Abstract

The optical and structural properties of NaNdxY1x(WO4)2 (NYW) single crystals grown from melt containing 1–10 at. % of Nd have been investigated. Optical absorption, photoluminescence, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray florescence studies have been carried out on grown crystals. The crystal is found to exhibit a broad absorption peak of 16nm width at 806nm for 6 at. % of Nd doping. A decrease in fluorescence lifetime from 150 to 80μs with an increase in Nd3+ concentration is observed for 1.06μm emission. Spectroscopic quality parameters (Ω4/Ω6) and quantum efficiency calculated from the above measurements and application of Judd–Ofelt theory are found to be 1.1 and 68%, respectively. Structural analysis through Rietveld refinement of x-ray diffraction data showed that the oxygen sublattice of NYW is not affected by changes in Nd dopant concentration, though the lattice dimensions are found to increase proportionately. The study for the first time shows that the high doping levels do not introduce any strain into the lattice. As a consequence the optical quality of the crystal does not deteriorate at high doping levels. The selection of doping concentration is therefore solely governed by the decay time requirement for a particular application.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. A. Kaminskii, H. J. Eichler, K. Ueda, N. V. Klassen, B. S. Redkin, L. E. Li, J. Findeisen, D. Jaque, J. Garcıa-Sole, J. Fernández, and R. Balda, “Properties of Nd3+ doped and undoped tetragonal PbWO4, NaY(WO4)2, CaWO4, and undoped monoclinic ZnWO4 and CdWO4 as laser-active and stimulated Raman scattering-active crystals,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4533-4547(1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. L. Zhou, X. X. Zhang, and B. H. T. Chai, “Laser oscillation at 1059 nm of a new laser crystal: Nd3+ doped NaY(WO4)2,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. Pollock and W. Bosenberg, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), paper SC11.
  3. K. A. Subbotin, E. V. Zharikov, and Smirnov, “Yb and Er- doped single crystal of double tungstate NaGd(WO4)2 and NaBi(WO4)2 as active media for laser operating in 1.0 and 1.5 μm ranges,” Opt. Spektrosk. 92(4), 601 (2002).0030-4034
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Fu, Z. Wang, Z. Cheng, J. Liu, R. Song, H. Chen, and Z. Shao, “Effect of Nd3+ concentration on the laser performance of a new laser crystal: Nd:NaY(WO4)2,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 593-595 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Z. Cheng, S. Zhang, K. Fu, J. Liu, and H. Chen, “Growth, thermal and laser properties of neodymium-doped sodium yttrium double tungstate crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 4038-4040 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Zh. X. Cheng, Sh. J. Zhang, J. R. Han, H. Ch. Chen, X. S. Liu, Y. Y. Yang, and J. Yang, “Growth and optical properties of NaY(WO4)2:Eu crystals,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 36, 135-140(2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Wang, C. Tu, Z. You, J. Li, Z. Z. G. Jia, X. Lu, and B. Wu, “Growth of large-sized NaY(WO4)2 crystal and its spectral properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 285, 123-129 (2005).
  8. B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127, 750-761 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511-520 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424-4442 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. F. Krupke, “Radiative transition probabilities within the 4f3 ground configuration of Nd:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 7, 153-159 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Cascales, M. D. Serrano, F. Esteban-Betegon, C. Zaldo, R. Peters, K. Petermann, G. Huber, L. Ackermann, D. Rytz, C. Dupre, M. Rico, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Structural, spectroscopic, and tunable laser properties of Yb3+-doped NaGd(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 174114-174129 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Fan, H. Zhang, W. Yu, H. Yu, J. Wang, and M. Jiang, “A Yb3+-doped NaY(WO4)2 crystal grown by the Czochralski technique,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 41, 584-591 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. X. Han, A. Garcia-Cortes, M. D Serrano, C. Zaldo, and Cascales, “Structural and thermal properties of tetragonal double tungstate crystals intended for ytterbium laser composites,” Chem. Mater. 19, 3002-3010 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Perets, M. Tseitlin, R. Z. Shneck, D. Mogilyanski, G. Kimmel, and Z. Burshtein, “Sodium gadolinium tungstate NaGd(WO4)2: growth, crystallography, and some physical properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 305, 257-264 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

