Abstract

Light propagation in periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide arrays is numerically investigated. By employing the concept of a linear focusing effect, we propose a brand new method to control discrete diffraction and spatial solitons in PPLN waveguide arrays by electrical field. Simulated results are presented, and the principle is discussed to demonstrate the feasibility of the method.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, “Self-trapping of optical beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479-482 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  2. V. E. Zahkarov and A. B. Shabat, “Exact theory of two-dimensional self-focusing and one-dimensional self-modulation of nonlinear waves in nonlinear media,” Sov. Phys. JETP 34, 62-69 (1972).
  3. A. Barthelemy, S. Maneuf, and C. Froehly, “Propagation soliton et auto-confinement de faisceaux laser par non linearité optique de Kerr,” Opt. Commun. 55, 201-206 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. S. Aitchison, A. M. Weiner, Y. Silberberg, M. K. Oliver, J. L. Jackel, D. E. Leaird, E. M. Vogel, and P. W. E. Smith, “Observation of spatial optical solitons in a nonlinear glass waveguide,” Opt Lett. 15, 471-473 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. S. Aitchison, K. Al-Hemyari, C. N. Ironside, R. S. Grant, and W. Sibbett, “Observation of spatial solitons in AlGaAs waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1879-1880 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. U. Bartuch, U. Peschel, Th. Gabler, R. Waldhaus, and H.-H. Horhold, “Experimental investigations and numerical simulations of spatial solitons in planar polymer waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 134, 49-54 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. N. Christodoulides and R. I. Joseph, “Discrete self-focusing in nonlinear arrays of coupled waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 13, 794-796 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, A. R. Boyd, and J. S. Aitchison, “Discrete spatial optical solitons in waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3383-3386 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, and J. S. Aitchison, “Diffraction management,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1863-1866 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. T. Pertsch, T. Zentgraf, U. Peschel, A. Brauer, and F. Lederer, “Anomalous refraction and diffraction in discrete optical systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 093901 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. Mandelik, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, and J. S. Aitchison, “Band-gap structure of waveguide arrays and excitation of Floquet-Bloch solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 053902 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. T. Pertsch, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, J. Meier, R. Schiek, R. Iwanow, and G. Stegeman, “Discrete solitons in quadratic nonlinear waveguide arrays,” in OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper NLTuA1.
  13. J. W. Fleischer, M. Segev, N. K. Efremidis, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of two-dimensional discrete solitons in optically-induced nonlinear photonic lattices,” Nature 422, 147-150 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. F. Chen, M. Stepić, C. E. Rüter, D. Runde, and D. Kip, “Discrete diffraction and spatial gap solitons in photovoltaic LiNbO3 waveguide arrays,” Opt. Express 13, 4314-4324(2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. F. Lederer and Y. Silberberg, “Discrete solitons,” Opt. Photon. News 13, 48-53 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. S. Davydov, Solitons in Molecular Systems (Academic, 1991).
  17. A. H. Xie, L. van der Meer, V. Hoff, and R. H. Austin, “Long-lived amide I vibrational modes in myoglobin,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5435-5438 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. B. I. Swanson, J. A. Brozik, S. P. Love, G. F. Strouse, A. P. Shreve, A. R. BishopW.-Z. Wang, and M. I. Salkola, “Observation of intrinsically localized modes in a discrete low-dimensional material,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3288-3291 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. U. T. Schwartz, L. Q. English, and A. J. Sievers, “Experimental generation and observation of intrinsic localized spin wave modes in an antiferromagnets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 223-226 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  20. E. Trias, J. J. Mazo, and T. P. Orlando, “Discrete breathers in nonlinear lattices: experimental detection in Josephson junctions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 741-744 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. P. Binder, D. Abraimov, A. V. Ustinov, S. Flach, and Y. Zolotaryuk, “Observation of breathers in Josephson ladders,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 745-748 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. A. Trombettoni and A. Smerzi, “Discrete solitons and breathers with dilute Bose-Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2353-2356 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. B. Eiermann, Th. Anker, M. Albiez, M. Taglieber, P. Treutlein, K.-P. Marzlin, and M. K. Oberthaler, “Bright Bose-Einstein gap solitons of atoms with repulsive interaction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 230401 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. F. Lederer, G. I. Stegeman, D. N. Christodoulides, G. Assanto, M. Segev, and Y. Silberberg, “Discrete solitons in optics,” Phys. Rep. 463, 1-126 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  25. R. A. Vicencio, M. I. Molina, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Controlled switching of discrete solitons in waveguide arrays,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1942-1944 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. A. A. Sukhorukov and Y. S. Kivshar, “Soliton switching and Bloch-wave filtering in periodic photonic lattices,” Opt. Lett. 30, 18491851 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. J. A. Abernethy, C. B. E. Gawith, R. W. Eason, and P. G. R. Smith, “Demonstration and optical characteristics of electro-optic Bragg modulators in periodically poled lithium niobate in the near-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2514-2516 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  28. M. Yamada, M. Saitoh, and H. Ooki, “Electric-field induced cylindrical lens, switching and deflection devices composed of the inverted domains in LiNbO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3659-3661 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  29. R. Cudney, L. Ríos, and H. Escamilla, “Electrically controlled Fresnel zone plates made from ring-shaped 180° domains,” Opt. Express 12, 5783-5788 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. D. Marcuse, Light Transmission Optics (Academic, 1972).
  31. A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals: Propagation and Control of Laser Radiation (Academic, 1972).
  32. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, 1995).

