Abstract

Signals of many types of aerosol lidars can be affected with a significant systematic error, if depolarizing scatterers are present in the atmosphere. That error is caused by a polarization-dependent receiver transmission. In this contribution we present an estimation of the magnitude of this systematic error. We show that lidar signals can be biased by more than 20%, if linearly polarized laser light is emitted, if both polarization components of the backscattered light are measured with a single detection channel, and if the receiver transmissions for these two polarization components differ by more than 50%. This signal bias increases with increasing ratio between the two transmission values (transmission ratio) or with the volume depolarization ratio of the scatterers. The resulting error of the particle backscatter coefficient increases with decreasing backscatter ratio. If the particle backscatter coefficients are to have an accuracy better than 5%, the transmission ratio has to be in the range between 0.85 and 1.15. We present a method to correct the measured signals for this bias. We demonstrate an experimental method for the determination of the transmission ratio. We use collocated measurements of a lidar system strongly affected by this signal bias and an unbiased reference system to verify the applicability of the correction scheme. The errors in the case of no correction are illustrated with example measurements of fresh Saharan dust.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2009

M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, B. Heese, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, M. Esselborn, G. Pisani, and P. Knippertz, “Vertical profiling of Saharan dust with Raman lidars and airbone HSRL in southern Morocco during SAMUM,” Tellus 61B, 144-164 (2009).

2008

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, D. Althausen, D. Müller, P. Seifert, V. Freudenthaler, B. Heese, M. Wiegner, G. Pisani, P. Knippertz, and O. Dubovik, “Influence of Saharan dust on cloud glaciation in southern Morocco during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D04210 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus 61B, 165-179 (2008).

M. Esselborn, M. Wirth, A. Fix, M. Tesche, and G. Ehret, “Airborne high spectral resolution lidar for measuring aerosol extinction and backscatter coefficients,” Appl. Opt. 47, 346-358 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Hair, C. A. Hostetler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, R. A. Ferrare, T. L. Mack, W. Welch, L. R. Isquierdo, and F. E. Hovis, “Airborne high spectral resolution lidar for profiling aerosol optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 47, 6734-6752 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

T. Nakajima, S.-C. Yoon, V. Ramanathan, G.-Y. Shi, T. Takemura, A. Higurashi, T. Takamura, K. Aoki, B.-J. Sohn, S.-W. Kim, H. Tsuruta, N. Sugimoto, A. Shimizu, H. Tanimoto, Y. Sawa, N.-H. Lin, C.-T. Lee, D. Goto, and N. Schutgens, “Overview of the Atmospheric Brown Cloud East Asian Regional Experiment 2005 and a study of the aerosol direct radiative forcing in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 122, D24S91 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Winker, W. H. Hunt, and M. J. McGill, “Initial performance assessment of CALIOP,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L19803 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

J. M. Alvarez, M. A. Vaughan, C. A. Hostetler, W. H. Hunt, and D. M. Winker, “Calibration technique for polarization-sensitive lidars,” 23, 683-699 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

T. Murayama, D. Müller, K. Wada, A. Shimizu, M. Sekiguchi, and T. Tsukamoto, “Characterization of Asian dust and Siberian smoke with multiwavelength Raman lidar over Tokyo, Japan in spring 2003,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L24103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, O. Dubovik, S. Eckhardt, and A. Stohl, “Saharan dust over a Central European EARLINET-AERONET site: combined observations with Raman lidar and Sun photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4345 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Reichardt, R. Baumgart, and T. J. McGee, “Three-signal method for accurate measurements of depolarization ratio with lidar,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4909-4913 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

2001

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, and S. Zörner, “Scanning 6-wavelength 11-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1469-1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Biele, G. Beyerle, and G. Baumgarten, “Polarization lidar: Corrections of instrumental effects,” Opt. Express 7, 427-435 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

M. Mishchenko and K. Sassen, “Depolarization of lidar returns by small ice crystals: an application to contrails,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 309-312 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995

M. Wiegner, H. Quenzel, D. Rabus, W. Völker, P. Völger, L. Ackermann, C. Kähler, F. Fergg, and G. Wildgruber, “The mobile three-wavelength backscatter lidar of the Meteorological Institute of the University Munich,” Proc. SPIE 2505, 2-10 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

1992

1985

1984

1981

1979

Abo, M.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ackermann, L.

M. Wiegner, H. Quenzel, D. Rabus, W. Völker, P. Völger, L. Ackermann, C. Kähler, F. Fergg, and G. Wildgruber, “The mobile three-wavelength backscatter lidar of the Meteorological Institute of the University Munich,” Proc. SPIE 2505, 2-10 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Althausen, D.

M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, B. Heese, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, M. Esselborn, G. Pisani, and P. Knippertz, “Vertical profiling of Saharan dust with Raman lidars and airbone HSRL in southern Morocco during SAMUM,” Tellus 61B, 144-164 (2009).

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus 61B, 165-179 (2008).

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, D. Althausen, D. Müller, P. Seifert, V. Freudenthaler, B. Heese, M. Wiegner, G. Pisani, P. Knippertz, and O. Dubovik, “Influence of Saharan dust on cloud glaciation in southern Morocco during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D04210 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, O. Dubovik, S. Eckhardt, and A. Stohl, “Saharan dust over a Central European EARLINET-AERONET site: combined observations with Raman lidar and Sun photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4345 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, V. Jaenisch, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, Y. F. Arshinov, S. M. Bobrovnikov, and I. B. Serikov, “Relative humidity profiling in the troposphere with a Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6451-6462 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, and S. Zörner, “Scanning 6-wavelength 11-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1469-1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Alvarez, J. M.

J. M. Alvarez, M. A. Vaughan, C. A. Hostetler, W. H. Hunt, and D. M. Winker, “Calibration technique for polarization-sensitive lidars,” 23, 683-699 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Amodeo, A.

G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, A. Apituley, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, G. Hansen, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, M. Perrone, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, N. Spinelli, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET-ASOS: European Aerosol Research Lidar Network--Advanced Sustainable Observation System,” in 7th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling: Needs and Technologies--Extended Abstracts (American Meteorological Society, 2006), pp. 5.3-5.4.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Amoiridis, V.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Ansmann, A.

M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, B. Heese, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, M. Esselborn, G. Pisani, and P. Knippertz, “Vertical profiling of Saharan dust with Raman lidars and airbone HSRL in southern Morocco during SAMUM,” Tellus 61B, 144-164 (2009).

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus 61B, 165-179 (2008).

