Abstract

We have designed and characterized a mid-IR spectrometer built around a pulsed distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser using the characteristic frequency down-chirp to scan through the spectral region 6.5cm1 spectral region. The behavior of this chirp is extensively measured. The accuracy and detection limits of the system as an absorption spectrometer are demonstrated first by measuring spectra of acetylene through a single pass 16cm absorption cell in real time at low concentrations and atmospheric pressure. The smallest detectable peak is measured to be 1.5×104 absorbance units, yielding a minimum detectable concentration length product of 2.4 parts per million meter at standard temperature and pressure. This system is then used to detect acetylene within an ethylene–air opposed flow flame. Measurements of acetylene content as a function of height above the fuel source are presented, as well as measurements of acetylene produced in fuel breakdown as a function of preinjection fuel temperature.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2007 (1)

G. Duxbury, M. Langford, and M. McCulloch, “Rapid passage induced population transfer and coherences in the 8 micron spectrum of nitrous oxide,” Mol. Phys. 105, 741-754 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

M. T. McCulloch, G. Duxbury, and N. Langford, “Observation of saturation and rapid passage signals in the 10.25 micron spectrum of ethylene using a frequency chirped quantum cascade laser,” Mol. Phys. 104, 2767-2779 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith. J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. McNesby, A. W. Miziolek, T. Nguyen, F. C. Delucia, R. R. Skaggs, and T. A. Litzinger, “Experimental and computational studies of oxidizer and fuel side addition of ethanol to opposed flow air/ethylene flames,” Combust. Flame 142, 413-427 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

D. Weidmann, A. A. Kosterev, C. Roller, R. F. Curl, M. P. Fraser, and F. K. Tittel, “Monitoring of ethylene by a pulsed quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3329-3334 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Beyer, M. Braun, S. Hartwig, and S. Lambrechtin, “Linewidth measurement of free-running, pulsed, distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 4551-4554 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

D. Jacquemart, J. -Y. Mandin, V. Dana, C. Claveau, J. Vander Auwera, M. Herman, L. S. Rothman, L. Régalia-Jarlot, and A. Barbe, “The IR acetylene spectrum in HITRAN: update and new results,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 363-382 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Normand, M. McCulloch, G. Duxbury, and N. Langford, “Fast, real-time spectrometer based on a pulsed quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 28, 16-18 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Beyer, M. Braun, and A. Lambrecht, “Fast gas spectroscopy using pulsed quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3158-3160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. A. Kosterev and F. Tittel, “Chemical sensors based on quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 582-591 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

E. Normand, G. Duxbury, and N. Langford, “Characterisation of the spectral behavior of pulsed quantum cascade lasers using a high resolution Fourier transform infrared spectrometer,” Opt. Commun. 197, 115-120 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

A. Müller, M. Beck, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, and M. Ilegems, “Electrically tunable room-temperature quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1509-1511 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

1991 (1)

Y. Kabbadj, M. Herman, G. Di Lonardo, L. Fusina, and J. W. C. Johns, “The bending energy levels of C2H2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 150, 535-565 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

S. J. Harris and A. M. Weiner, “Surface growth of soot particles in premixed ethylene/air flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 31, 155-167 (1983).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Harris and A. M. Weiner, “Determination of the rate constant for soot surface growth,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 32, 267-275 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Auwera, J. Vander

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith. J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Jacquemart, J. -Y. Mandin, V. Dana, C. Claveau, J. Vander Auwera, M. Herman, L. S. Rothman, L. Régalia-Jarlot, and A. Barbe, “The IR acetylene spectrum in HITRAN: update and new results,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 363-382 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baillargeon, J. N.

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith. J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Jacquemart, J. -Y. Mandin, V. Dana, C. Claveau, J. Vander Auwera, M. Herman, L. S. Rothman, L. Régalia-Jarlot, and A. Barbe, “The IR acetylene spectrum in HITRAN: update and new results,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 363-382 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baukal, C. E.

C. E. Baukal, Jr., and R. E. Schwartz, The John Zink Combustion Handbook (CRC Press, 2001).
[CrossRef]

Beck, M.

A. Müller, M. Beck, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, and M. Ilegems, “Electrically tunable room-temperature quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1509-1511 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith. J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Beyer, T.