2008 (1)

F. Lederer, G. I. Stegeman, D. N. Christodoulides, G. Assanto, M. Segev, and Y. Silberberg, “Discrete solitons in optics,” Phys. Rep. 463, 1-126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

2004 (2)

B. Eiermann, Th. Anker, M. Albiez, M. Taglieber, P. Treutlein, K.-P. Marzlin, and M. K. Oberthaler, “Bright Bose-Einstein gap solitons of atoms with repulsive interaction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 230401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cudney, L. Ríos, and H. Escamilla, “Electrically controlled Fresnel zone plates made from ring-shaped 180° domains,” Opt. Express 12, 5783-5788 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

R. A. Vicencio, M. I. Molina, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Controlled switching of discrete solitons in waveguide arrays,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1942-1944 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Mandelik, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, and J. S. Aitchison, “Band-gap structure of waveguide arrays and excitation of Floquet-Bloch solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 053902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Fleischer, M. Segev, N. K. Efremidis, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of two-dimensional discrete solitons in optically-induced nonlinear photonic lattices,” Nature 422, 147-150 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

F. Lederer and Y. Silberberg, “Discrete solitons,” Opt. Photon. News 13, 48-53 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Pertsch, T. Zentgraf, U. Peschel, A. Brauer, and F. Lederer, “Anomalous refraction and diffraction in discrete optical systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 093901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Abernethy, C. B. E. Gawith, R. W. Eason, and P. G. R. Smith, “Demonstration and optical characteristics of electro-optic Bragg modulators in periodically poled lithium niobate in the near-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2514-2516 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

A. Trombettoni and A. Smerzi, “Discrete solitons and breathers with dilute Bose-Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2353-2356 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (4)

E. Trias, J. J. Mazo, and T. P. Orlando, “Discrete breathers in nonlinear lattices: experimental detection in Josephson junctions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 741-744 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Binder, D. Abraimov, A. V. Ustinov, S. Flach, and Y. Zolotaryuk, “Observation of breathers in Josephson ladders,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 745-748 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Xie, L. van der Meer, V. Hoff, and R. H. Austin, “Long-lived amide I vibrational modes in myoglobin,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5435-5438 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, and J. S. Aitchison, “Diffraction management,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1863-1866 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

B. I. Swanson, J. A. Brozik, S. P. Love, G. F. Strouse, A. P. Shreve, A. R. BishopW.-Z. Wang, and M. I. Salkola, “Observation of intrinsically localized modes in a discrete low-dimensional material,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3288-3291 (1999).
[CrossRef]

U. T. Schwartz, L. Q. English, and A. J. Sievers, “Experimental generation and observation of intrinsic localized spin wave modes in an antiferromagnets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 223-226 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, A. R. Boyd, and J. S. Aitchison, “Discrete spatial optical solitons in waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3383-3386 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

U. Bartuch, U. Peschel, Th. Gabler, R. Waldhaus, and H.-H. Horhold, “Experimental investigations and numerical simulations of spatial solitons in planar polymer waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 134, 49-54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. Yamada, M. Saitoh, and H. Ooki, “Electric-field induced cylindrical lens, switching and deflection devices composed of the inverted domains in LiNbO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3659-3661 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

J. S. Aitchison, K. Al-Hemyari, C. N. Ironside, R. S. Grant, and W. Sibbett, “Observation of spatial solitons in AlGaAs waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1879-1880 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

J. S. Aitchison, A. M. Weiner, Y. Silberberg, M. K. Oliver, J. L. Jackel, D. E. Leaird, E. M. Vogel, and P. W. E. Smith, “Observation of spatial optical solitons in a nonlinear glass waveguide,” Opt Lett. 15, 471-473 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

1985 (1)

A. Barthelemy, S. Maneuf, and C. Froehly, “Propagation soliton et auto-confinement de faisceaux laser par non linearité optique de Kerr,” Opt. Commun. 55, 201-206 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

V. E. Zahkarov and A. B. Shabat, “Exact theory of two-dimensional self-focusing and one-dimensional self-modulation of nonlinear waves in nonlinear media,” Sov. Phys. JETP 34, 62-69 (1972).