J. Fan, H. Zhang, W. Yu, H. Yu, J. Wang, and M. Jiang, “A Yb3+-doped NaY(WO4)2 crystal grown by the Czochralski technique,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 41, 584-591 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

X. Han, A. Garcia-Cortes, M. D Serrano, C. Zaldo, and Cascales, “Structural and thermal properties of tetragonal double tungstate crystals intended for ytterbium laser composites,” Chem. Mater. 19, 3002-3010 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Perets, M. Tseitlin, R. Z. Shneck, D. Mogilyanski, G. Kimmel, and Z. Burshtein, “Sodium gadolinium tungstate NaGd(WO4)2: growth, crystallography, and some physical properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 305, 257-264 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

C. Cascales, M. D. Serrano, F. Esteban-Betegon, C. Zaldo, R. Peters, K. Petermann, G. Huber, L. Ackermann, D. Rytz, C. Dupre, M. Rico, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Structural, spectroscopic, and tunable laser properties of Yb3+-doped NaGd(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 174114-174129 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

Y. Wang, C. Tu, Z. You, J. Li, Z. Z. G. Jia, X. Lu, and B. Wu, “Growth of large-sized NaY(WO4)2 crystal and its spectral properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 285, 123-129 (2005).

2002 (1)

K. A. Subbotin, E. V. Zharikov, and Smirnov, “Yb and Er- doped single crystal of double tungstate NaGd(WO4)2 and NaBi(WO4)2 as active media for laser operating in 1.0 and 1.5 μm ranges,” Opt. Spektrosk. 92(4), 601 (2002).0030-4034
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

K. Fu, Z. Wang, Z. Cheng, J. Liu, R. Song, H. Chen, and Z. Shao, “Effect of Nd3+ concentration on the laser performance of a new laser crystal: Nd:NaY(WO4)2,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 593-595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. Cheng, S. Zhang, K. Fu, J. Liu, and H. Chen, “Growth, thermal and laser properties of neodymium-doped sodium yttrium double tungstate crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 4038-4040 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zh. X. Cheng, Sh. J. Zhang, J. R. Han, H. Ch. Chen, X. S. Liu, Y. Y. Yang, and J. Yang, “Growth and optical properties of NaY(WO4)2:Eu crystals,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 36, 135-140(2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1971 (1)

W. F. Krupke, “Radiative transition probabilities within the 4f3 ground configuration of Nd:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 7, 153-159 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424-4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1962 (2)

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127, 750-761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511-520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Ackermann, L.

C. Cascales, M. D. Serrano, F. Esteban-Betegon, C. Zaldo, R. Peters, K. Petermann, G. Huber, L. Ackermann, D. Rytz, C. Dupre, M. Rico, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Structural, spectroscopic, and tunable laser properties of Yb3+-doped NaGd(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 174114-174129 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Balda, R.

Burshtein, Z.

S. Perets, M. Tseitlin, R. Z. Shneck, D. Mogilyanski, G. Kimmel, and Z. Burshtein, “Sodium gadolinium tungstate NaGd(WO4)2: growth, crystallography, and some physical properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 305, 257-264 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Carnall, W. T.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424-4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Cascales,

X. Han, A. Garcia-Cortes, M. D Serrano, C. Zaldo, and Cascales, “Structural and thermal properties of tetragonal double tungstate crystals intended for ytterbium laser composites,” Chem. Mater. 19, 3002-3010 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cascales, C.

C. Cascales, M. D. Serrano, F. Esteban-Betegon, C. Zaldo, R. Peters, K. Petermann, G. Huber, L. Ackermann, D. Rytz, C. Dupre, M. Rico, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Structural, spectroscopic, and tunable laser properties of Yb3+-doped NaGd(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 174114-174129 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chai, B. H. T.

W. L. Zhou, X. X. Zhang, and B. H. T. Chai, “Laser oscillation at 1059 nm of a new laser crystal: Nd3+ doped NaY(WO4)2,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. Pollock and W. Bosenberg, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), paper SC11.

Chen, H.

Z. Cheng, S. Zhang, K. Fu, J. Liu, and H. Chen, “Growth, thermal and laser properties of neodymium-doped sodium yttrium double tungstate crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 4038-4040 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Fu, Z. Wang, Z. Cheng, J. Liu, R. Song, H. Chen, and Z. Shao, “Effect of Nd3+ concentration on the laser performance of a new laser crystal: Nd:NaY(WO4)2,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 593-595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. Ch.

