Abstract

There has been a recent trend to reduce the size of photonic waveguide devices to enable high-density integration in silicon photonic integrated circuits. However, this miniaturization tends to result in increased polarization dependency. Particularly challenging is designing devices based on ring waveguides with small radii, which exacerbates the polarization sensitivity. For these microring resonators, a legitimate question is then: Is it possible to simultaneously maintain the conditions of single-mode and structural polarization independence while shrinking the size of both the bend radius and the waveguide cross section, and, if so, how small can the ring resonator be? We demonstrate theoretically the feasibility of achieving this via deeply etched submicrometer silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides, and we show that, for a given cladding and core thickness, the radius of a polarization independent microring resonator can be as small as 3 μm, being limited chiefly by the residual birefringence of the resonator cavity and the bend losses.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2008

2007

2006

D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and P. Cheben, “Design of polarization-insensitive ring resonators in silicon-on-insulator using MMI couplers and cladding stress engineering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 343-345 (2006).

F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, and M. Martinelli, “Effects of polarization rotation in optical ring-resonator-based devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 573-585 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

E. Cassan, L. Vivien, and S. Laval, “Polarization-independent 90° turns in single-mode micro-waveguides on silicon-on-insulator wafers for telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Commun. 235, 83-88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, A. Liu, M. Paniccia, and S. Howe, “Polarization-independent optical racetrack resonators using rib waveguide on silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5523-5525 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Dai and S. He, “Analysis of characteristics of bent rib waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 113-121 (2004).

M. K. Chin, C. L. Xu, and W. P. Huang, “Theoretical approach to a polarization insensitive single-mode microring resonator,” Opt. Express 12, 3245-3250 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

2002

2001

2000

B. E. Little and S. T. Chu, “Theory of polarization rotation and conversion in vertically coupled microresonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 401-403 (2000).

A. Yariv, “Universal relations for coupling of optical power between micro-resonators and dielectric waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36, 321-322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

1994

P. A. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, L. B. Soldano, and M. K. Smit, “Optical bandwidth and fabrication tolerances of multimode interference couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1004-1009 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

M. K. Smit, E. C. M. Pennings, and H. Blok, “A normalized approach to the design of low-loss optical waveguide bends,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1737-1742 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Absil, A. P.

S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, V. Van, J. V. Hryniewicz, A. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, D. Gill, O. King, F. Seiferth, M. Trakalo, and J. Shanton, “Compact full C-band tunable filters for 50 GHz channel spacing based on high order microring resonators,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, 2004), paper PDP9

Ang, Y. L.

Aydinli, A.

I. Kiyat, A. Aydinli, and N. Dagli, “Polarization characteristics of compact SOI rib waveguide racetrack resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2098-2100 (2005).

Bachmann, M.

P. A. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, L. B. Soldano, and M. K. Smit, “Optical bandwidth and fabrication tolerances of multimode interference couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1004-1009 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Baehr-Jones, T.

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, “High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulator-based slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 081101 (2005).

Baets, R.

W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and E. Pluk, “A polarization-diversity wavelength duplexer circuit in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express 15, 1567-1578 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Galarza, J. Moreno, M. Lopez-Amo, I. Christiaens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Simple low-loss waveguide bends using ARROW effect,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 745-748(2005).

W. Bogaerts, L. Liu, S. Selvaraja, J. Brouckaert, D. Taillaert, D. Vermeulen, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon nanophotonic waveguides and their applications,” presented at Asia-Pacific Optical Communications Conference (APOC), Hangzhou, China, 26-30 October 2008 (invited).

Beausoleil, R. G.

Besse, P. A.

P. A. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, L. B. Soldano, and M. K. Smit, “Optical bandwidth and fabrication tolerances of multimode interference couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1004-1009 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Blok, H.

M. K. Smit, E. C. M. Pennings, and H. Blok, “A normalized approach to the design of low-loss optical waveguide bends,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1737-1742 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and E. Pluk, “A polarization-diversity wavelength duplexer circuit in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express 15, 1567-1578 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, L. Liu, S. Selvaraja, J. Brouckaert, D. Taillaert, D. Vermeulen, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon nanophotonic waveguides and their applications,” presented at Asia-Pacific Optical Communications Conference (APOC), Hangzhou, China, 26-30 October 2008 (invited).

Brooks, C.

Brouckaert, J.

W. Bogaerts, L. Liu, S. Selvaraja, J. Brouckaert, D. Taillaert, D. Vermeulen, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon nanophotonic waveguides and their applications,” presented at Asia-Pacific Optical Communications Conference (APOC), Hangzhou, China, 26-30 October 2008 (invited).

Cassan, E.