1964 (1)

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, “Self-trapping of optical beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479-482 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Abernethy, J. A.

J. A. Abernethy, C. B. E. Gawith, R. W. Eason, and P. G. R. Smith, “Demonstration and optical characteristics of electro-optic Bragg modulators in periodically poled lithium niobate in the near-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2514-2516 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Abraimov, D.

P. Binder, D. Abraimov, A. V. Ustinov, S. Flach, and Y. Zolotaryuk, “Observation of breathers in Josephson ladders,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 745-748 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, 1995).

Aitchison, J. S.

D. Mandelik, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, and J. S. Aitchison, “Band-gap structure of waveguide arrays and excitation of Floquet-Bloch solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 053902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, and J. S. Aitchison, “Diffraction management,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1863-1866 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, A. R. Boyd, and J. S. Aitchison, “Discrete spatial optical solitons in waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3383-3386 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Aitchison, K. Al-Hemyari, C. N. Ironside, R. S. Grant, and W. Sibbett, “Observation of spatial solitons in AlGaAs waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1879-1880 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Aitchison, A. M. Weiner, Y. Silberberg, M. K. Oliver, J. L. Jackel, D. E. Leaird, E. M. Vogel, and P. W. E. Smith, “Observation of spatial optical solitons in a nonlinear glass waveguide,” Opt Lett. 15, 471-473 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Albiez, M.

B. Eiermann, Th. Anker, M. Albiez, M. Taglieber, P. Treutlein, K.-P. Marzlin, and M. K. Oberthaler, “Bright Bose-Einstein gap solitons of atoms with repulsive interaction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 230401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Al-Hemyari, K.

J. S. Aitchison, K. Al-Hemyari, C. N. Ironside, R. S. Grant, and W. Sibbett, “Observation of spatial solitons in AlGaAs waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1879-1880 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Anker, Th.

B. Eiermann, Th. Anker, M. Albiez, M. Taglieber, P. Treutlein, K.-P. Marzlin, and M. K. Oberthaler, “Bright Bose-Einstein gap solitons of atoms with repulsive interaction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 230401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Assanto, G.

F. Lederer, G. I. Stegeman, D. N. Christodoulides, G. Assanto, M. Segev, and Y. Silberberg, “Discrete solitons in optics,” Phys. Rep. 463, 1-126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Austin, R. H.

A. H. Xie, L. van der Meer, V. Hoff, and R. H. Austin, “Long-lived amide I vibrational modes in myoglobin,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5435-5438 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barthelemy, A.

A. Barthelemy, S. Maneuf, and C. Froehly, “Propagation soliton et auto-confinement de faisceaux laser par non linearité optique de Kerr,” Opt. Commun. 55, 201-206 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Bartuch, U.

U. Bartuch, U. Peschel, Th. Gabler, R. Waldhaus, and H.-H. Horhold, “Experimental investigations and numerical simulations of spatial solitons in planar polymer waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 134, 49-54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Binder, P.

P. Binder, D. Abraimov, A. V. Ustinov, S. Flach, and Y. Zolotaryuk, “Observation of breathers in Josephson ladders,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 745-748 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bishop, A. R.

B. I. Swanson, J. A. Brozik, S. P. Love, G. F. Strouse, A. P. Shreve, A. R. BishopW.-Z. Wang, and M. I. Salkola, “Observation of intrinsically localized modes in a discrete low-dimensional material,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3288-3291 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, A. R.

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, A. R. Boyd, and J. S. Aitchison, “Discrete spatial optical solitons in waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3383-3386 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brauer, A.

T. Pertsch, T. Zentgraf, U. Peschel, A. Brauer, and F. Lederer, “Anomalous refraction and diffraction in discrete optical systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 093901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brozik, J. A.

B. I. Swanson, J. A. Brozik, S. P. Love, G. F. Strouse, A. P. Shreve, A. R. BishopW.-Z. Wang, and M. I. Salkola, “Observation of intrinsically localized modes in a discrete low-dimensional material,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3288-3291 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

Chiao, R. Y.

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, “Self-trapping of optical beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479-482 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Christodoulides, D. N.

F. Lederer, G. I. Stegeman, D. N. Christodoulides, G. Assanto, M. Segev, and Y. Silberberg, “Discrete solitons in optics,” Phys. Rep. 463, 1-126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Fleischer, M. Segev, N. K. Efremidis, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of two-dimensional discrete solitons in optically-induced nonlinear photonic lattices,” Nature 422, 147-150 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Christodoulides and R. I. Joseph, “Discrete self-focusing in nonlinear arrays of coupled waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 13, 794-796 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cudney, R.