Zh. X. Cheng, Sh. J. Zhang, J. R. Han, H. Ch. Chen, X. S. Liu, Y. Y. Yang, and J. Yang, “Growth and optical properties of NaY(WO4)2:Eu crystals,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 36, 135-140(2001).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Z.

Z. Cheng, S. Zhang, K. Fu, J. Liu, and H. Chen, “Growth, thermal and laser properties of neodymium-doped sodium yttrium double tungstate crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 4038-4040 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Fu, Z. Wang, Z. Cheng, J. Liu, R. Song, H. Chen, and Z. Shao, “Effect of Nd3+ concentration on the laser performance of a new laser crystal: Nd:NaY(WO4)2,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 593-595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Zh. X.

Zh. X. Cheng, Sh. J. Zhang, J. R. Han, H. Ch. Chen, X. S. Liu, Y. Y. Yang, and J. Yang, “Growth and optical properties of NaY(WO4)2:Eu crystals,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 36, 135-140(2001).
[CrossRef]

Dupre, C.

C. Cascales, M. D. Serrano, F. Esteban-Betegon, C. Zaldo, R. Peters, K. Petermann, G. Huber, L. Ackermann, D. Rytz, C. Dupre, M. Rico, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Structural, spectroscopic, and tunable laser properties of Yb3+-doped NaGd(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 174114-174129 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eichler, H. J.

Esteban-Betegon, F.

C. Cascales, M. D. Serrano, F. Esteban-Betegon, C. Zaldo, R. Peters, K. Petermann, G. Huber, L. Ackermann, D. Rytz, C. Dupre, M. Rico, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Structural, spectroscopic, and tunable laser properties of Yb3+-doped NaGd(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 174114-174129 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fan, J.

J. Fan, H. Zhang, W. Yu, H. Yu, J. Wang, and M. Jiang, “A Yb3+-doped NaY(WO4)2 crystal grown by the Czochralski technique,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 41, 584-591 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fernández, J.

Fields, P. R.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424-4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Findeisen, J.

Fu, K.

K. Fu, Z. Wang, Z. Cheng, J. Liu, R. Song, H. Chen, and Z. Shao, “Effect of Nd3+ concentration on the laser performance of a new laser crystal: Nd:NaY(WO4)2,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 593-595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. Cheng, S. Zhang, K. Fu, J. Liu, and H. Chen, “Growth, thermal and laser properties of neodymium-doped sodium yttrium double tungstate crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 4038-4040 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Cortes, A.

X. Han, A. Garcia-Cortes, M. D Serrano, C. Zaldo, and Cascales, “Structural and thermal properties of tetragonal double tungstate crystals intended for ytterbium laser composites,” Chem. Mater. 19, 3002-3010 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Sole, J.

Griebner, U.

C. Cascales, M. D. Serrano, F. Esteban-Betegon, C. Zaldo, R. Peters, K. Petermann, G. Huber, L. Ackermann, D. Rytz, C. Dupre, M. Rico, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Structural, spectroscopic, and tunable laser properties of Yb3+-doped NaGd(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 174114-174129 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Han, J. R.

Zh. X. Cheng, Sh. J. Zhang, J. R. Han, H. Ch. Chen, X. S. Liu, Y. Y. Yang, and J. Yang, “Growth and optical properties of NaY(WO4)2:Eu crystals,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 36, 135-140(2001).
[CrossRef]

Han, X.

X. Han, A. Garcia-Cortes, M. D Serrano, C. Zaldo, and Cascales, “Structural and thermal properties of tetragonal double tungstate crystals intended for ytterbium laser composites,” Chem. Mater. 19, 3002-3010 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

C. Cascales, M. D. Serrano, F. Esteban-Betegon, C. Zaldo, R. Peters, K. Petermann, G. Huber, L. Ackermann, D. Rytz, C. Dupre, M. Rico, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Structural, spectroscopic, and tunable laser properties of Yb3+-doped NaGd(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 174114-174129 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jaque, D.

Jia, Z. Z. G.

Y. Wang, C. Tu, Z. You, J. Li, Z. Z. G. Jia, X. Lu, and B. Wu, “Growth of large-sized NaY(WO4)2 crystal and its spectral properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 285, 123-129 (2005).