T. Beyer, M. Braun, S. Hartwig, and S. Lambrechtin, “Linewidth measurement of free-running, pulsed, distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 4551-4554 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Beyer, M. Braun, and A. Lambrecht, “Fast gas spectroscopy using pulsed quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3158-3160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith. J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Braun, M.

T. Beyer, M. Braun, S. Hartwig, and S. Lambrechtin, “Linewidth measurement of free-running, pulsed, distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 4551-4554 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Beyer, M. Braun, and A. Lambrecht, “Fast gas spectroscopy using pulsed quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3158-3160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith. J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cai, S.

Capasso, F.

Carleer, M. R.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith. J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chackerian, C.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith. J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith. J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

Claveau, C.

D. Jacquemart, J. -Y. Mandin, V. Dana, C. Claveau, J. Vander Auwera, M. Herman, L. S. Rothman, L. Régalia-Jarlot, and A. Barbe, “The IR acetylene spectrum in HITRAN: update and new results,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 363-382 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith. J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Curl, R. F.

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith. J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Jacquemart, J. -Y. Mandin, V. Dana, C. Claveau, J. Vander Auwera, M. Herman, L. S. Rothman, L. Régalia-Jarlot, and A. Barbe, “The IR acetylene spectrum in HITRAN: update and new results,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 363-382 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Daniel, R. G.

Delucia, F. C.

K. McNesby, A. W. Miziolek, T. Nguyen, F. C. Delucia, R. R. Skaggs, and T. A. Litzinger, “Experimental and computational studies of oxidizer and fuel side addition of ethanol to opposed flow air/ethylene flames,” Combust. Flame 142, 413-427 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith. J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Di Lonardo, G.

Y. Kabbadj, M. Herman, G. Di Lonardo, L. Fusina, and J. W. C. Johns, “The bending energy levels of C2H2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 150, 535-565 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Duxbury, G.

G. Duxbury, M. Langford, and M. McCulloch, “Rapid passage induced population transfer and coherences in the 8 micron spectrum of nitrous oxide,” Mol. Phys. 105, 741-754 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. T. McCulloch, G. Duxbury, and N. Langford, “Observation of saturation and rapid passage signals in the 10.25 micron spectrum of ethylene using a frequency chirped quantum cascade laser,” Mol. Phys. 104, 2767-2779 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Normand, M. McCulloch, G. Duxbury, and N. Langford, “Fast, real-time spectrometer based on a pulsed quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 28, 16-18 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Normand, G. Duxbury, and N. Langford, “Characterisation of the spectral behavior of pulsed quantum cascade lasers using a high resolution Fourier transform infrared spectrometer,” Opt. Commun. 197, 115-120 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

Flagan, R.

R. Flagan and J. Seinfeld, “Particle formation in combustion,” in Fundamentals of Air Pollution Engineering (Prentice-Hall, 1988), pp. 358-390.

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith. J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, M. P.

Fusina, L.

Y. Kabbadj, M. Herman, G. Di Lonardo, L. Fusina, and J. W. C. Johns, “The bending energy levels of C2H2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 150, 535-565 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith. J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith. J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Harris, S. J.

S. J. Harris and A. M. Weiner, “Surface growth of soot particles in premixed ethylene/air flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 31, 155-167 (1983).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Harris and A. M. Weiner, “Determination of the rate constant for soot surface growth,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 32, 267-275 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hartmann, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith. J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hartwig, S.

T. Beyer, M. Braun, S. Hartwig, and S. Lambrechtin, “Linewidth measurement of free-running, pulsed, distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 4551-4554 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Herman, M.

D. Jacquemart, J. -Y. Mandin, V. Dana, C. Claveau, J. Vander Auwera, M. Herman, L. S. Rothman, L. Régalia-Jarlot, and A. Barbe, “The IR acetylene spectrum in HITRAN: update and new results,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 363-382 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kabbadj, M. Herman, G. Di Lonardo, L. Fusina, and J. W. C. Johns, “The bending energy levels of C2H2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 150, 535-565 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hutchinson, A. L.

Ilegems, M.