Davydov, A. S.

A. S. Davydov, Solitons in Molecular Systems (Academic, 1991).

Eason, R. W.

J. A. Abernethy, C. B. E. Gawith, R. W. Eason, and P. G. R. Smith, “Demonstration and optical characteristics of electro-optic Bragg modulators in periodically poled lithium niobate in the near-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2514-2516 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Efremidis, N. K.

J. W. Fleischer, M. Segev, N. K. Efremidis, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of two-dimensional discrete solitons in optically-induced nonlinear photonic lattices,” Nature 422, 147-150 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eiermann, B.

B. Eiermann, Th. Anker, M. Albiez, M. Taglieber, P. Treutlein, K.-P. Marzlin, and M. K. Oberthaler, “Bright Bose-Einstein gap solitons of atoms with repulsive interaction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 230401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eisenberg, H. S.

D. Mandelik, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, and J. S. Aitchison, “Band-gap structure of waveguide arrays and excitation of Floquet-Bloch solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 053902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, and J. S. Aitchison, “Diffraction management,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1863-1866 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, A. R. Boyd, and J. S. Aitchison, “Discrete spatial optical solitons in waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3383-3386 (1998).
[CrossRef]

English, L. Q.

U. T. Schwartz, L. Q. English, and A. J. Sievers, “Experimental generation and observation of intrinsic localized spin wave modes in an antiferromagnets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 223-226 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Escamilla, H.

Flach, S.

P. Binder, D. Abraimov, A. V. Ustinov, S. Flach, and Y. Zolotaryuk, “Observation of breathers in Josephson ladders,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 745-748 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleischer, J. W.

J. W. Fleischer, M. Segev, N. K. Efremidis, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of two-dimensional discrete solitons in optically-induced nonlinear photonic lattices,” Nature 422, 147-150 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Froehly, C.

A. Barthelemy, S. Maneuf, and C. Froehly, “Propagation soliton et auto-confinement de faisceaux laser par non linearité optique de Kerr,” Opt. Commun. 55, 201-206 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Gabler, Th.

U. Bartuch, U. Peschel, Th. Gabler, R. Waldhaus, and H.-H. Horhold, “Experimental investigations and numerical simulations of spatial solitons in planar polymer waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 134, 49-54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Garmire, E.

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, “Self-trapping of optical beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479-482 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Gawith, C. B. E.

J. A. Abernethy, C. B. E. Gawith, R. W. Eason, and P. G. R. Smith, “Demonstration and optical characteristics of electro-optic Bragg modulators in periodically poled lithium niobate in the near-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2514-2516 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Grant, R. S.

J. S. Aitchison, K. Al-Hemyari, C. N. Ironside, R. S. Grant, and W. Sibbett, “Observation of spatial solitons in AlGaAs waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1879-1880 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hoff, V.

A. H. Xie, L. van der Meer, V. Hoff, and R. H. Austin, “Long-lived amide I vibrational modes in myoglobin,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5435-5438 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horhold, H.-H.

U. Bartuch, U. Peschel, Th. Gabler, R. Waldhaus, and H.-H. Horhold, “Experimental investigations and numerical simulations of spatial solitons in planar polymer waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 134, 49-54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ironside, C. N.

J. S. Aitchison, K. Al-Hemyari, C. N. Ironside, R. S. Grant, and W. Sibbett, “Observation of spatial solitons in AlGaAs waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1879-1880 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Iwanow, R.

T. Pertsch, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, J. Meier, R. Schiek, R. Iwanow, and G. Stegeman, “Discrete solitons in quadratic nonlinear waveguide arrays,” in OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper NLTuA1.

Jackel, J. L.

J. S. Aitchison, A. M. Weiner, Y. Silberberg, M. K. Oliver, J. L. Jackel, D. E. Leaird, E. M. Vogel, and P. W. E. Smith, “Observation of spatial optical solitons in a nonlinear glass waveguide,” Opt Lett. 15, 471-473 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joseph, R. I.

Kip, D.

Kivshar, Y. S.

Leaird, D. E.

J. S. Aitchison, A. M. Weiner, Y. Silberberg, M. K. Oliver, J. L. Jackel, D. E. Leaird, E. M. Vogel, and P. W. E. Smith, “Observation of spatial optical solitons in a nonlinear glass waveguide,” Opt Lett. 15, 471-473 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lederer, F.

