers and glass foils,” Proc. SPIE 7011, 701116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Hudec, L. Pina, L, V. Semencova, A. Inneman, M. Skulinova, L. Sveda, M. Mika, V. Brozek, R. Kacerovsky, J. Prokop, and J. Sik, “Progress in x-ray optics development with formed glass and Si wafers,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668810 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Hudec, L. Pina, L, V. Semencova, A. Inneman, M. Skulinova, L. Sveda, M. Mika, V. Brozek, R. Kacerovsky, J. Prokop, and J. Sik, “Novel x-ray optics with Si wafers and formed glass,” Proc. SPIE 6266, 62661H (2006).
[CrossRef]

Skulinova, M.

R. Hudec, J. Sik, M. Lorenc, L. Pina, V. Semencova, M. Mika, A. Inneman, M. Skulinova, and L. Sveda, “Recent progress with x-ray optics based on Si wafers and glass foils,” Proc. SPIE 7011, 701116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Hudec, L. Pina, L, V. Semencova, A. Inneman, M. Skulinova, L. Sveda, M. Mika, V. Brozek, R. Kacerovsky, J. Prokop, and J. Sik, “Progress in x-ray optics development with formed glass and Si wafers,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668810 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Hudec, L. Pina, L, V. Semencova, A. Inneman, M. Skulinova, L. Sveda, M. Mika, V. Brozek, R. Kacerovsky, J. Prokop, and J. Sik, “Novel x-ray optics with Si wafers and formed glass,” Proc. SPIE 6266, 62661H (2006).
[CrossRef]

Steenstrup, S.

S. W. Wilkins, A. W. Stevenson, K. A. Nugent, H. Chapman, and S. Steenstrup, “On the concentration, focusing, and collimation of x-rays and neutrons using microchannel plates and configurations of holes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1026-1036(1989).
[CrossRef]

Stevenson, A. W.

S. W. Wilkins, A. W. Stevenson, K. A. Nugent, H. Chapman, and S. Steenstrup, “On the concentration, focusing, and collimation of x-rays and neutrons using microchannel plates and configurations of holes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1026-1036(1989).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, M.

Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, K. Mitsuda, T. Osawa, M. Suzuki, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Micromachined x-ray collector for space astronomy,” Sens. Actuators A 145-146, 201-206(2008).
[CrossRef]

Sveda, L.

R. Hudec, J. Sik, M. Lorenc, L. Pina, V. Semencova, M. Mika, A. Inneman, M. Skulinova, and L. Sveda, “Recent progress with x-ray optics based on Si wafers and glass foils,” Proc. SPIE 7011, 701116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Hudec, L. Pina, L, V. Semencova, A. Inneman, M. Skulinova, L. Sveda, M. Mika, V. Brozek, R. Kacerovsky, J. Prokop, and J. Sik, “Progress in x-ray optics development with formed glass and Si wafers,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668810 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Hudec, L. Pina, L, V. Semencova, A. Inneman, M. Skulinova, L. Sveda, M. Mika, V. Brozek, R. Kacerovsky, J. Prokop, and J. Sik, “Novel x-ray optics with Si wafers and formed glass,” Proc. SPIE 6266, 62661H (2006).
[CrossRef]

Takano, T.

Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, K. Mitsuda, T. Osawa, M. Suzuki, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Micromachined x-ray collector for space astronomy,” Sens. Actuators A 145-146, 201-206(2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, K. Mitsuda, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, Z. Yang, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Micro pore x-ray optics using anisotropic wet etching of (110) silicon wafers,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8932-8938 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomaselli, E.

G. J. Price, A. N. Brunton, M. W. Beijerbergen, G. W. Fraser, M. Bavdaz, J.-P. Boutot, R. Fairbend, S.-O. Flyckt, A. Peacock, and E. Tomaselli, “X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 490, 276-289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wilkins, S. W.

S. W. Wilkins, A. W. Stevenson, K. A. Nugent, H. Chapman, and S. Steenstrup, “On the concentration, focusing, and collimation of x-rays and neutrons using microchannel plates and configurations of holes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1026-1036(1989).
[CrossRef]

William, D.

W. W. Zhang, K-W. Chan, T. Hajimichael, J. P. Lehan, S. Owens, R. Petre, T. T. Saha, M. V. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, D. William, and S. L. O'Dell, “Development of lightweight x-ray mirrors for the Constellation-X mission,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z.

Zhang, W. W.