Jiang, M.

J. Fan, H. Zhang, W. Yu, H. Yu, J. Wang, and M. Jiang, “A Yb3+-doped NaY(WO4)2 crystal grown by the Czochralski technique,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 41, 584-591 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Judd, B. R.

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127, 750-761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Kaminskii, A. A.

Kimmel, G.

S. Perets, M. Tseitlin, R. Z. Shneck, D. Mogilyanski, G. Kimmel, and Z. Burshtein, “Sodium gadolinium tungstate NaGd(WO4)2: growth, crystallography, and some physical properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 305, 257-264 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Klassen, N. V.

Krupke, W. F.

W. F. Krupke, “Radiative transition probabilities within the 4f3 ground configuration of Nd:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 7, 153-159 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Y. Wang, C. Tu, Z. You, J. Li, Z. Z. G. Jia, X. Lu, and B. Wu, “Growth of large-sized NaY(WO4)2 crystal and its spectral properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 285, 123-129 (2005).

Li, L. E.

Liu, J.

C. Cascales, M. D. Serrano, F. Esteban-Betegon, C. Zaldo, R. Peters, K. Petermann, G. Huber, L. Ackermann, D. Rytz, C. Dupre, M. Rico, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Structural, spectroscopic, and tunable laser properties of Yb3+-doped NaGd(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 174114-174129 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Fu, Z. Wang, Z. Cheng, J. Liu, R. Song, H. Chen, and Z. Shao, “Effect of Nd3+ concentration on the laser performance of a new laser crystal: Nd:NaY(WO4)2,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 593-595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. Cheng, S. Zhang, K. Fu, J. Liu, and H. Chen, “Growth, thermal and laser properties of neodymium-doped sodium yttrium double tungstate crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 4038-4040 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X. S.

Zh. X. Cheng, Sh. J. Zhang, J. R. Han, H. Ch. Chen, X. S. Liu, Y. Y. Yang, and J. Yang, “Growth and optical properties of NaY(WO4)2:Eu crystals,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 36, 135-140(2001).
[CrossRef]

Lu, X.

Y. Wang, C. Tu, Z. You, J. Li, Z. Z. G. Jia, X. Lu, and B. Wu, “Growth of large-sized NaY(WO4)2 crystal and its spectral properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 285, 123-129 (2005).

Mogilyanski, D.

S. Perets, M. Tseitlin, R. Z. Shneck, D. Mogilyanski, G. Kimmel, and Z. Burshtein, “Sodium gadolinium tungstate NaGd(WO4)2: growth, crystallography, and some physical properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 305, 257-264 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ofelt, G. S.

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511-520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Perets, S.

S. Perets, M. Tseitlin, R. Z. Shneck, D. Mogilyanski, G. Kimmel, and Z. Burshtein, “Sodium gadolinium tungstate NaGd(WO4)2: growth, crystallography, and some physical properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 305, 257-264 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Petermann, K.

C. Cascales, M. D. Serrano, F. Esteban-Betegon, C. Zaldo, R. Peters, K. Petermann, G. Huber, L. Ackermann, D. Rytz, C. Dupre, M. Rico, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Structural, spectroscopic, and tunable laser properties of Yb3+-doped NaGd(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 174114-174129 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Peters, R.

C. Cascales, M. D. Serrano, F. Esteban-Betegon, C. Zaldo, R. Peters, K. Petermann, G. Huber, L. Ackermann, D. Rytz, C. Dupre, M. Rico, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Structural, spectroscopic, and tunable laser properties of Yb3+-doped NaGd(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 174114-174129 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, V.

C. Cascales, M. D. Serrano, F. Esteban-Betegon, C. Zaldo, R. Peters, K. Petermann, G. Huber, L. Ackermann, D. Rytz, C. Dupre, M. Rico, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Structural, spectroscopic, and tunable laser properties of Yb3+-doped NaGd(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 174114-174129 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rajnak, K.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424-4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Redkin, B. S.

Rico, M.

C. Cascales, M. D. Serrano, F. Esteban-Betegon, C. Zaldo, R. Peters, K. Petermann, G. Huber, L. Ackermann, D. Rytz, C. Dupre, M. Rico, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Structural, spectroscopic, and tunable laser properties of Yb3+-doped NaGd(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 174114-174129 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rytz, D.