F. Lederer, G. I. Stegeman, D. N. Christodoulides, G. Assanto, M. Segev, and Y. Silberberg, “Discrete solitons in optics,” Phys. Rep. 463, 1-126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Lederer and Y. Silberberg, “Discrete solitons,” Opt. Photon. News 13, 48-53 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Pertsch, T. Zentgraf, U. Peschel, A. Brauer, and F. Lederer, “Anomalous refraction and diffraction in discrete optical systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 093901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Pertsch, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, J. Meier, R. Schiek, R. Iwanow, and G. Stegeman, “Discrete solitons in quadratic nonlinear waveguide arrays,” in OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper NLTuA1.

Love, S. P.

B. I. Swanson, J. A. Brozik, S. P. Love, G. F. Strouse, A. P. Shreve, A. R. BishopW.-Z. Wang, and M. I. Salkola, “Observation of intrinsically localized modes in a discrete low-dimensional material,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3288-3291 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mandelik, D.

D. Mandelik, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, and J. S. Aitchison, “Band-gap structure of waveguide arrays and excitation of Floquet-Bloch solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 053902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maneuf, S.

A. Barthelemy, S. Maneuf, and C. Froehly, “Propagation soliton et auto-confinement de faisceaux laser par non linearité optique de Kerr,” Opt. Commun. 55, 201-206 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, Light Transmission Optics (Academic, 1972).

Marzlin, K.-P.

B. Eiermann, Th. Anker, M. Albiez, M. Taglieber, P. Treutlein, K.-P. Marzlin, and M. K. Oberthaler, “Bright Bose-Einstein gap solitons of atoms with repulsive interaction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 230401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mazo, J. J.

E. Trias, J. J. Mazo, and T. P. Orlando, “Discrete breathers in nonlinear lattices: experimental detection in Josephson junctions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 741-744 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meier, J.

T. Pertsch, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, J. Meier, R. Schiek, R. Iwanow, and G. Stegeman, “Discrete solitons in quadratic nonlinear waveguide arrays,” in OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper NLTuA1.

Molina, M. I.

Morandotti, R.

D. Mandelik, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, and J. S. Aitchison, “Band-gap structure of waveguide arrays and excitation of Floquet-Bloch solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 053902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, and J. S. Aitchison, “Diffraction management,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1863-1866 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, A. R. Boyd, and J. S. Aitchison, “Discrete spatial optical solitons in waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3383-3386 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Oberthaler, M. K.

B. Eiermann, Th. Anker, M. Albiez, M. Taglieber, P. Treutlein, K.-P. Marzlin, and M. K. Oberthaler, “Bright Bose-Einstein gap solitons of atoms with repulsive interaction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 230401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oliver, M. K.

J. S. Aitchison, A. M. Weiner, Y. Silberberg, M. K. Oliver, J. L. Jackel, D. E. Leaird, E. M. Vogel, and P. W. E. Smith, “Observation of spatial optical solitons in a nonlinear glass waveguide,” Opt Lett. 15, 471-473 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ooki, H.

M. Yamada, M. Saitoh, and H. Ooki, “Electric-field induced cylindrical lens, switching and deflection devices composed of the inverted domains in LiNbO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3659-3661 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Orlando, T. P.

E. Trias, J. J. Mazo, and T. P. Orlando, “Discrete breathers in nonlinear lattices: experimental detection in Josephson junctions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 741-744 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pertsch, T.

T. Pertsch, T. Zentgraf, U. Peschel, A. Brauer, and F. Lederer, “Anomalous refraction and diffraction in discrete optical systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 093901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Pertsch, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, J. Meier, R. Schiek, R. Iwanow, and G. Stegeman, “Discrete solitons in quadratic nonlinear waveguide arrays,” in OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper NLTuA1.

Peschel, U.

T. Pertsch, T. Zentgraf, U. Peschel, A. Brauer, and F. Lederer, “Anomalous refraction and diffraction in discrete optical systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 093901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Bartuch, U. Peschel, Th. Gabler, R. Waldhaus, and H.-H. Horhold, “Experimental investigations and numerical simulations of spatial solitons in planar polymer waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 134, 49-54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Pertsch, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, J. Meier, R. Schiek, R. Iwanow, and G. Stegeman, “Discrete solitons in quadratic nonlinear waveguide arrays,” in OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper NLTuA1.

Ríos, L.

Runde, D.

Rüter, C. E.

Saitoh, M.

M. Yamada, M. Saitoh, and H. Ooki, “Electric-field induced cylindrical lens, switching and deflection devices composed of the inverted domains in LiNbO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3659-3661 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Salkola, M. I.

B. I. Swanson, J. A. Brozik, S. P. Love, G. F. Strouse, A. P. Shreve, A. R. BishopW.-Z. Wang, and M. I. Salkola, “Observation of intrinsically localized modes in a discrete low-dimensional material,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3288-3291 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schiek, R.