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, D. Althausen, D. Müller, P. Seifert, V. Freudenthaler, B. Heese, M. Wiegner, G. Pisani, P. Knippertz, and O. Dubovik, “Influence of Saharan dust on cloud glaciation in southern Morocco during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D04210 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, O. Dubovik, S. Eckhardt, and A. Stohl, “Saharan dust over a Central European EARLINET-AERONET site: combined observations with Raman lidar and Sun photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4345 (2003).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger and A. Ansmann, “Experimental determination of the lidar overlap profile with Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 41, 511-514 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, V. Jaenisch, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, Y. F. Arshinov, S. M. Bobrovnikov, and I. B. Serikov, “Relative humidity profiling in the troposphere with a Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6451-6462 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, and S. Zörner, “Scanning 6-wavelength 11-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1469-1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, and C. Weitcamp, “Atmospheric Raman depolarization-ratio measurements,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5671-5673 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitcamp, and W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113-7131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, A. Apituley, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, G. Hansen, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, M. Perrone, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, N. Spinelli, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET-ASOS: European Aerosol Research Lidar Network--Advanced Sustainable Observation System,” in 7th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling: Needs and Technologies--Extended Abstracts (American Meteorological Society, 2006), pp. 5.3-5.4.

Aoki, K.

T. Nakajima, S.-C. Yoon, V. Ramanathan, G.-Y. Shi, T. Takemura, A. Higurashi, T. Takamura, K. Aoki, B.-J. Sohn, S.-W. Kim, H. Tsuruta, N. Sugimoto, A. Shimizu, H. Tanimoto, Y. Sawa, N.-H. Lin, C.-T. Lee, D. Goto, and N. Schutgens, “Overview of the Atmospheric Brown Cloud East Asian Regional Experiment 2005 and a study of the aerosol direct radiative forcing in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 122, D24S91 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Apituley, A.

G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, A. Apituley, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, G. Hansen, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, M. Perrone, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, N. Spinelli, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET-ASOS: European Aerosol Research Lidar Network--Advanced Sustainable Observation System,” in 7th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling: Needs and Technologies--Extended Abstracts (American Meteorological Society, 2006), pp. 5.3-5.4.

Arao, K.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Arshinov, Y. F.

Baldasano, J.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Balis, D.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, A. Apituley, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, G. Hansen, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, M. Perrone, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, N. Spinelli, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET-ASOS: European Aerosol Research Lidar Network--Advanced Sustainable Observation System,” in 7th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling: Needs and Technologies--Extended Abstracts (American Meteorological Society, 2006), pp. 5.3-5.4.

Baumgart, R.

Baumgarten, G.

Behrendt, A.

Beyerle, G.

Biele, J.

Bobrovnikov, S. M.

Böckmann, C.

G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, A. Apituley, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, G. Hansen, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, M. Perrone, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, N. Spinelli, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET-ASOS: European Aerosol Research Lidar Network--Advanced Sustainable Observation System,” in 7th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling: Needs and Technologies--Extended Abstracts (American Meteorological Society, 2006), pp. 5.3-5.4.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Boselli, A.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Bösenberg, J.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, A. Apituley, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, G. Hansen, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, M. Perrone, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, N. Spinelli, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET-ASOS: European Aerosol Research Lidar Network--Advanced Sustainable Observation System,” in 7th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling: Needs and Technologies--Extended Abstracts (American Meteorological Society, 2006), pp. 5.3-5.4.

Browell, E. V.

Carlsson, G.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Chaikovsky, A.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, A. Apituley, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, G. Hansen, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, M. Perrone, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, N. Spinelli, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET-ASOS: European Aerosol Research Lidar Network--Advanced Sustainable Observation System,” in 7th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling: Needs and Technologies--Extended Abstracts (American Meteorological Society, 2006), pp. 5.3-5.4.

Clauder, E.

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, and S. Zörner, “Scanning 6-wavelength 11-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1469-1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Comeron, A.

G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, A. Apituley, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, G. Hansen, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, M. Perrone, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, N. Spinelli, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET-ASOS: European Aerosol Research Lidar Network--Advanced Sustainable Observation System,” in 7th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling: Needs and Technologies--Extended Abstracts (American Meteorological Society, 2006), pp. 5.3-5.4.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Cook, A. L.

de Tomasi, F.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Dubovik, O.

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, D. Althausen, D. Müller, P. Seifert, V. Freudenthaler, B. Heese, M. Wiegner, G. Pisani, P. Knippertz, and O. Dubovik, “Influence of Saharan dust on cloud glaciation in southern Morocco during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D04210 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, O. Dubovik, S. Eckhardt, and A. Stohl, “Saharan dust over a Central European EARLINET-AERONET site: combined observations with Raman lidar and Sun photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4345 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eckhardt, S.

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, O. Dubovik, S. Eckhardt, and A. Stohl, “Saharan dust over a Central European EARLINET-AERONET site: combined observations with Raman lidar and Sun photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4345 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ehret, G.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus 61B, 165-179 (2008).

M. Esselborn, M. Wirth, A. Fix, M. Tesche, and G. Ehret, “Airborne high spectral resolution lidar for measuring aerosol extinction and backscatter coefficients,” Appl. Opt. 47, 346-358 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eixmann, R.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Esselborn, M.

M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, B. Heese, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, M. Esselborn, G. Pisani, and P. Knippertz, “Vertical profiling of Saharan dust with Raman lidars and airbone HSRL in southern Morocco during SAMUM,” Tellus 61B, 144-164 (2009).

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus 61B, 165-179 (2008).

M. Esselborn, M. Wirth, A. Fix, M. Tesche, and G. Ehret, “Airborne high spectral resolution lidar for measuring aerosol extinction and backscatter coefficients,” Appl. Opt. 47, 346-358 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fergg, F.

M. Wiegner, H. Quenzel, D. Rabus, W. Völker, P. Völger, L. Ackermann, C. Kähler, F. Fergg, and G. Wildgruber, “The mobile three-wavelength backscatter lidar of the Meteorological Institute of the University Munich,” Proc. SPIE 2505, 2-10 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fernald, F. G.

Ferrare, R. A.

Fix, A.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus 61B, 165-179 (2008).

M. Esselborn, M. Wirth, A. Fix, M. Tesche, and G. Ehret, “Airborne high spectral resolution lidar for measuring aerosol extinction and backscatter coefficients,” Appl. Opt. 47, 346-358 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freudenthaler, V.

M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, B. Heese, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, M. Esselborn, G. Pisani, and P. Knippertz, “Vertical profiling of Saharan dust with Raman lidars and airbone HSRL in southern Morocco during SAMUM,” Tellus 61B, 144-164 (2009).

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus 61B, 165-179 (2008).

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, D. Althausen, D. Müller, P. Seifert, V. Freudenthaler, B. Heese, M. Wiegner, G. Pisani, P. Knippertz, and O. Dubovik, “Influence of Saharan dust on cloud glaciation in southern Morocco during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D04210 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

B. Heese, V. Freudenthaler, M. Seefeldner, and M. Wiegner, “POLIS: A new portable system for ground-based and airborne measurements of aerosols and clouds,” in Lidar Remote Sensing in Atmospheric and Earth Sciences L. Bissonnette, G. Roy, and G. Vallee, eds. (Defence Research and Development Canada Valcartier, 2002), pp. 71-74.