A. Müller, M. Beck, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, and M. Ilegems, “Electrically tunable room-temperature quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1509-1511 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith. J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Jacquemart, J. -Y. Mandin, V. Dana, C. Claveau, J. Vander Auwera, M. Herman, L. S. Rothman, L. Régalia-Jarlot, and A. Barbe, “The IR acetylene spectrum in HITRAN: update and new results,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 363-382 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Johns, J. W. C.

Y. Kabbadj, M. Herman, G. Di Lonardo, L. Fusina, and J. W. C. Johns, “The bending energy levels of C2H2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 150, 535-565 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith. J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kabbadj, Y.

Y. Kabbadj, M. Herman, G. Di Lonardo, L. Fusina, and J. W. C. Johns, “The bending energy levels of C2H2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 150, 535-565 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kosterev, A. A.

Lambrecht, A.

T. Beyer, M. Braun, and A. Lambrecht, “Fast gas spectroscopy using pulsed quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3158-3160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lambrechtin, S.

T. Beyer, M. Braun, S. Hartwig, and S. Lambrechtin, “Linewidth measurement of free-running, pulsed, distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 4551-4554 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Langford, M.

G. Duxbury, M. Langford, and M. McCulloch, “Rapid passage induced population transfer and coherences in the 8 micron spectrum of nitrous oxide,” Mol. Phys. 105, 741-754 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Langford, N.

M. T. McCulloch, G. Duxbury, and N. Langford, “Observation of saturation and rapid passage signals in the 10.25 micron spectrum of ethylene using a frequency chirped quantum cascade laser,” Mol. Phys. 104, 2767-2779 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Normand, M. McCulloch, G. Duxbury, and N. Langford, “Fast, real-time spectrometer based on a pulsed quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 28, 16-18 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Normand, G. Duxbury, and N. Langford, “Characterisation of the spectral behavior of pulsed quantum cascade lasers using a high resolution Fourier transform infrared spectrometer,” Opt. Commun. 197, 115-120 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Litzinger, T. A.

K. McNesby, A. W. Miziolek, T. Nguyen, F. C. Delucia, R. R. Skaggs, and T. A. Litzinger, “Experimental and computational studies of oxidizer and fuel side addition of ethanol to opposed flow air/ethylene flames,” Combust. Flame 142, 413-427 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Maki, A. G.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith. J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mandin, J. -Y.

D. Jacquemart, J. -Y. Mandin, V. Dana, C. Claveau, J. Vander Auwera, M. Herman, L. S. Rothman, L. Régalia-Jarlot, and A. Barbe, “The IR acetylene spectrum in HITRAN: update and new results,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 363-382 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mandin, J.-Y.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith. J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith. J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McCulloch, M.

G. Duxbury, M. Langford, and M. McCulloch, “Rapid passage induced population transfer and coherences in the 8 micron spectrum of nitrous oxide,” Mol. Phys. 105, 741-754 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Normand, M. McCulloch, G. Duxbury, and N. Langford, “Fast, real-time spectrometer based on a pulsed quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 28, 16-18 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCulloch, M. T.

M. T. McCulloch, G. Duxbury, and N. Langford, “Observation of saturation and rapid passage signals in the 10.25 micron spectrum of ethylene using a frequency chirped quantum cascade laser,” Mol. Phys. 104, 2767-2779 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McNesby, K.

K. McNesby, A. W. Miziolek, T. Nguyen, F. C. Delucia, R. R. Skaggs, and T. A. Litzinger, “Experimental and computational studies of oxidizer and fuel side addition of ethanol to opposed flow air/ethylene flames,” Combust. Flame 142, 413-427 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McNesby, K. L.

Miziolek, A. W.

K. McNesby, A. W. Miziolek, T. Nguyen, F. C. Delucia, R. R. Skaggs, and T. A. Litzinger, “Experimental and computational studies of oxidizer and fuel side addition of ethanol to opposed flow air/ethylene flames,” Combust. Flame 142, 413-427 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Daniel, K. L. McNesby, and A. W. Miziolek, “Applications of tunable diode laser diagnostics for temperature and species concentration profiles of inhibited low-pressure flames, Appl. Opt. 35, 4018-4025 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Müller, A.

A. Müller, M. Beck, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, and M. Ilegems, “Electrically tunable room-temperature quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1509-1511 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Namjou, K.