T. Pertsch, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, J. Meier, R. Schiek, R. Iwanow, and G. Stegeman, “Discrete solitons in quadratic nonlinear waveguide arrays,” in OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper NLTuA1.

Schwartz, U. T.

U. T. Schwartz, L. Q. English, and A. J. Sievers, “Experimental generation and observation of intrinsic localized spin wave modes in an antiferromagnets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 223-226 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Segev, M.

F. Lederer, G. I. Stegeman, D. N. Christodoulides, G. Assanto, M. Segev, and Y. Silberberg, “Discrete solitons in optics,” Phys. Rep. 463, 1-126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Fleischer, M. Segev, N. K. Efremidis, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of two-dimensional discrete solitons in optically-induced nonlinear photonic lattices,” Nature 422, 147-150 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shabat, A. B.

V. E. Zahkarov and A. B. Shabat, “Exact theory of two-dimensional self-focusing and one-dimensional self-modulation of nonlinear waves in nonlinear media,” Sov. Phys. JETP 34, 62-69 (1972).

Shreve, A. P.

B. I. Swanson, J. A. Brozik, S. P. Love, G. F. Strouse, A. P. Shreve, A. R. BishopW.-Z. Wang, and M. I. Salkola, “Observation of intrinsically localized modes in a discrete low-dimensional material,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3288-3291 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sibbett, W.

J. S. Aitchison, K. Al-Hemyari, C. N. Ironside, R. S. Grant, and W. Sibbett, “Observation of spatial solitons in AlGaAs waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1879-1880 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sievers, A. J.

U. T. Schwartz, L. Q. English, and A. J. Sievers, “Experimental generation and observation of intrinsic localized spin wave modes in an antiferromagnets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 223-226 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Silberberg, Y.

F. Lederer, G. I. Stegeman, D. N. Christodoulides, G. Assanto, M. Segev, and Y. Silberberg, “Discrete solitons in optics,” Phys. Rep. 463, 1-126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Mandelik, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, and J. S. Aitchison, “Band-gap structure of waveguide arrays and excitation of Floquet-Bloch solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 053902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Lederer and Y. Silberberg, “Discrete solitons,” Opt. Photon. News 13, 48-53 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, and J. S. Aitchison, “Diffraction management,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1863-1866 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, A. R. Boyd, and J. S. Aitchison, “Discrete spatial optical solitons in waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3383-3386 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Aitchison, A. M. Weiner, Y. Silberberg, M. K. Oliver, J. L. Jackel, D. E. Leaird, E. M. Vogel, and P. W. E. Smith, “Observation of spatial optical solitons in a nonlinear glass waveguide,” Opt Lett. 15, 471-473 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smerzi, A.

A. Trombettoni and A. Smerzi, “Discrete solitons and breathers with dilute Bose-Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2353-2356 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, P. G. R.

J. A. Abernethy, C. B. E. Gawith, R. W. Eason, and P. G. R. Smith, “Demonstration and optical characteristics of electro-optic Bragg modulators in periodically poled lithium niobate in the near-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2514-2516 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. W. E.

J. S. Aitchison, A. M. Weiner, Y. Silberberg, M. K. Oliver, J. L. Jackel, D. E. Leaird, E. M. Vogel, and P. W. E. Smith, “Observation of spatial optical solitons in a nonlinear glass waveguide,” Opt Lett. 15, 471-473 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stegeman, G.

T. Pertsch, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, J. Meier, R. Schiek, R. Iwanow, and G. Stegeman, “Discrete solitons in quadratic nonlinear waveguide arrays,” in OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper NLTuA1.

Stegeman, G. I.

F. Lederer, G. I. Stegeman, D. N. Christodoulides, G. Assanto, M. Segev, and Y. Silberberg, “Discrete solitons in optics,” Phys. Rep. 463, 1-126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stepic, M.

Strouse, G. F.

B. I. Swanson, J. A. Brozik, S. P. Love, G. F. Strouse, A. P. Shreve, A. R. BishopW.-Z. Wang, and M. I. Salkola, “Observation of intrinsically localized modes in a discrete low-dimensional material,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3288-3291 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sukhorukov, A. A.

Swanson, B. I.

B. I. Swanson, J. A. Brozik, S. P. Love, G. F. Strouse, A. P. Shreve, A. R. BishopW.-Z. Wang, and M. I. Salkola, “Observation of intrinsically localized modes in a discrete low-dimensional material,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3288-3291 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Taglieber, M.

B. Eiermann, Th. Anker, M. Albiez, M. Taglieber, P. Treutlein, K.-P. Marzlin, and M. K. Oberthaler, “Bright Bose-Einstein gap solitons of atoms with repulsive interaction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 230401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Townes, C. H.