G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, A. Apituley, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, G. Hansen, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, M. Perrone, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, N. Spinelli, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET-ASOS: European Aerosol Research Lidar Network--Advanced Sustainable Observation System,” in 7th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling: Needs and Technologies--Extended Abstracts (American Meteorological Society, 2006), pp. 5.3-5.4.

Garhammer, M.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus 61B, 165-179 (2008).

Gasteiger, J.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus 61B, 165-179 (2008).

Giehl, H.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Goto, D.

T. Nakajima, S.-C. Yoon, V. Ramanathan, G.-Y. Shi, T. Takemura, A. Higurashi, T. Takamura, K. Aoki, B.-J. Sohn, S.-W. Kim, H. Tsuruta, N. Sugimoto, A. Shimizu, H. Tanimoto, Y. Sawa, N.-H. Lin, C.-T. Lee, D. Goto, and N. Schutgens, “Overview of the Atmospheric Brown Cloud East Asian Regional Experiment 2005 and a study of the aerosol direct radiative forcing in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 122, D24S91 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grigorov, I.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Hagard, A.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Hagiwara, N.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hair, J. W.

Hansen, G.

G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, A. Apituley, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, G. Hansen, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, M. Perrone, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, N. Spinelli, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET-ASOS: European Aerosol Research Lidar Network--Advanced Sustainable Observation System,” in 7th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling: Needs and Technologies--Extended Abstracts (American Meteorological Society, 2006), pp. 5.3-5.4.

Harper, D. B.

Heese, B.

M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, B. Heese, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, M. Esselborn, G. Pisani, and P. Knippertz, “Vertical profiling of Saharan dust with Raman lidars and airbone HSRL in southern Morocco during SAMUM,” Tellus 61B, 144-164 (2009).

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus 61B, 165-179 (2008).

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, D. Althausen, D. Müller, P. Seifert, V. Freudenthaler, B. Heese, M. Wiegner, G. Pisani, P. Knippertz, and O. Dubovik, “Influence of Saharan dust on cloud glaciation in southern Morocco during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D04210 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Heese, V. Freudenthaler, M. Seefeldner, and M. Wiegner, “POLIS: A new portable system for ground-based and airborne measurements of aerosols and clouds,” in Lidar Remote Sensing in Atmospheric and Earth Sciences L. Bissonnette, G. Roy, and G. Vallee, eds. (Defence Research and Development Canada Valcartier, 2002), pp. 71-74.

Higurashi, A.

T. Nakajima, S.-C. Yoon, V. Ramanathan, G.-Y. Shi, T. Takemura, A. Higurashi, T. Takamura, K. Aoki, B.-J. Sohn, S.-W. Kim, H. Tsuruta, N. Sugimoto, A. Shimizu, H. Tanimoto, Y. Sawa, N.-H. Lin, C.-T. Lee, D. Goto, and N. Schutgens, “Overview of the Atmospheric Brown Cloud East Asian Regional Experiment 2005 and a study of the aerosol direct radiative forcing in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 122, D24S91 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hostetler, C. A.

Hovis, F. E.

Hu, H.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hube, H.

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, and S. Zörner, “Scanning 6-wavelength 11-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1469-1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hunt, W. H.

D. M. Winker, W. H. Hunt, and M. J. McGill, “Initial performance assessment of CALIOP,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L19803 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Alvarez, M. A. Vaughan, C. A. Hostetler, W. H. Hunt, and D. M. Winker, “Calibration technique for polarization-sensitive lidars,” 23, 683-699 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Iarlori, M.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Iokibe, K.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ismail, S.

Isquierdo, L. R.

Iwasaka, Y.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jaenisch, V.

Kähler, C.

M. Wiegner, H. Quenzel, D. Rabus, W. Völker, P. Völger, L. Ackermann, C. Kähler, F. Fergg, and G. Wildgruber, “The mobile three-wavelength backscatter lidar of the Meteorological Institute of the University Munich,” Proc. SPIE 2505, 2-10 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-W.

T. Nakajima, S.-C. Yoon, V. Ramanathan, G.-Y. Shi, T. Takemura, A. Higurashi, T. Takamura, K. Aoki, B.-J. Sohn, S.-W. Kim, H. Tsuruta, N. Sugimoto, A. Shimizu, H. Tanimoto, Y. Sawa, N.-H. Lin, C.-T. Lee, D. Goto, and N. Schutgens, “Overview of the Atmospheric Brown Cloud East Asian Regional Experiment 2005 and a study of the aerosol direct radiative forcing in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 122, D24S91 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kinoshita, K.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kirsche, A.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Klett, J. D.

Knippertz, P.

M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, B. Heese, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, M. Esselborn, G. Pisani, and P. Knippertz, “Vertical profiling of Saharan dust with Raman lidars and airbone HSRL in southern Morocco during SAMUM,” Tellus 61B, 144-164 (2009).

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus 61B, 165-179 (2008).

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, D. Althausen, D. Müller, P. Seifert, V. Freudenthaler, B. Heese, M. Wiegner, G. Pisani, P. Knippertz, and O. Dubovik, “Influence of Saharan dust on cloud glaciation in southern Morocco during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D04210 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Koga, R.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kolarov, G.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Kreipl, S.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Kumpf, W.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Lee, C.-T.

T. Nakajima, S.-C. Yoon, V. Ramanathan, G.-Y. Shi, T. Takemura, A. Higurashi, T. Takamura, K. Aoki, B.-J. Sohn, S.-W. Kim, H. Tsuruta, N. Sugimoto, A. Shimizu, H. Tanimoto, Y. Sawa, N.-H. Lin, C.-T. Lee, D. Goto, and N. Schutgens, “Overview of the Atmospheric Brown Cloud East Asian Regional Experiment 2005 and a study of the aerosol direct radiative forcing in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 122, D24S91 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, T.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lin, N.-H.

T. Nakajima, S.-C. Yoon, V. Ramanathan, G.-Y. Shi, T. Takemura, A. Higurashi, T. Takamura, K. Aoki, B.-J. Sohn, S.-W. Kim, H. Tsuruta, N. Sugimoto, A. Shimizu, H. Tanimoto, Y. Sawa, N.-H. Lin, C.-T. Lee, D. Goto, and N. Schutgens, “Overview of the Atmospheric Brown Cloud East Asian Regional Experiment 2005 and a study of the aerosol direct radiative forcing in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 122, D24S91 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Linné, H.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Liu, Z.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mack, T. L.

Matsui, I.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Matthey, R.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Matthias, V.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Mattis, I.

M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, B. Heese, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, M. Esselborn, G. Pisani, and P. Knippertz, “Vertical profiling of Saharan dust with Raman lidars and airbone HSRL in southern Morocco during SAMUM,” Tellus 61B, 144-164 (2009).