C. Cascales, M. D. Serrano, F. Esteban-Betegon, C. Zaldo, R. Peters, K. Petermann, G. Huber, L. Ackermann, D. Rytz, C. Dupre, M. Rico, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Structural, spectroscopic, and tunable laser properties of Yb3+-doped NaGd(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 174114-174129 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Serrano, M. D

X. Han, A. Garcia-Cortes, M. D Serrano, C. Zaldo, and Cascales, “Structural and thermal properties of tetragonal double tungstate crystals intended for ytterbium laser composites,” Chem. Mater. 19, 3002-3010 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Serrano, M. D.

C. Cascales, M. D. Serrano, F. Esteban-Betegon, C. Zaldo, R. Peters, K. Petermann, G. Huber, L. Ackermann, D. Rytz, C. Dupre, M. Rico, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Structural, spectroscopic, and tunable laser properties of Yb3+-doped NaGd(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 174114-174129 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shao, Z.

K. Fu, Z. Wang, Z. Cheng, J. Liu, R. Song, H. Chen, and Z. Shao, “Effect of Nd3+ concentration on the laser performance of a new laser crystal: Nd:NaY(WO4)2,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 593-595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shneck, R. Z.

S. Perets, M. Tseitlin, R. Z. Shneck, D. Mogilyanski, G. Kimmel, and Z. Burshtein, “Sodium gadolinium tungstate NaGd(WO4)2: growth, crystallography, and some physical properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 305, 257-264 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov,

K. A. Subbotin, E. V. Zharikov, and Smirnov, “Yb and Er- doped single crystal of double tungstate NaGd(WO4)2 and NaBi(WO4)2 as active media for laser operating in 1.0 and 1.5 μm ranges,” Opt. Spektrosk. 92(4), 601 (2002).0030-4034
[CrossRef]

Song, R.

K. Fu, Z. Wang, Z. Cheng, J. Liu, R. Song, H. Chen, and Z. Shao, “Effect of Nd3+ concentration on the laser performance of a new laser crystal: Nd:NaY(WO4)2,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 593-595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Subbotin, K. A.

K. A. Subbotin, E. V. Zharikov, and Smirnov, “Yb and Er- doped single crystal of double tungstate NaGd(WO4)2 and NaBi(WO4)2 as active media for laser operating in 1.0 and 1.5 μm ranges,” Opt. Spektrosk. 92(4), 601 (2002).0030-4034
[CrossRef]

Tseitlin, M.

S. Perets, M. Tseitlin, R. Z. Shneck, D. Mogilyanski, G. Kimmel, and Z. Burshtein, “Sodium gadolinium tungstate NaGd(WO4)2: growth, crystallography, and some physical properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 305, 257-264 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tu, C.

Y. Wang, C. Tu, Z. You, J. Li, Z. Z. G. Jia, X. Lu, and B. Wu, “Growth of large-sized NaY(WO4)2 crystal and its spectral properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 285, 123-129 (2005).

Ueda, K.

Wang, J.

J. Fan, H. Zhang, W. Yu, H. Yu, J. Wang, and M. Jiang, “A Yb3+-doped NaY(WO4)2 crystal grown by the Czochralski technique,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 41, 584-591 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, C. Tu, Z. You, J. Li, Z. Z. G. Jia, X. Lu, and B. Wu, “Growth of large-sized NaY(WO4)2 crystal and its spectral properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 285, 123-129 (2005).

Wang, Z.

K. Fu, Z. Wang, Z. Cheng, J. Liu, R. Song, H. Chen, and Z. Shao, “Effect of Nd3+ concentration on the laser performance of a new laser crystal: Nd:NaY(WO4)2,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 593-595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wu, B.

Y. Wang, C. Tu, Z. You, J. Li, Z. Z. G. Jia, X. Lu, and B. Wu, “Growth of large-sized NaY(WO4)2 crystal and its spectral properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 285, 123-129 (2005).

Yang, J.

Zh. X. Cheng, Sh. J. Zhang, J. R. Han, H. Ch. Chen, X. S. Liu, Y. Y. Yang, and J. Yang, “Growth and optical properties of NaY(WO4)2:Eu crystals,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 36, 135-140(2001).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y. Y.