E. Cassan, L. Vivien, and S. Laval, “Polarization-independent 90° turns in single-mode micro-waveguides on silicon-on-insulator wafers for telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Commun. 235, 83-88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chan, S. P.

Cheben, P.

D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and P. Cheben, “Design of polarization-insensitive ring resonators in silicon-on-insulator using MMI couplers and cladding stress engineering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 343-345 (2006).

W. Ye, D. X. Xu, S. Janz, P. Cheben, M. J. Picard, B. Lamontagne, and N. G. Tarr, “Birefringence control using stress engineering in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 1308-1318 (2005).

Chin, M. K.

Cho, S.-Y.

Christiaens, I.

M. Galarza, J. Moreno, M. Lopez-Amo, I. Christiaens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Simple low-loss waveguide bends using ARROW effect,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 745-748(2005).

Chu, S. T.

Y. Yanagase, S. Suzuki, Y. Kokubun, and S. T. Chu, “Box-like filter response and expansion of FSR by a vertically triple coupled microring resonator filter,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1525-1529 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little and S. T. Chu, “Theory of polarization rotation and conversion in vertically coupled microresonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 401-403 (2000).

S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, V. Van, J. V. Hryniewicz, A. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, D. Gill, O. King, F. Seiferth, M. Trakalo, and J. Shanton, “Compact full C-band tunable filters for 50 GHz channel spacing based on high order microring resonators,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, 2004), paper PDP9

Dagli, N.

I. Kiyat, A. Aydinli, and N. Dagli, “Polarization characteristics of compact SOI rib waveguide racetrack resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2098-2100 (2005).

Dai, D.

Z. Wang, D. Dai, and S. He, “Polarization-insensitive ultrasmall microring resonator design based on optimized Si sandwiched nanowires,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 759-761 (2007).

D. Dai and S. He, “Analysis of characteristics of bent rib waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 113-121 (2004).

Dapkus, P. D.

Deng, H.

Dumon, P.

Fukuda, H.

Galarza, M.

M. Galarza, J. Moreno, M. Lopez-Amo, I. Christiaens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Simple low-loss waveguide bends using ARROW effect,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 745-748(2005).

Gill, D.

S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, V. Van, J. V. Hryniewicz, A. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, D. Gill, O. King, F. Seiferth, M. Trakalo, and J. Shanton, “Compact full C-band tunable filters for 50 GHz channel spacing based on high order microring resonators,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, 2004), paper PDP9

He, S.

Z. Wang, D. Dai, and S. He, “Polarization-insensitive ultrasmall microring resonator design based on optimized Si sandwiched nanowires,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 759-761 (2007).

D. Dai and S. He, “Analysis of characteristics of bent rib waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 113-121 (2004).

Headley, W. R.

W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, A. Liu, M. Paniccia, and S. Howe, “Polarization-independent optical racetrack resonators using rib waveguide on silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5523-5525 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Headley III, “Optical ring resonators in silicon-on-insulator,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Surrey, 2005).

Ho, S. T.

Hochberg, M.

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, “High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulator-based slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 081101 (2005).

Howe, S.

W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, A. Liu, M. Paniccia, and S. Howe, “Polarization-independent optical racetrack resonators using rib waveguide on silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5523-5525 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hryniewicz, J. V.

S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, V. Van, J. V. Hryniewicz, A. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, D. Gill, O. King, F. Seiferth, M. Trakalo, and J. Shanton, “Compact full C-band tunable filters for 50 GHz channel spacing based on high order microring resonators,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, 2004), paper PDP9

Huang, W. P.

Itabashi, S.

Janz, S.

D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and P. Cheben, “Design of polarization-insensitive ring resonators in silicon-on-insulator using MMI couplers and cladding stress engineering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 343-345 (2006).

W. Ye, D. X. Xu, S. Janz, P. Cheben, M. J. Picard, B. Lamontagne, and N. G. Tarr, “Birefringence control using stress engineering in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 1308-1318 (2005).

Jessop, P. E.

Johnson, F. G.

S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, V. Van, J. V. Hryniewicz, A. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, D. Gill, O. King, F. Seiferth, M. Trakalo, and J. Shanton, “Compact full C-band tunable filters for 50 GHz channel spacing based on high order microring resonators,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, 2004), paper PDP9

Kimerling, L. C.

King, O.

S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, V. Van, J. V. Hryniewicz, A. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, D. Gill, O. King, F. Seiferth, M. Trakalo, and J. Shanton, “Compact full C-band tunable filters for 50 GHz channel spacing based on high order microring resonators,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, 2004), paper PDP9

Kiyat, I.

I. Kiyat, A. Aydinli, and N. Dagli, “Polarization characteristics of compact SOI rib waveguide racetrack resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2098-2100 (2005).

Kokubun, Y.

Lamontagne, B.

Laval, S.