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, O. Dubovik, S. Eckhardt, and A. Stohl, “Saharan dust over a Central European EARLINET-AERONET site: combined observations with Raman lidar and Sun photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4345 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, V. Jaenisch, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, Y. F. Arshinov, S. M. Bobrovnikov, and I. B. Serikov, “Relative humidity profiling in the troposphere with a Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6451-6462 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

I. Mattis, “Aufbau eines Feuchte-Temperatur-Aerosol-Ramanlidars und Methodenentwicklung zur kombinierten Analyse von Trajektorien und Aerosolprofilen (Construction of a humidity temperature aerosol Raman lidar and development of a method for a combined analysis of trajectories and aerosol profiles),” Ph.D. dissertation (Universität Leipzig, 2002).

I. Mattis, “Errors in backscatter profiles caused by a depolarization-dependent receiver transmission,” in Lidar Remote Sensing in Atmosphere and Earth Sciences. Reviewed and Revised Papers Presented at the Twenty-First International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC21), L. R. Bissonnette, G. Roy, and G. Vallee, eds. (Defence R & D Canada Valcartier, 2002), pp. 121-124.

McCormick, P.

McGee, T. J.

McGill, M. J.

D. M. Winker, W. H. Hunt, and M. J. McGill, “Initial performance assessment of CALIOP,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L19803 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mekler, A.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Michaelis, W.

Mironova, I.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Mishchenko, M.

M. Mishchenko and K. Sassen, “Depolarization of lidar returns by small ice crystals: an application to contrails,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 309-312 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mitev, V.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, A. Apituley, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, G. Hansen, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, M. Perrone, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, N. Spinelli, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET-ASOS: European Aerosol Research Lidar Network--Advanced Sustainable Observation System,” in 7th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling: Needs and Technologies--Extended Abstracts (American Meteorological Society, 2006), pp. 5.3-5.4.

Mona, L.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Müller, D.

M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, B. Heese, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, M. Esselborn, G. Pisani, and P. Knippertz, “Vertical profiling of Saharan dust with Raman lidars and airbone HSRL in southern Morocco during SAMUM,” Tellus 61B, 144-164 (2009).

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus 61B, 165-179 (2008).

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, D. Althausen, D. Müller, P. Seifert, V. Freudenthaler, B. Heese, M. Wiegner, G. Pisani, P. Knippertz, and O. Dubovik, “Influence of Saharan dust on cloud glaciation in southern Morocco during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D04210 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Murayama, D. Müller, K. Wada, A. Shimizu, M. Sekiguchi, and T. Tsukamoto, “Characterization of Asian dust and Siberian smoke with multiwavelength Raman lidar over Tokyo, Japan in spring 2003,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L24103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, O. Dubovik, S. Eckhardt, and A. Stohl, “Saharan dust over a Central European EARLINET-AERONET site: combined observations with Raman lidar and Sun photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4345 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, V. Jaenisch, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, Y. F. Arshinov, S. M. Bobrovnikov, and I. B. Serikov, “Relative humidity profiling in the troposphere with a Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6451-6462 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, and S. Zörner, “Scanning 6-wavelength 11-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1469-1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Murayama, T.

T. Murayama, D. Müller, K. Wada, A. Shimizu, M. Sekiguchi, and T. Tsukamoto, “Characterization of Asian dust and Siberian smoke with multiwavelength Raman lidar over Tokyo, Japan in spring 2003,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L24103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Music, S.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Nakajima, T.

T. Nakajima, S.-C. Yoon, V. Ramanathan, G.-Y. Shi, T. Takemura, A. Higurashi, T. Takamura, K. Aoki, B.-J. Sohn, S.-W. Kim, H. Tsuruta, N. Sugimoto, A. Shimizu, H. Tanimoto, Y. Sawa, N.-H. Lin, C.-T. Lee, D. Goto, and N. Schutgens, “Overview of the Atmospheric Brown Cloud East Asian Regional Experiment 2005 and a study of the aerosol direct radiative forcing in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 122, D24S91 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, T.

Nickovic, S.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Pandolfi, M.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Papayannis, A.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, A. Apituley, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, G. Hansen, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, M. Perrone, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, N. Spinelli, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET-ASOS: European Aerosol Research Lidar Network--Advanced Sustainable Observation System,” in 7th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling: Needs and Technologies--Extended Abstracts (American Meteorological Society, 2006), pp. 5.3-5.4.

Pappalardo, G.

G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, A. Apituley, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, G. Hansen, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, M. Perrone, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, N. Spinelli, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET-ASOS: European Aerosol Research Lidar Network--Advanced Sustainable Observation System,” in 7th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling: Needs and Technologies--Extended Abstracts (American Meteorological Society, 2006), pp. 5.3-5.4.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Pelon, J.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Pérez, C.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Perrone, M.

G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, A. Apituley, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, G. Hansen, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, M. Perrone, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, N. Spinelli, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET-ASOS: European Aerosol Research Lidar Network--Advanced Sustainable Observation System,” in 7th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling: Needs and Technologies--Extended Abstracts (American Meteorological Society, 2006), pp. 5.3-5.4.

Perrone, R. M.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Persson, R.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Pietruczuk, A.

G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, A. Apituley, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, G. Hansen, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, M. Perrone, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, N. Spinelli, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET-ASOS: European Aerosol Research Lidar Network--Advanced Sustainable Observation System,” in 7th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling: Needs and Technologies--Extended Abstracts (American Meteorological Society, 2006), pp. 5.3-5.4.

Pisani, G.

M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, B. Heese, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, M. Esselborn, G. Pisani, and P. Knippertz, “Vertical profiling of Saharan dust with Raman lidars and airbone HSRL in southern Morocco during SAMUM,” Tellus 61B, 144-164 (2009).

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, D. Althausen, D. Müller, P. Seifert, V. Freudenthaler, B. Heese, M. Wiegner, G. Pisani, P. Knippertz, and O. Dubovik, “Influence of Saharan dust on cloud glaciation in southern Morocco during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D04210 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pujadas, M.

G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, A. Apituley, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, G. Hansen, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, M. Perrone, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, N. Spinelli, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET-ASOS: European Aerosol Research Lidar Network--Advanced Sustainable Observation System,” in 7th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling: Needs and Technologies--Extended Abstracts (American Meteorological Society, 2006), pp. 5.3-5.4.

Quenzel, H.

M. Wiegner, H. Quenzel, D. Rabus, W. Völker, P. Völger, L. Ackermann, C. Kähler, F. Fergg, and G. Wildgruber, “The mobile three-wavelength backscatter lidar of the Meteorological Institute of the University Munich,” Proc. SPIE 2505, 2-10 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rabus, D.

M. Wiegner, H. Quenzel, D. Rabus, W. Völker, P. Völger, L. Ackermann, C. Kähler, F. Fergg, and G. Wildgruber, “The mobile three-wavelength backscatter lidar of the Meteorological Institute of the University Munich,” Proc. SPIE 2505, 2-10 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ramanathan, V.