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, “Self-trapping of optical beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479-482 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Treutlein, P.

B. Eiermann, Th. Anker, M. Albiez, M. Taglieber, P. Treutlein, K.-P. Marzlin, and M. K. Oberthaler, “Bright Bose-Einstein gap solitons of atoms with repulsive interaction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 230401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trias, E.

E. Trias, J. J. Mazo, and T. P. Orlando, “Discrete breathers in nonlinear lattices: experimental detection in Josephson junctions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 741-744 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trombettoni, A.

A. Trombettoni and A. Smerzi, “Discrete solitons and breathers with dilute Bose-Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2353-2356 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ustinov, A. V.

P. Binder, D. Abraimov, A. V. Ustinov, S. Flach, and Y. Zolotaryuk, “Observation of breathers in Josephson ladders,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 745-748 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Meer, L.

A. H. Xie, L. van der Meer, V. Hoff, and R. H. Austin, “Long-lived amide I vibrational modes in myoglobin,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5435-5438 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vicencio, R. A.

Vogel, E. M.

J. S. Aitchison, A. M. Weiner, Y. Silberberg, M. K. Oliver, J. L. Jackel, D. E. Leaird, E. M. Vogel, and P. W. E. Smith, “Observation of spatial optical solitons in a nonlinear glass waveguide,” Opt Lett. 15, 471-473 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waldhaus, R.

U. Bartuch, U. Peschel, Th. Gabler, R. Waldhaus, and H.-H. Horhold, “Experimental investigations and numerical simulations of spatial solitons in planar polymer waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 134, 49-54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.-Z.

B. I. Swanson, J. A. Brozik, S. P. Love, G. F. Strouse, A. P. Shreve, A. R. BishopW.-Z. Wang, and M. I. Salkola, “Observation of intrinsically localized modes in a discrete low-dimensional material,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3288-3291 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, A. M.

J. S. Aitchison, A. M. Weiner, Y. Silberberg, M. K. Oliver, J. L. Jackel, D. E. Leaird, E. M. Vogel, and P. W. E. Smith, “Observation of spatial optical solitons in a nonlinear glass waveguide,” Opt Lett. 15, 471-473 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, A. H.

A. H. Xie, L. van der Meer, V. Hoff, and R. H. Austin, “Long-lived amide I vibrational modes in myoglobin,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5435-5438 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamada, M.

M. Yamada, M. Saitoh, and H. Ooki, “Electric-field induced cylindrical lens, switching and deflection devices composed of the inverted domains in LiNbO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3659-3661 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals: Propagation and Control of Laser Radiation (Academic, 1972).

Yeh, P.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals: Propagation and Control of Laser Radiation (Academic, 1972).

Zahkarov, V. E.

V. E. Zahkarov and A. B. Shabat, “Exact theory of two-dimensional self-focusing and one-dimensional self-modulation of nonlinear waves in nonlinear media,” Sov. Phys. JETP 34, 62-69 (1972).

Zentgraf, T.

T. Pertsch, T. Zentgraf, U. Peschel, A. Brauer, and F. Lederer, “Anomalous refraction and diffraction in discrete optical systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 093901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zolotaryuk, Y.

P. Binder, D. Abraimov, A. V. Ustinov, S. Flach, and Y. Zolotaryuk, “Observation of breathers in Josephson ladders,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 745-748 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. A. Abernethy, C. B. E. Gawith, R. W. Eason, and P. G. R. Smith, “Demonstration and optical characteristics of electro-optic Bragg modulators in periodically poled lithium niobate in the near-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2514-2516 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamada, M. Saitoh, and H. Ooki, “Electric-field induced cylindrical lens, switching and deflection devices composed of the inverted domains in LiNbO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3659-3661 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. S. Aitchison, K. Al-Hemyari, C. N. Ironside, R. S. Grant, and W. Sibbett, “Observation of spatial solitons in AlGaAs waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1879-1880 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

J. W. Fleischer, M. Segev, N. K. Efremidis, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of two-dimensional discrete solitons in optically-induced nonlinear photonic lattices,” Nature 422, 147-150 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt Lett. (1)

J. S. Aitchison, A. M. Weiner, Y. Silberberg, M. K. Oliver, J. L. Jackel, D. E. Leaird, E. M. Vogel, and P. W. E. Smith, “Observation of spatial optical solitons in a nonlinear glass waveguide,” Opt Lett. 15, 471-473 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (2)

A. Barthelemy, S. Maneuf, and C. Froehly, “Propagation soliton et auto-confinement de faisceaux laser par non linearité optique de Kerr,” Opt. Commun. 55, 201-206 (1985).
[CrossRef]