W. W. Zhang, K-W. Chan, T. Hajimichael, J. P. Lehan, S. Owens, R. Petre, T. T. Saha, M. V. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, D. William, and S. L. O'Dell, “Development of lightweight x-ray mirrors for the Constellation-X mission,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Nature Mater. (1)

K. Nakajima, K. Fujiwara, W. Pan, and H. Okuda, “Shaped silicon-crystal wafers obtained by plastic deformation and their application to silicon-crystal lenses,” Nature Mater. 4, 47-50 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods A (1)

G. J. Price, A. N. Brunton, M. W. Beijerbergen, G. W. Fraser, M. Bavdaz, J.-P. Boutot, R. Fairbend, S.-O. Flyckt, A. Peacock, and E. Tomaselli, “X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 490, 276-289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (8)

Y. Ezoe, T. Shirata, T. Ohashi, M. Ishida, K. Mitsuda, K. Fujiwara, K. Morishita, and K. Nakajima, “Development of high-resolution and lightweight x-ray optics with deformed silicon wafers,” Proc. SPIE 7360, 73600B (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, A. J. Peacock, M. Beijersbergen, and S. Kraft, “Status of x-ray optics development for the XEUS Mission,” Proc. SPIE 5488, 829-836 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Hudec, L. Pina, L, V. Semencova, A. Inneman, M. Skulinova, L. Sveda, M. Mika, V. Brozek, R. Kacerovsky, J. Prokop, and J. Sik, “Novel x-ray optics with Si wafers and formed glass,” Proc. SPIE 6266, 62661H (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Hudec, L. Pina, L, V. Semencova, A. Inneman, M. Skulinova, L. Sveda, M. Mika, V. Brozek, R. Kacerovsky, J. Prokop, and J. Sik, “Progress in x-ray optics development with formed glass and Si wafers,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668810 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Hudec, J. Sik, M. Lorenc, L. Pina, V. Semencova, M. Mika, A. Inneman, M. Skulinova, and L. Sveda, “Recent progress with x-ray optics based on Si wafers and glass foils,” Proc. SPIE 7011, 701116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Ghigo, O. Citterio, F. Mazzoleni, G. Pareschi, B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, P. Friedrich, G. Hasinger, T. Dohring, H. Esemann, R. Jedamzik, E. Hoelzl, and G. Parodi, “The manufacturing of XEUS x-ray glass segmented mirrors: status of investigation and last results,” Proc. SPIE 5168, 180-195 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Friedrich, B. Aschenbach, C. Braig, H. Brauninger, B. Budau, W. Burkert, M. J. Freyberg, G. Hartner, G. Hasinger, P. Predehl, V. Peter, B. Monika, S. Basso, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, G. Pareschi, U. Dinger, W. Egle, R. Lenke, G. Luichtel, and H. Schwarz, “Development of lightweight x-ray mirrors for the Constellation-X mission,” Proc. SPIE 6266, 62661G (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Zhang, K-W. Chan, T. Hajimichael, J. P. Lehan, S. Owens, R. Petre, T. T. Saha, M. V. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, D. William, and S. L. O'Dell, “Development of lightweight x-ray mirrors for the Constellation-X mission,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668811 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

S. W. Wilkins, A. W. Stevenson, K. A. Nugent, H. Chapman, and S. Steenstrup, “On the concentration, focusing, and collimation of x-rays and neutrons using microchannel plates and configurations of holes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1026-1036(1989).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A (1)

Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, K. Mitsuda, T. Osawa, M. Suzuki, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Micromachined x-ray collector for space astronomy,” Sens. Actuators A 145-146, 201-206(2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

See http://ixo.gsfc.nasa.gov/ and http://sci.esa.int/science-e/www/object/index.cfm?fobjectid=42271.

G. W. Frazer, “Microchannel plate x-ray optics in the next generation of X-ray observatories,” in The Next Generation of X-Ray Observatories, M. J. L. Turner and M. G. Watson, eds., Leicester X-Ray Astronomy Group Special Report XRA97/02 (University of Leicester, 1997), p. 191.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Example of Wolter type I optics composed of hot plastically deformed silicon wafers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Photograph of the silicon wafer after hemispherical deformation. (b) Surface profile of the wafer taken with the NH3 surface profiler.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photographs of (a) the convex and (b) the concave surfaces of the deformed wafer taken with an optical microscope. The scale bar represents 100 μm .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cross-sectional profiles of the convex surface of the deformed wafer in the four directions. In each panel, the top shows the data (black) and the best-fit circular function (overlapping, red online), while the bottom is the residual of the data from the fit. The best-fit parameters and 1 σ errors are described in each panel.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Same as Fig. 4 but for the concave surface of the wafer.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Same as Fig. 4 but for the convex die.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Same as Fig. 4 but for the concave die.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Experimental setup for the x-ray reflectivity measurement.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Close-up view of the x-ray radiation part of Fig. 8.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Theoretical reflection angles at the center θ i (solid), the near θ n (line dotted), and far θ f (dashed) sides of the deformed wafer.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Calculated x-ray reflection profiles as a function of incident beam angle for a spherical mirror (solid) and a standard flat mirror (dashed) at Al K α 1.49 keV . The red, green, and blue curves online correspond to different model calculations assuming an rms surface roughness of 0, 1, and 2 nm , respectively.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Measured x-ray beam profile at the reflection angle θ of 0.8 ° . Three solid lines are model predictions assuming a reflection angle of 0.75 ° , 0.8 ° , and 0.85 ° .

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Measured x-ray reflection profile of the deformed wafer at Al K α 1.49 keV . The solid curves are model calculations as in Fig. 11. Because a part of the x-ray beam passes above the wafer below 0.57 ° , we plotted models only above 0.57 ° .

Equations (1)

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( x - a ) 2 + ( z - b ) 2 = r 2 ,

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