T. Nakajima, S.-C. Yoon, V. Ramanathan, G.-Y. Shi, T. Takemura, A. Higurashi, T. Takamura, K. Aoki, B.-J. Sohn, S.-W. Kim, H. Tsuruta, N. Sugimoto, A. Shimizu, H. Tanimoto, Y. Sawa, N.-H. Lin, C.-T. Lee, D. Goto, and N. Schutgens, “Overview of the Atmospheric Brown Cloud East Asian Regional Experiment 2005 and a study of the aerosol direct radiative forcing in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 122, D24S91 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ravetta, F.

G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, A. Apituley, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, G. Hansen, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, M. Perrone, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, N. Spinelli, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET-ASOS: European Aerosol Research Lidar Network--Advanced Sustainable Observation System,” in 7th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling: Needs and Technologies--Extended Abstracts (American Meteorological Society, 2006), pp. 5.3-5.4.

Reichardt, J.

Resendes, D. P.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Riebesell, M.

Rizi, V.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, A. Apituley, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, G. Hansen, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, M. Perrone, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, N. Spinelli, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET-ASOS: European Aerosol Research Lidar Network--Advanced Sustainable Observation System,” in 7th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling: Needs and Technologies--Extended Abstracts (American Meteorological Society, 2006), pp. 5.3-5.4.

Rocadenbosch, F.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Rodrigues, J. A.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Russell, P.

Sakai, T.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sasano, Y.

Sassen, K.

M. Mishchenko and K. Sassen, “Depolarization of lidar returns by small ice crystals: an application to contrails,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 309-312 (1998).
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K. Sassen, “Polarization in Lidar,” in “Lidar: Range-Resolved Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere,” C. Weitkamp, ed. (Springer, 2005), pp. 19-42.

Sauvage, L.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Sawa, Y.

T. Nakajima, S.-C. Yoon, V. Ramanathan, G.-Y. Shi, T. Takemura, A. Higurashi, T. Takamura, K. Aoki, B.-J. Sohn, S.-W. Kim, H. Tsuruta, N. Sugimoto, A. Shimizu, H. Tanimoto, Y. Sawa, N.-H. Lin, C.-T. Lee, D. Goto, and N. Schutgens, “Overview of the Atmospheric Brown Cloud East Asian Regional Experiment 2005 and a study of the aerosol direct radiative forcing in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 122, D24S91 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schneidenbach, L.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Schutgens, N.

T. Nakajima, S.-C. Yoon, V. Ramanathan, G.-Y. Shi, T. Takemura, A. Higurashi, T. Takamura, K. Aoki, B.-J. Sohn, S.-W. Kim, H. Tsuruta, N. Sugimoto, A. Shimizu, H. Tanimoto, Y. Sawa, N.-H. Lin, C.-T. Lee, D. Goto, and N. Schutgens, “Overview of the Atmospheric Brown Cloud East Asian Regional Experiment 2005 and a study of the aerosol direct radiative forcing in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 122, D24S91 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Seefeldner, M.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus 61B, 165-179 (2008).

B. Heese, V. Freudenthaler, M. Seefeldner, and M. Wiegner, “POLIS: A new portable system for ground-based and airborne measurements of aerosols and clouds,” in Lidar Remote Sensing in Atmospheric and Earth Sciences L. Bissonnette, G. Roy, and G. Vallee, eds. (Defence Research and Development Canada Valcartier, 2002), pp. 71-74.

Seifert, P.

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, D. Althausen, D. Müller, P. Seifert, V. Freudenthaler, B. Heese, M. Wiegner, G. Pisani, P. Knippertz, and O. Dubovik, “Influence of Saharan dust on cloud glaciation in southern Morocco during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D04210 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sekiguchi, M.

T. Murayama, D. Müller, K. Wada, A. Shimizu, M. Sekiguchi, and T. Tsukamoto, “Characterization of Asian dust and Siberian smoke with multiwavelength Raman lidar over Tokyo, Japan in spring 2003,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L24103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Serikov, I. B.

Shi, G.-Y.

T. Nakajima, S.-C. Yoon, V. Ramanathan, G.-Y. Shi, T. Takemura, A. Higurashi, T. Takamura, K. Aoki, B.-J. Sohn, S.-W. Kim, H. Tsuruta, N. Sugimoto, A. Shimizu, H. Tanimoto, Y. Sawa, N.-H. Lin, C.-T. Lee, D. Goto, and N. Schutgens, “Overview of the Atmospheric Brown Cloud East Asian Regional Experiment 2005 and a study of the aerosol direct radiative forcing in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 122, D24S91 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, T.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, A.

T. Nakajima, S.-C. Yoon, V. Ramanathan, G.-Y. Shi, T. Takemura, A. Higurashi, T. Takamura, K. Aoki, B.-J. Sohn, S.-W. Kim, H. Tsuruta, N. Sugimoto, A. Shimizu, H. Tanimoto, Y. Sawa, N.-H. Lin, C.-T. Lee, D. Goto, and N. Schutgens, “Overview of the Atmospheric Brown Cloud East Asian Regional Experiment 2005 and a study of the aerosol direct radiative forcing in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 122, D24S91 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Murayama, D. Müller, K. Wada, A. Shimizu, M. Sekiguchi, and T. Tsukamoto, “Characterization of Asian dust and Siberian smoke with multiwavelength Raman lidar over Tokyo, Japan in spring 2003,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L24103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Simeonov, V.

G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, A. Apituley, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, G. Hansen, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, M. Perrone, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, N. Spinelli, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET-ASOS: European Aerosol Research Lidar Network--Advanced Sustainable Observation System,” in 7th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling: Needs and Technologies--Extended Abstracts (American Meteorological Society, 2006), pp. 5.3-5.4.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Sobolewski, P.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Sohn, B.-J.

T. Nakajima, S.-C. Yoon, V. Ramanathan, G.-Y. Shi, T. Takemura, A. Higurashi, T. Takamura, K. Aoki, B.-J. Sohn, S.-W. Kim, H. Tsuruta, N. Sugimoto, A. Shimizu, H. Tanimoto, Y. Sawa, N.-H. Lin, C.-T. Lee, D. Goto, and N. Schutgens, “Overview of the Atmospheric Brown Cloud East Asian Regional Experiment 2005 and a study of the aerosol direct radiative forcing in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 122, D24S91 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Spinelli, N.

G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, A. Apituley, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, G. Hansen, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, M. Perrone, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, N. Spinelli, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET-ASOS: European Aerosol Research Lidar Network--Advanced Sustainable Observation System,” in 7th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling: Needs and Technologies--Extended Abstracts (American Meteorological Society, 2006), pp. 5.3-5.4.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Stachlewska, I.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Stohl, A.