E. Cassan, L. Vivien, and S. Laval, “Polarization-independent 90° turns in single-mode micro-waveguides on silicon-on-insulator wafers for telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Commun. 235, 83-88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. K.

Li, Y.

Lim, D. R.

Lim, S. T.

Little, B. E.

B. E. Little and S. T. Chu, “Theory of polarization rotation and conversion in vertically coupled microresonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 401-403 (2000).

S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, V. Van, J. V. Hryniewicz, A. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, D. Gill, O. King, F. Seiferth, M. Trakalo, and J. Shanton, “Compact full C-band tunable filters for 50 GHz channel spacing based on high order microring resonators,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, 2004), paper PDP9

Liu, A.

W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, A. Liu, M. Paniccia, and S. Howe, “Polarization-independent optical racetrack resonators using rib waveguide on silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5523-5525 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

W. Bogaerts, L. Liu, S. Selvaraja, J. Brouckaert, D. Taillaert, D. Vermeulen, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon nanophotonic waveguides and their applications,” presented at Asia-Pacific Optical Communications Conference (APOC), Hangzhou, China, 26-30 October 2008 (invited).

Lopez-Amo, M.

M. Galarza, J. Moreno, M. Lopez-Amo, I. Christiaens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Simple low-loss waveguide bends using ARROW effect,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 745-748(2005).

Love, J. D.

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, 1983).

Martinelli, M.

Melchior, H.

P. A. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, L. B. Soldano, and M. K. Smit, “Optical bandwidth and fabrication tolerances of multimode interference couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1004-1009 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Melloni, A.

Moreno, J.

M. Galarza, J. Moreno, M. Lopez-Amo, I. Christiaens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Simple low-loss waveguide bends using ARROW effect,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 745-748(2005).

Morichetti, F.

Okamoto, K.

K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides (Academic, 2000).

Ong, Y. A.

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Elsevier, 1998), p. 548.

Paniccia, M.

W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, A. Liu, M. Paniccia, and S. Howe, “Polarization-independent optical racetrack resonators using rib waveguide on silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5523-5525 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Passaro, V. M. N.

Pennings, E. C. M.

M. K. Smit, E. C. M. Pennings, and H. Blok, “A normalized approach to the design of low-loss optical waveguide bends,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1737-1742 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Picard, M. J.

Pluk, E.

Png, C. E.

Reed, G. T.

S. P. Chan, C. E. Png, S. T. Lim, V. M. N. Passaro, and G. T. Reed, “Single mode and polarization independent SOI waveguides with small cross section,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2103-2111 (2005).

W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, A. Liu, M. Paniccia, and S. Howe, “Polarization-independent optical racetrack resonators using rib waveguide on silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5523-5525 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Roelkens, G.

W. Bogaerts, L. Liu, S. Selvaraja, J. Brouckaert, D. Taillaert, D. Vermeulen, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon nanophotonic waveguides and their applications,” presented at Asia-Pacific Optical Communications Conference (APOC), Hangzhou, China, 26-30 October 2008 (invited).

Rostami, A.

Rostami, G.

Scherer, A.

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, “High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulator-based slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 081101 (2005).

Seiferth, F.

S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, V. Van, J. V. Hryniewicz, A. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, D. Gill, O. King, F. Seiferth, M. Trakalo, and J. Shanton, “Compact full C-band tunable filters for 50 GHz channel spacing based on high order microring resonators,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, 2004), paper PDP9

Selvaraja, S.

W. Bogaerts, L. Liu, S. Selvaraja, J. Brouckaert, D. Taillaert, D. Vermeulen, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon nanophotonic waveguides and their applications,” presented at Asia-Pacific Optical Communications Conference (APOC), Hangzhou, China, 26-30 October 2008 (invited).

Shanton, J.

S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, V. Van, J. V. Hryniewicz, A. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, D. Gill, O. King, F. Seiferth, M. Trakalo, and J. Shanton, “Compact full C-band tunable filters for 50 GHz channel spacing based on high order microring resonators,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, 2004), paper PDP9

Shinojima, H.

Smit, M. K.

P. A. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, L. B. Soldano, and M. K. Smit, “Optical bandwidth and fabrication tolerances of multimode interference couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1004-1009 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Smit, E. C. M. Pennings, and H. Blok, “A normalized approach to the design of low-loss optical waveguide bends,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1737-1742 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Snyder, A. W.

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, 1983).

Soldano, L. B.

P. A. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, L. B. Soldano, and M. K. Smit, “Optical bandwidth and fabrication tolerances of multimode interference couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1004-1009 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Song, M.

Soref, R.

Suzuki, S.

Taillaert, D.

W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and E. Pluk, “A polarization-diversity wavelength duplexer circuit in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express 15, 1567-1578 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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