Nguyen, T.

K. McNesby, A. W. Miziolek, T. Nguyen, F. C. Delucia, R. R. Skaggs, and T. A. Litzinger, “Experimental and computational studies of oxidizer and fuel side addition of ethanol to opposed flow air/ethylene flames,” Combust. Flame 142, 413-427 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Normand, E.

E. Normand, M. McCulloch, G. Duxbury, and N. Langford, “Fast, real-time spectrometer based on a pulsed quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 28, 16-18 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Normand, G. Duxbury, and N. Langford, “Characterisation of the spectral behavior of pulsed quantum cascade lasers using a high resolution Fourier transform infrared spectrometer,” Opt. Commun. 197, 115-120 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Oesterle, U.

A. Müller, M. Beck, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, and M. Ilegems, “Electrically tunable room-temperature quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1509-1511 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Orphal, J.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith. J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith. J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Régalia-Jarlot, L.

D. Jacquemart, J. -Y. Mandin, V. Dana, C. Claveau, J. Vander Auwera, M. Herman, L. S. Rothman, L. Régalia-Jarlot, and A. Barbe, “The IR acetylene spectrum in HITRAN: update and new results,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 363-382 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith. J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Roller, C.

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith. J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Jacquemart, J. -Y. Mandin, V. Dana, C. Claveau, J. Vander Auwera, M. Herman, L. S. Rothman, L. Régalia-Jarlot, and A. Barbe, “The IR acetylene spectrum in HITRAN: update and new results,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 363-382 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, R. E.

C. E. Baukal, Jr., and R. E. Schwartz, The John Zink Combustion Handbook (CRC Press, 2001).
[CrossRef]

Seinfeld, J.

R. Flagan and J. Seinfeld, “Particle formation in combustion,” in Fundamentals of Air Pollution Engineering (Prentice-Hall, 1988), pp. 358-390.

Sivco, D. L.

Skaggs, R. R.

K. McNesby, A. W. Miziolek, T. Nguyen, F. C. Delucia, R. R. Skaggs, and T. A. Litzinger, “Experimental and computational studies of oxidizer and fuel side addition of ethanol to opposed flow air/ethylene flames,” Combust. Flame 142, 413-427 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith. J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tennyson, J.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith. J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F.

Tittel, F. K.

Tolchenov, R. N.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith. J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith. J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Varanasi, P.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith. J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, G.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith. J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Weidmann, D.

Weiner, A. M.

S. J. Harris and A. M. Weiner, “Determination of the rate constant for soot surface growth,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 32, 267-275 (1983).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Harris and A. M. Weiner, “Surface growth of soot particles in premixed ethylene/air flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 31, 155-167 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Whittaker, E. A.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Müller, M. Beck, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, and M. Ilegems, “Electrically tunable room-temperature quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1509-1511 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Flame (1)

K. McNesby, A. W. Miziolek, T. Nguyen, F. C. Delucia, R. R. Skaggs, and T. A. Litzinger, “Experimental and computational studies of oxidizer and fuel side addition of ethanol to opposed flow air/ethylene flames,” Combust. Flame 142, 413-427 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Sci. Technol. (2)

S. J. Harris and A. M. Weiner, “Surface growth of soot particles in premixed ethylene/air flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 31, 155-167 (1983).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Harris and A. M. Weiner, “Determination of the rate constant for soot surface growth,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 32, 267-275 (1983).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. A. Kosterev and F. Tittel, “Chemical sensors based on quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 582-591 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

T. Beyer, M. Braun, and A. Lambrecht, “Fast gas spectroscopy using pulsed quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3158-3160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Beyer, M. Braun, S. Hartwig, and S. Lambrechtin, “Linewidth measurement of free-running, pulsed, distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 4551-4554 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Spectrosc. (1)

Y. Kabbadj, M. Herman, G. Di Lonardo, L. Fusina, and J. W. C. Johns, “The bending energy levels of C2H2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 150, 535-565 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (2)

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith. J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Jacquemart, J. -Y. Mandin, V. Dana, C. Claveau, J. Vander Auwera, M. Herman, L. S. Rothman, L. Régalia-Jarlot, and A. Barbe, “The IR acetylene spectrum in HITRAN: update and new results,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 363-382 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Phys. (2)