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, O. Dubovik, S. Eckhardt, and A. Stohl, “Saharan dust over a Central European EARLINET-AERONET site: combined observations with Raman lidar and Sun photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4345 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stoyanov, D.

G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, A. Apituley, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, G. Hansen, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, M. Perrone, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, N. Spinelli, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET-ASOS: European Aerosol Research Lidar Network--Advanced Sustainable Observation System,” in 7th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling: Needs and Technologies--Extended Abstracts (American Meteorological Society, 2006), pp. 5.3-5.4.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Sugimoto, N.

T. Nakajima, S.-C. Yoon, V. Ramanathan, G.-Y. Shi, T. Takemura, A. Higurashi, T. Takamura, K. Aoki, B.-J. Sohn, S.-W. Kim, H. Tsuruta, N. Sugimoto, A. Shimizu, H. Tanimoto, Y. Sawa, N.-H. Lin, C.-T. Lee, D. Goto, and N. Schutgens, “Overview of the Atmospheric Brown Cloud East Asian Regional Experiment 2005 and a study of the aerosol direct radiative forcing in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 122, D24S91 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Swissier, J.

Takamura, T.

T. Nakajima, S.-C. Yoon, V. Ramanathan, G.-Y. Shi, T. Takemura, A. Higurashi, T. Takamura, K. Aoki, B.-J. Sohn, S.-W. Kim, H. Tsuruta, N. Sugimoto, A. Shimizu, H. Tanimoto, Y. Sawa, N.-H. Lin, C.-T. Lee, D. Goto, and N. Schutgens, “Overview of the Atmospheric Brown Cloud East Asian Regional Experiment 2005 and a study of the aerosol direct radiative forcing in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 122, D24S91 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Takemura, T.

T. Nakajima, S.-C. Yoon, V. Ramanathan, G.-Y. Shi, T. Takemura, A. Higurashi, T. Takamura, K. Aoki, B.-J. Sohn, S.-W. Kim, H. Tsuruta, N. Sugimoto, A. Shimizu, H. Tanimoto, Y. Sawa, N.-H. Lin, C.-T. Lee, D. Goto, and N. Schutgens, “Overview of the Atmospheric Brown Cloud East Asian Regional Experiment 2005 and a study of the aerosol direct radiative forcing in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 122, D24S91 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tanimoto, H.

T. Nakajima, S.-C. Yoon, V. Ramanathan, G.-Y. Shi, T. Takemura, A. Higurashi, T. Takamura, K. Aoki, B.-J. Sohn, S.-W. Kim, H. Tsuruta, N. Sugimoto, A. Shimizu, H. Tanimoto, Y. Sawa, N.-H. Lin, C.-T. Lee, D. Goto, and N. Schutgens, “Overview of the Atmospheric Brown Cloud East Asian Regional Experiment 2005 and a study of the aerosol direct radiative forcing in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 122, D24S91 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tesche, M.

M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, B. Heese, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, M. Esselborn, G. Pisani, and P. Knippertz, “Vertical profiling of Saharan dust with Raman lidars and airbone HSRL in southern Morocco during SAMUM,” Tellus 61B, 144-164 (2009).

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus 61B, 165-179 (2008).

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, D. Althausen, D. Müller, P. Seifert, V. Freudenthaler, B. Heese, M. Wiegner, G. Pisani, P. Knippertz, and O. Dubovik, “Influence of Saharan dust on cloud glaciation in southern Morocco during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D04210 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Esselborn, M. Wirth, A. Fix, M. Tesche, and G. Ehret, “Airborne high spectral resolution lidar for measuring aerosol extinction and backscatter coefficients,” Appl. Opt. 47, 346-358 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toledano, C.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus 61B, 165-179 (2008).

Trickl, T.

G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, A. Apituley, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, G. Hansen, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, M. Perrone, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, N. Spinelli, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET-ASOS: European Aerosol Research Lidar Network--Advanced Sustainable Observation System,” in 7th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling: Needs and Technologies--Extended Abstracts (American Meteorological Society, 2006), pp. 5.3-5.4.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Tsukamoto, T.

T. Murayama, D. Müller, K. Wada, A. Shimizu, M. Sekiguchi, and T. Tsukamoto, “Characterization of Asian dust and Siberian smoke with multiwavelength Raman lidar over Tokyo, Japan in spring 2003,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L24103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tsuruta, H.

T. Nakajima, S.-C. Yoon, V. Ramanathan, G.-Y. Shi, T. Takemura, A. Higurashi, T. Takamura, K. Aoki, B.-J. Sohn, S.-W. Kim, H. Tsuruta, N. Sugimoto, A. Shimizu, H. Tanimoto, Y. Sawa, N.-H. Lin, C.-T. Lee, D. Goto, and N. Schutgens, “Overview of the Atmospheric Brown Cloud East Asian Regional Experiment 2005 and a study of the aerosol direct radiative forcing in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 122, D24S91 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Uno, I.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vaughan, G.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Vaughan, M. A.

J. M. Alvarez, M. A. Vaughan, C. A. Hostetler, W. H. Hunt, and D. M. Winker, “Calibration technique for polarization-sensitive lidars,” 23, 683-699 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Völger, P.

M. Wiegner, H. Quenzel, D. Rabus, W. Völker, P. Völger, L. Ackermann, C. Kähler, F. Fergg, and G. Wildgruber, “The mobile three-wavelength backscatter lidar of the Meteorological Institute of the University Munich,” Proc. SPIE 2505, 2-10 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Völker, W.

M. Wiegner, H. Quenzel, D. Rabus, W. Völker, P. Völger, L. Ackermann, C. Kähler, F. Fergg, and G. Wildgruber, “The mobile three-wavelength backscatter lidar of the Meteorological Institute of the University Munich,” Proc. SPIE 2505, 2-10 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wada, K.

T. Murayama, D. Müller, K. Wada, A. Shimizu, M. Sekiguchi, and T. Tsukamoto, “Characterization of Asian dust and Siberian smoke with multiwavelength Raman lidar over Tokyo, Japan in spring 2003,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L24103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wandinger, U.

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, O. Dubovik, S. Eckhardt, and A. Stohl, “Saharan dust over a Central European EARLINET-AERONET site: combined observations with Raman lidar and Sun photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4345 (2003).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger and A. Ansmann, “Experimental determination of the lidar overlap profile with Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 41, 511-514 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, V. Jaenisch, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, Y. F. Arshinov, S. M. Bobrovnikov, and I. B. Serikov, “Relative humidity profiling in the troposphere with a Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6451-6462 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, and S. Zörner, “Scanning 6-wavelength 11-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1469-1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, and C. Weitcamp, “Atmospheric Raman depolarization-ratio measurements,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5671-5673 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitcamp, and W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113-7131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Wang, X.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Weitcamp, C.

Welch, W.

Wiegner, M.