Zh. X. Cheng, Sh. J. Zhang, J. R. Han, H. Ch. Chen, X. S. Liu, Y. Y. Yang, and J. Yang, “Growth and optical properties of NaY(WO4)2:Eu crystals,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 36, 135-140(2001).
[CrossRef]

You, Z.

Y. Wang, C. Tu, Z. You, J. Li, Z. Z. G. Jia, X. Lu, and B. Wu, “Growth of large-sized NaY(WO4)2 crystal and its spectral properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 285, 123-129 (2005).

Yu, H.

J. Fan, H. Zhang, W. Yu, H. Yu, J. Wang, and M. Jiang, “A Yb3+-doped NaY(WO4)2 crystal grown by the Czochralski technique,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 41, 584-591 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, W.

J. Fan, H. Zhang, W. Yu, H. Yu, J. Wang, and M. Jiang, “A Yb3+-doped NaY(WO4)2 crystal grown by the Czochralski technique,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 41, 584-591 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zaldo, C.

X. Han, A. Garcia-Cortes, M. D Serrano, C. Zaldo, and Cascales, “Structural and thermal properties of tetragonal double tungstate crystals intended for ytterbium laser composites,” Chem. Mater. 19, 3002-3010 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Cascales, M. D. Serrano, F. Esteban-Betegon, C. Zaldo, R. Peters, K. Petermann, G. Huber, L. Ackermann, D. Rytz, C. Dupre, M. Rico, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Structural, spectroscopic, and tunable laser properties of Yb3+-doped NaGd(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 174114-174129 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

J. Fan, H. Zhang, W. Yu, H. Yu, J. Wang, and M. Jiang, “A Yb3+-doped NaY(WO4)2 crystal grown by the Czochralski technique,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 41, 584-591 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

Z. Cheng, S. Zhang, K. Fu, J. Liu, and H. Chen, “Growth, thermal and laser properties of neodymium-doped sodium yttrium double tungstate crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 4038-4040 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Sh. J.

Zh. X. Cheng, Sh. J. Zhang, J. R. Han, H. Ch. Chen, X. S. Liu, Y. Y. Yang, and J. Yang, “Growth and optical properties of NaY(WO4)2:Eu crystals,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 36, 135-140(2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. X.

W. L. Zhou, X. X. Zhang, and B. H. T. Chai, “Laser oscillation at 1059 nm of a new laser crystal: Nd3+ doped NaY(WO4)2,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. Pollock and W. Bosenberg, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), paper SC11.

Zharikov, E. V.

K. A. Subbotin, E. V. Zharikov, and Smirnov, “Yb and Er- doped single crystal of double tungstate NaGd(WO4)2 and NaBi(WO4)2 as active media for laser operating in 1.0 and 1.5 μm ranges,” Opt. Spektrosk. 92(4), 601 (2002).0030-4034
[CrossRef]

Zhou, W. L.

W. L. Zhou, X. X. Zhang, and B. H. T. Chai, “Laser oscillation at 1059 nm of a new laser crystal: Nd3+ doped NaY(WO4)2,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. Pollock and W. Bosenberg, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), paper SC11.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Chem. Mater. (1)

X. Han, A. Garcia-Cortes, M. D Serrano, C. Zaldo, and Cascales, “Structural and thermal properties of tetragonal double tungstate crystals intended for ytterbium laser composites,” Chem. Mater. 19, 3002-3010 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cryst. Res. Technol. (1)

Zh. X. Cheng, Sh. J. Zhang, J. R. Han, H. Ch. Chen, X. S. Liu, Y. Y. Yang, and J. Yang, “Growth and optical properties of NaY(WO4)2:Eu crystals,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 36, 135-140(2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. F. Krupke, “Radiative transition probabilities within the 4f3 ground configuration of Nd:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 7, 153-159 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Crystallogr. (1)

J. Fan, H. Zhang, W. Yu, H. Yu, J. Wang, and M. Jiang, “A Yb3+-doped NaY(WO4)2 crystal grown by the Czochralski technique,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 41, 584-591 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511-520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424-4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (2)

Y. Wang, C. Tu, Z. You, J. Li, Z. Z. G. Jia, X. Lu, and B. Wu, “Growth of large-sized NaY(WO4)2 crystal and its spectral properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 285, 123-129 (2005).