M. T. McCulloch, G. Duxbury, and N. Langford, “Observation of saturation and rapid passage signals in the 10.25 micron spectrum of ethylene using a frequency chirped quantum cascade laser,” Mol. Phys. 104, 2767-2779 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Duxbury, M. Langford, and M. McCulloch, “Rapid passage induced population transfer and coherences in the 8 micron spectrum of nitrous oxide,” Mol. Phys. 105, 741-754 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

E. Normand, G. Duxbury, and N. Langford, “Characterisation of the spectral behavior of pulsed quantum cascade lasers using a high resolution Fourier transform infrared spectrometer,” Opt. Commun. 197, 115-120 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (3)

“Alpes Lasers Literature,” http://www.alpeslasers.ch/Publications.html.

C. E. Baukal, Jr., and R. E. Schwartz, The John Zink Combustion Handbook (CRC Press, 2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Flagan and J. Seinfeld, “Particle formation in combustion,” in Fundamentals of Air Pollution Engineering (Prentice-Hall, 1988), pp. 358-390.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the direct absorption spectrometer setup. Current supply, temperature controller, and data collection are controlled in the LabVIEW instrument panels on a laptop. The single-pass absorption cell is 16.0 cm in length. The laser is sent through the burner parallel to the stagnation plane through the central axis of the flame.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(A) Uninterrupted laser pulse profile in blue on top with the current pulse amplitude in red. (B) Laser pulse with the superimposed interference fringes of the Michelson interferogram. (C) Transmission spectrum of 2.8 Torr of acetylene in a 16 cm single-pass cell. (D) Transmission spectrum of ethylene/air opposed flow flame taken near the peak acetylene position. All the laser pulse parameters, 6500 ns long, driven at 16 V across the chip with a repetition rate of 1.0 kHz and a substrate temperature set point of 30 ° C are representative of the laser settings during data collection.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calibration curve for laser output as a function of current pulse time. The periodic fringes (circles) are the zero crossing points of the Michelson interferogram. Gas absorption lines from methane and acetylene were taken in the absorption cell; the hot water lines were collected from the flame studies.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Representative absorption spectrum from 2.8 Torr of acetylene diluted to 1 atm in dry nitrogen. The spectrum has been plotted versus the calibrated frequency scale and fit to the multi-Lorentzian peak function discussed in Eq. (2). The results and residuals of this fit are shown in red.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Plotting integrated absorbance of P ( 23 ) at 1275.5 cm 1 acetylene absorption versus concentration of acetylene vapor (derived from partial pressure on the top axis). In the Beer–Lambert approximation the slope of this line is a measure of the absorption cross section of the material multiplied by the path length. The measured cross section is S = 2.36 ( ± 0.18 ) × 10 20 cm 1 /(molecules cm 2 )

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Line-of-sight absorption spectrum from an acetylene diffusion mixed flame collected over 4096 pulses of the laser. The principal acetylene absorption lines and the lines belonging to water are labeled. All unlabeled peaks have been assigned to acetylene absorptions.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Representative line-of-sight absorption spectra through an ethylene/air opposed flow flame.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Acetylene concentration measured through the central axis of the opposed flow burner as a function of height over the fuel source burner. The rise and fall of the acetylene concentration is below the stagnation plane and the observed location of the incandescent flame region.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Peak acetylene concentration plotted versus preinjection temperature of the ethylene fuel. Measured as the ethylene cooled for several minutes after the heaters that prewarmed the fuel were shut off. The increased acetylene concentration could indicate earlier decomposition of the hot fuel.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Temperature Dependence of the Line Strength a of the P ( 23 ) Absorption Line of the ( v 4 + v 5 ) Compound Bending Vibration of C 2 H 2

Equations (3)

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A ( ν ) = ln ( I ( ν ) I o ( ν ) ) = σ ( ν ) [ X ] L = S g ( ν ) [ X ] L .
F ( v ) = Σ i f i ( v ) = Σ i A i π ( γ i γ i 2 ( v v o i ) ) ,
A C 2 H 2 = f C 2 H 2 ( v ) d v = S C 2 H 2 [ X ] L .

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