M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, B. Heese, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, M. Esselborn, G. Pisani, and P. Knippertz, “Vertical profiling of Saharan dust with Raman lidars and airbone HSRL in southern Morocco during SAMUM,” Tellus 61B, 144-164 (2009).

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus 61B, 165-179 (2008).

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, D. Althausen, D. Müller, P. Seifert, V. Freudenthaler, B. Heese, M. Wiegner, G. Pisani, P. Knippertz, and O. Dubovik, “Influence of Saharan dust on cloud glaciation in southern Morocco during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D04210 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Wiegner, H. Quenzel, D. Rabus, W. Völker, P. Völger, L. Ackermann, C. Kähler, F. Fergg, and G. Wildgruber, “The mobile three-wavelength backscatter lidar of the Meteorological Institute of the University Munich,” Proc. SPIE 2505, 2-10 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, A. Apituley, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, G. Hansen, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, M. Perrone, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, N. Spinelli, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET-ASOS: European Aerosol Research Lidar Network--Advanced Sustainable Observation System,” in 7th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling: Needs and Technologies--Extended Abstracts (American Meteorological Society, 2006), pp. 5.3-5.4.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

B. Heese, V. Freudenthaler, M. Seefeldner, and M. Wiegner, “POLIS: A new portable system for ground-based and airborne measurements of aerosols and clouds,” in Lidar Remote Sensing in Atmospheric and Earth Sciences L. Bissonnette, G. Roy, and G. Vallee, eds. (Defence Research and Development Canada Valcartier, 2002), pp. 71-74.

Wildgruber, G.

M. Wiegner, H. Quenzel, D. Rabus, W. Völker, P. Völger, L. Ackermann, C. Kähler, F. Fergg, and G. Wildgruber, “The mobile three-wavelength backscatter lidar of the Meteorological Institute of the University Munich,” Proc. SPIE 2505, 2-10 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Winker, D. M.

D. M. Winker, W. H. Hunt, and M. J. McGill, “Initial performance assessment of CALIOP,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L19803 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Alvarez, M. A. Vaughan, C. A. Hostetler, W. H. Hunt, and D. M. Winker, “Calibration technique for polarization-sensitive lidars,” 23, 683-699 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wirth, M.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus 61B, 165-179 (2008).

M. Esselborn, M. Wirth, A. Fix, M. Tesche, and G. Ehret, “Airborne high spectral resolution lidar for measuring aerosol extinction and backscatter coefficients,” Appl. Opt. 47, 346-358 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Won, J.-G.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, S.-C.

T. Nakajima, S.-C. Yoon, V. Ramanathan, G.-Y. Shi, T. Takemura, A. Higurashi, T. Takamura, K. Aoki, B.-J. Sohn, S.-W. Kim, H. Tsuruta, N. Sugimoto, A. Shimizu, H. Tanimoto, Y. Sawa, N.-H. Lin, C.-T. Lee, D. Goto, and N. Schutgens, “Overview of the Atmospheric Brown Cloud East Asian Regional Experiment 2005 and a study of the aerosol direct radiative forcing in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 122, D24S91 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zavrtanik, M.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Zerefos, C.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Zhou, J.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zörner, S.

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, and S. Zörner, “Scanning 6-wavelength 11-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1469-1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

P. Russell, J. Swissier, , and P. McCormick, “Methodology for error analysis and simulation of lidar aerosol measurements,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3783-3797 (1979).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. G. Fernald, “Analysis of atmospheric lidar observations: some comments,” Appl. Opt. 23, 652-653 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Klett, “Lidar inversion with variable backscatter/extinction ratios,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1638-1643 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitcamp, and W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113-7131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, and C. Weitcamp, “Atmospheric Raman depolarization-ratio measurements,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5671-5673 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, V. Jaenisch, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, Y. F. Arshinov, S. M. Bobrovnikov, and I. B. Serikov, “Relative humidity profiling in the troposphere with a Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6451-6462 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Reichardt, R. Baumgart, and T. J. McGee, “Three-signal method for accurate measurements of depolarization ratio with lidar,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4909-4913 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Esselborn, M. Wirth, A. Fix, M. Tesche, and G. Ehret, “Airborne high spectral resolution lidar for measuring aerosol extinction and backscatter coefficients,” Appl. Opt. 47, 346-358 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Hair, C. A. Hostetler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, R. A. Ferrare, T. L. Mack, W. Welch, L. R. Isquierdo, and F. E. Hovis, “Airborne high spectral resolution lidar for profiling aerosol optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 47, 6734-6752 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Wandinger and A. Ansmann, “Experimental determination of the lidar overlap profile with Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 41, 511-514 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geophys. Res. Lett.

D. M. Winker, W. H. Hunt, and M. J. McGill, “Initial performance assessment of CALIOP,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L19803 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Murayama, D. Müller, K. Wada, A. Shimizu, M. Sekiguchi, and T. Tsukamoto, “Characterization of Asian dust and Siberian smoke with multiwavelength Raman lidar over Tokyo, Japan in spring 2003,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L24103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Mishchenko and K. Sassen, “Depolarization of lidar returns by small ice crystals: an application to contrails,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 309-312 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, and S. Zörner, “Scanning 6-wavelength 11-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1469-1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima, S.-C. Yoon, V. Ramanathan, G.-Y. Shi, T. Takemura, A. Higurashi, T. Takamura, K. Aoki, B.-J. Sohn, S.-W. Kim, H. Tsuruta, N. Sugimoto, A. Shimizu, H. Tanimoto, Y. Sawa, N.-H. Lin, C.-T. Lee, D. Goto, and N. Schutgens, “Overview of the Atmospheric Brown Cloud East Asian Regional Experiment 2005 and a study of the aerosol direct radiative forcing in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 122, D24S91 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, D. Althausen, D. Müller, P. Seifert, V. Freudenthaler, B. Heese, M. Wiegner, G. Pisani, P. Knippertz, and O. Dubovik, “Influence of Saharan dust on cloud glaciation in southern Morocco during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D04210 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, O. Dubovik, S. Eckhardt, and A. Stohl, “Saharan dust over a Central European EARLINET-AERONET site: combined observations with Raman lidar and Sun photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4345 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Proc. SPIE

M. Wiegner, H. Quenzel, D. Rabus, W. Völker, P. Völger, L. Ackermann, C. Kähler, F. Fergg, and G. Wildgruber, “The mobile three-wavelength backscatter lidar of the Meteorological Institute of the University Munich,” Proc. SPIE 2505, 2-10 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tellus

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus 61B, 165-179 (2008).

M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, B. Heese, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, M. Esselborn, G. Pisani, and P. Knippertz, “Vertical profiling of Saharan dust with Raman lidars and airbone HSRL in southern Morocco during SAMUM,” Tellus 61B, 144-164 (2009).