S. Perets, M. Tseitlin, R. Z. Shneck, D. Mogilyanski, G. Kimmel, and Z. Burshtein, “Sodium gadolinium tungstate NaGd(WO4)2: growth, crystallography, and some physical properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 305, 257-264 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Z. Cheng, S. Zhang, K. Fu, J. Liu, and H. Chen, “Growth, thermal and laser properties of neodymium-doped sodium yttrium double tungstate crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 4038-4040 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

K. Fu, Z. Wang, Z. Cheng, J. Liu, R. Song, H. Chen, and Z. Shao, “Effect of Nd3+ concentration on the laser performance of a new laser crystal: Nd:NaY(WO4)2,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 593-595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Spektrosk. (1)

K. A. Subbotin, E. V. Zharikov, and Smirnov, “Yb and Er- doped single crystal of double tungstate NaGd(WO4)2 and NaBi(WO4)2 as active media for laser operating in 1.0 and 1.5 μm ranges,” Opt. Spektrosk. 92(4), 601 (2002).0030-4034
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127, 750-761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

C. Cascales, M. D. Serrano, F. Esteban-Betegon, C. Zaldo, R. Peters, K. Petermann, G. Huber, L. Ackermann, D. Rytz, C. Dupre, M. Rico, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Structural, spectroscopic, and tunable laser properties of Yb3+-doped NaGd(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 174114-174129 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

W. L. Zhou, X. X. Zhang, and B. H. T. Chai, “Laser oscillation at 1059 nm of a new laser crystal: Nd3+ doped NaY(WO4)2,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. Pollock and W. Bosenberg, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), paper SC11.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

X-ray powder diffraction pattern of a Na Y 0.94 Nd 0.06 ( W O 4 ) 2 crystal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

XRD peak corresponding to (112) plane for (a) undoped Na Y ( W O 4 ) 2 and (b) Na Y 0.94 Nd 0.1 ( W O 4 ) 2 crystals.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

General view of the unit cell of Na Y 1 x Nd x ( W O 4 ) 2 crystal.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Change in lattice parameters of Na Y 1 x Nd x ( W O 4 ) 2 with dopant concentration.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical absorption (solid) and emission (dashed) spectra of Na Y 0.94 Nd 0.06 ( W O 4 ) 2 crystal.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Changes in 806 nm absorption peak of Na Y 1 x Nd x ( W O 4 ) 2 crystals with dopant concentration.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Changes in fluorescence lifetime of Na Y 1 x Nd x ( W O 4 ) 2 crystal with dopant concentration ( λ em : 1.06 μm ).

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Crystallographic Data for Na Y 0.94 Nd 0.06 ( W O 4 ) 2 Crystal as Refined by Rietveld’s Analysis

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Table 2 Bond Lengths in the Atomic Basis of Na Y 0.94 Nd 0.06 ( W O 4 ) 2

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Table 3 Interbond Angles in the Atomic Basis of Na Y 0.94 Nd 0.06 ( W O 4 ) 2 Crystal

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Table 4 Spectroscopic Parameters of Na Y 0.94 Nd 0.06 ( W O 4 ) 2 Crystal

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Table 5 Calculated Line Strength, Radiative Probability, Branching Ratio, Lifetime and Quantum Efficiency for Different Emissions Originating from the F 3 / 2 4 Level of Nd 3 + in Na Y 0.94 Nd 0.06 ( W O 4 ) 2 Crystal

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S meas ( J J ) = 1 N c 3 h c ( 2 J + 1 ) 8 π 3 e 2 λ ¯ 9 n ( n 2 + 2 ) 2 Γ ,
α = Abs L log e .
σ a = α / N c .
S calc ( J J ) = t = 2 , 4 , 6 Ω t | ( S , L ) J U ( t ) ( S , L ) J | 2 .
S c = A Ω .
Ω ° = ( A + A ) 1 A + S meas
RMS ( Δ S ) = [ ( S meas S c ) 2 N M ] 1 / 2 .
1 τ r = J A ( J J ) .
A ( J J ) = 64 π 4 e 2 3 h ( 2 J + 1 ) n ( n 2 + 2 ) 2 9 λ ¯ 3 S J J .
β ( J ) = A ( J J ) J A ( J J ) .
η = τ f / τ r .
σ e = A ( J J ) λ 4 4 π 2 n 2 c Δ λ ,

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