U. Bartuch, U. Peschel, Th. Gabler, R. Waldhaus, and H.-H. Horhold, “Experimental investigations and numerical simulations of spatial solitons in planar polymer waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 134, 49-54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Photon. News (1)

F. Lederer and Y. Silberberg, “Discrete solitons,” Opt. Photon. News 13, 48-53 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rep. (1)

F. Lederer, G. I. Stegeman, D. N. Christodoulides, G. Assanto, M. Segev, and Y. Silberberg, “Discrete solitons in optics,” Phys. Rep. 463, 1-126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (12)

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, A. R. Boyd, and J. S. Aitchison, “Discrete spatial optical solitons in waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3383-3386 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, and J. S. Aitchison, “Diffraction management,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1863-1866 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Pertsch, T. Zentgraf, U. Peschel, A. Brauer, and F. Lederer, “Anomalous refraction and diffraction in discrete optical systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 093901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Mandelik, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, and J. S. Aitchison, “Band-gap structure of waveguide arrays and excitation of Floquet-Bloch solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 053902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, “Self-trapping of optical beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479-482 (1964).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Xie, L. van der Meer, V. Hoff, and R. H. Austin, “Long-lived amide I vibrational modes in myoglobin,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5435-5438 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. I. Swanson, J. A. Brozik, S. P. Love, G. F. Strouse, A. P. Shreve, A. R. BishopW.-Z. Wang, and M. I. Salkola, “Observation of intrinsically localized modes in a discrete low-dimensional material,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3288-3291 (1999).
[CrossRef]

U. T. Schwartz, L. Q. English, and A. J. Sievers, “Experimental generation and observation of intrinsic localized spin wave modes in an antiferromagnets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 223-226 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Trias, J. J. Mazo, and T. P. Orlando, “Discrete breathers in nonlinear lattices: experimental detection in Josephson junctions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 741-744 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Binder, D. Abraimov, A. V. Ustinov, S. Flach, and Y. Zolotaryuk, “Observation of breathers in Josephson ladders,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 745-748 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Trombettoni and A. Smerzi, “Discrete solitons and breathers with dilute Bose-Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2353-2356 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Eiermann, Th. Anker, M. Albiez, M. Taglieber, P. Treutlein, K.-P. Marzlin, and M. K. Oberthaler, “Bright Bose-Einstein gap solitons of atoms with repulsive interaction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 230401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

V. E. Zahkarov and A. B. Shabat, “Exact theory of two-dimensional self-focusing and one-dimensional self-modulation of nonlinear waves in nonlinear media,” Sov. Phys. JETP 34, 62-69 (1972).

Other (5)

T. Pertsch, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, J. Meier, R. Schiek, R. Iwanow, and G. Stegeman, “Discrete solitons in quadratic nonlinear waveguide arrays,” in OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper NLTuA1.

D. Marcuse, Light Transmission Optics (Academic, 1972).

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals: Propagation and Control of Laser Radiation (Academic, 1972).

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, 1995).

A. S. Davydov, Solitons in Molecular Systems (Academic, 1991).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of PPLN with an electrical field applied along the z axis. The injected light beam is extraordinary polarized.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diagram of coupling coefficient as a function of applied electrical field.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Beam coupling result at the applied electrical field of (a)  0.6 kV / mm , (b)  1.6 kV / mm , (c)  2.8 kV / mm , and (d)  5.0 kV / mm .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Discrete spatial soliton forms in PPLN waveguide array with fixed electrical field at 800 V / mm . The light beam powers are (a)  3000 W , (b)  4000 W , and (c)  5000 W .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Discrete spatial soliton forms in PPLN waveguide array with fixed light beam power at 5000 W . The electrical fields are (a)  1.2 kV / mm , (b)  0.8 kV / mm , and (c)  0.6 kV / mm .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Light beam distribution on the output facet of PPLN waveguide array when (a) applied electrical field E is fixed at 0.8 kV / mm and (b) light beam power P is fixed at 5.0 kW .

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n p = n e 1 2 n e 3 · r 33 · E , n g = n e + 1 2 n e 3 · r 33 · E ,
C = 2 κ 2 γ 2 e γ d 2 β ( 2 + γ d 1 ) ( κ 2 + γ 2 ) , { κ = ( n g 2 k 0 2 β 2 ) 1 / 2 γ = ( β 2 n p 2 k 0 2 ) 1 / 2 ,
tan κ d 1 = 2 γ κ ( 1 γ 2 κ 2 ) ,
i d E n d z + β E n + C ( E n 1 + E n + 1 ) + r | E n | 2 E n = 0 ,
r = ω 0 n 2 c A eff ,

Metrics