Other

I. Mattis, “Errors in backscatter profiles caused by a depolarization-dependent receiver transmission,” in Lidar Remote Sensing in Atmosphere and Earth Sciences. Reviewed and Revised Papers Presented at the Twenty-First International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC21), L. R. Bissonnette, G. Roy, and G. Vallee, eds. (Defence R & D Canada Valcartier, 2002), pp. 121-124.

J. M. Alvarez, M. A. Vaughan, C. A. Hostetler, W. H. Hunt, and D. M. Winker, “Calibration technique for polarization-sensitive lidars,” 23, 683-699 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, H. Linné, C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, L. Schneidenbach, A. Kirsche, A. Mekler, M. Wiegner, V. Freudenthaler, I. Stachlewska, W. Kumpf, G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, D. Balis, V. Amoiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, F. Rocadenbosch, C. Pérez, J. Baldasano, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, R. M. Perrone, F. de Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, A. Hagard, R. Persson, G. Carlsson, V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, G. Vaughan, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Giehl, V. Simeonov, D. P. Resendes, J. A. Rodrigues, P. Sobolewski, S. Nickovic, S. Music, M. Zavrtanik, D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, G. Kolarov, and A. Papayannis, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Tech. Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, A. Apituley, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, G. Hansen, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, M. Perrone, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, N. Spinelli, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET-ASOS: European Aerosol Research Lidar Network--Advanced Sustainable Observation System,” in 7th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling: Needs and Technologies--Extended Abstracts (American Meteorological Society, 2006), pp. 5.3-5.4.

K. Sassen, “Polarization in Lidar,” in “Lidar: Range-Resolved Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere,” C. Weitkamp, ed. (Springer, 2005), pp. 19-42.

B. Heese, V. Freudenthaler, M. Seefeldner, and M. Wiegner, “POLIS: A new portable system for ground-based and airborne measurements of aerosols and clouds,” in Lidar Remote Sensing in Atmospheric and Earth Sciences L. Bissonnette, G. Roy, and G. Vallee, eds. (Defence Research and Development Canada Valcartier, 2002), pp. 71-74.

I. Mattis, “Aufbau eines Feuchte-Temperatur-Aerosol-Ramanlidars und Methodenentwicklung zur kombinierten Analyse von Trajektorien und Aerosolprofilen (Construction of a humidity temperature aerosol Raman lidar and development of a method for a combined analysis of trajectories and aerosol profiles),” Ph.D. dissertation (Universität Leipzig, 2002).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the effect of the polarization-dependent receiver transmission. The cells of the table show four different cases with different atmospheric volume depolarization ratios and different polarization states of the nondepolarized component of the backscattered light. The physical properties of the lidar receiver unit are the same in all four cases. This example receiver unit is characterized by η h = 2 v η , η h = 2 / 3 , and η v = 1 / 3 . The left column illustrates the case that the nondepolarized component of the backscattered light is horizontally oriented ( η = η h ). The right column shows the case of a vertical orientation of the nondepolarized component of the backscattered light ( η = η v ). The first row illustrates the case of no depolarization ( δ = 0 ); the second row shows the case of a volume depolarization ratio of 20%. The circles and arrows represent the horizontally and vertically polarized components of the backscattered light, respectively. The number of symbols before entering the receiver unit and after passing it indicate the intensity of the backscattered and of the detected light, respectively (e.g., in terms of number of photons). The numbers below the symbols are examples for the loss of photons in a polarization-dependent lidar receiver (in arbitrary units). Finally, the third row provides the transmission ratios that have been obtained from these example calculations.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission function T of the polarization-dependent receiver transmission for different transmission ratios D η . The shaded area corresponds to the D η value range of the 532 nm channel of the multiwavelength aerosol Raman lidar BERTHA.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relative systematic error of the particle backscatter coefficient β par for different backscatter ratios R and transmission ratios D η = 1.5 (bold lines), D η = 1.15 (thin lines), and D η = 0.85 (medium lines).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Diagram of the receiver unit of BERTHA. (a) Setup for the detection of backscattered light from the atmosphere. The receiver unit is explained in detail in Fig. 1 of [13]. (b) Detailed sketch of the setup for the measurement of the transmission ratios without atmospheric background. A lens collimates light from a deuterium lamp, which is filtered by a polarizer before it is sent through the scanning unit into the lidar receiver. An optical rail is used to mount the lens and the polarizer within the optical axis of the scanning unit.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Application of the correction function to experimental data. All data were obtained in Ouarzazate, Morocco. The first row describes the measurement that was performed on 13 May 2006, between 22:08 and 22:26 UT. The second row corresponds to the measurement of 3 June 2006, which was performed between 04:00 and 05:00 UT. (a) and (d) Volume depolarization ratio at 532 nm , measured by MULIS. (b) and (e) The gray-shaded area indicates the possible range of the correction function according to Eq. (7), calculated from the δ profile of (a) and (d) for D η values between 4.2 (solid line) and 6.8. The dotted lines indicate the ratios between the corrected and the uncorrected backscatter coefficients that were obtained with D η = 4.2 and D η = 6.8 . (c) and (f) Particle backscatter coefficients at 532 nm , obtained from the MULIS reference lidar with the Klett method [18](bold line) and from BERTHA data without correction with the Raman method (dotted line). The gray-shaded area indicates the possible range of corrected backscatter profiles, obtained with correction functions corresponding to the gray-shaded area in (b) and (e).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured Transmission Ratios D η of the BERTHA Lidar Receiver for Different Zenith Angles ϑ a

Equations (13)

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P ( z ) = K z 2 η ( z ) β ( z ) exp ( 2 0 z α ( ζ ) d ζ ) .
R ( z ) = β par ( z ) + β mol ( z ) β mol ( z ) .
P ( z ) = P ( β ( z ) ) = P ( β ( z ) + β ( z ) ) .
η ( z ) β ( z ) = η β ( z ) + η β ( z ) .
D η = η / η
δ ( z ) = β ( z ) / β ( z ) , δ par ( z ) = β par ( z ) ( z ) / β par ( z ) , δ mol = β mol / β mol .
η ( z ) = η D η δ ( z ) + 1 δ ( z ) + 1 = η T ( D η , z ) .
Δ T = | Δ D η δ δ + 1 | + | Δ δ ( D η 1 ) ( δ + 1 ) 2 | .
β ( z ) ^ = β ( z ) T ( D η , z ) .
Δ β par ( z ) = β par ^ ( z ) β par ( z ) β par ( z ) .
P ( z ) ˜ = P ( z ) T ( D η , z ) = K ˜ z 2 β ( z ) exp ( 2 0 z α ( ζ ) d ζ ) ,
D η ( ϑ ) = P ( φ , ϑ ) P ( φ , ϑ ) .
D η ( 532 ) = D η ( ϑ = 45 ° ) + D η ( ϑ = 5 ° ) 2 , Δ D η ( 532 , ϑ ) = D η ( ϑ = 45 ° ) D η ( ϑ = 5 ° ) 2 , D η ( 532 ) = 5.5 ± 1.3 .

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