Abstract

High-resolution mosaic imaging is performed for the first time to our knowledge with a multifocal, multiphoton, photon-counting imaging system. We present a novel design consisting of a home-built femtosecond Yb-doped KGdWO4 laser with an optical multiplexer, which is coupled with a commercial Olympus IX-71 microscope frame. Photon counting is performed using single-element detectors and an inexpensive electronic demultiplexer and counters.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Bewersdorf, R. Pick, and S. Hell, “Multifocal multiphoton microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 23, 655-657 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Straub and S. Hell, “Multifocal multiphoton microscopy: a fast and efficient tool for 3-D fluorescence imaging,” Bioimaging 6, 177-185 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Egner and S. Hell, “Time multiplexing and parallelization in multifocal multiphoton microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1192-1201 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Buist, M. Müller, J. Squier, and G. Brakenhoff, “Real time two-photon absorption microscopy using multi-point excitation,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 192, 217-226 (1998).
  5. K. Bahlmann, P. So, M. Kirber, R. Reich, B. Kosicki, W. McGonagle, and K. Bellve, “Multifocal multiphoton microscopy (MMM) at a frame rate beyond 600 Hz,” Opt. Express 15, 10991 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. V. Andresen, A. Egner, and S. Hell, “Time-multiplexed multifocal multiphoton microscope,” Opt. Lett. 26, 75-77 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Kim, C. Buehler, K. Bahlmann, T. Ragan, W. Lee, E. Nedivi, E. Heffer, S. Fantini, and P. So, “Multifocal multiphoton microscopy based on multianode photomultiplier tubes,” Opt. Express 15, 11658-11678 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Fittinghoff and J. Squier, “Time-decorrelated multifocal array for multiphoton microscopy and micromachining,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1213-1215 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Niesner, V. Andresen, J. Neumann, H. Spiecker, and M. Gunzer, “The power of single and multibeam two-photon microscopy for high-resolution and high-speed deep tissue and intravital imaging,” Biophys. J. 93, 2519-2529 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Kumar, C. Dunsby, P. De Beule, D. Owen, U. Anand, P. Lanigan, R. Benninger, D. Davis, M. Neil, P. Anand, C. Benham, A. Naylor, and P. French, “Multifocal multiphoton excitation and time correlated single photon counting detecting for 3-D fluorescence lifetime imaging,” Opt. Express 15, 12548-12561 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Jureller, H. Kim, and N. Scherer, “Stochastic scanning multiphoton multifocal microscopy,” Opt. Express 14, 3406-3414(2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. Sacconi, E. Froner, R. Antolini, M. Taghizadeh, A. Choudhury, and F. Pavone, “Multiphoton multifocal microscopy exploiting a diffractive optical element,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1918-1920 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. Amir, R. Carriles, E. Hoover, T. Planchon, C. Durfee, and J. Squier, “Simultaneous imaging of multiple focal planes using a two-photon scanning microscope,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1731-1733 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. Carriles, K. Sheetz, E. Hoover, J. Squier, and V. Barzda, “Simultaneous multifocal, multiphoton, photon counting microscopy,” Opt. Express 16, 10364-10371 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. Sheetz, E. Hoover, R. Carriles, D. Kleinfeld, and J. Squier, “Advancing multifocal nonlinear microscopy: development and application of a novel multibeam Yb:KGd(WO4)2 oscillator,” Opt. Express 16, 17574-17584 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Major, R. Cisek, and V. Barzda, “Femtosecond Yb:KGd(WO4)2 laser oscillator pumped by a high power fiber-coupled diode laser module,” Opt. Express 14, 12163-12168 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. B. Canfield, H. Husu, J. Kontio, J. Viheriälä, T. Rytkönen, T. Niemi, E. Chandler, A. Hrin, J. Squier, and M. Kauranen, “Inhomogeneities in the nonlinear tensorial responses of arrays of gold nanodots,” New J. Phys. 10, 013001 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Müller, Introduction to Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy (SPIE, 2006).

2008 (3)

2007 (6)

2006 (2)

2003 (1)

2001 (2)

D. Fittinghoff, C. Schaffer, E. Mazur, and J. Squier, “Time-decorrelated multifocal micromachining and trapping,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 559-566 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Andresen, A. Egner, and S. Hell, “Time-multiplexed multifocal multiphoton microscope,” Opt. Lett. 26, 75-77 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

1998 (3)

J. Bewersdorf, R. Pick, and S. Hell, “Multifocal multiphoton microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 23, 655-657 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Straub and S. Hell, “Multifocal multiphoton microscopy: a fast and efficient tool for 3-D fluorescence imaging,” Bioimaging 6, 177-185 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Buist, M. Müller, J. Squier, and G. Brakenhoff, “Real time two-photon absorption microscopy using multi-point excitation,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 192, 217-226 (1998).

Amir, W.

Anand, P.

Anand, U.

Andresen, V.

R. Niesner, V. Andresen, J. Neumann, H. Spiecker, and M. Gunzer, “The power of single and multibeam two-photon microscopy for high-resolution and high-speed deep tissue and intravital imaging,” Biophys. J. 93, 2519-2529 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Andresen, A. Egner, and S. Hell, “Time-multiplexed multifocal multiphoton microscope,” Opt. Lett. 26, 75-77 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Anselmetti, D.

J. Martini, K. Schmied, R. Palmisano, K. Toensing, D. Anselmetti, and T. Merkle, “Multifocal two-photon laser scanning microscopy combined with photo-activatable GFP for in vivo monitoring of intracellular protein dynamics in real time,” J. Struct. Biol. 158, 401-409 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Antolini, R.

Bahlmann, K.

Barzda, V.

Bellve, K.

Benham, C.

Benninger, R.

Bewersdorf, J.

Brakenhoff, G.

A. Buist, M. Müller, J. Squier, and G. Brakenhoff, “Real time two-photon absorption microscopy using multi-point excitation,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 192, 217-226 (1998).

Buehler, C.

Buist, A.

A. Buist, M. Müller, J. Squier, and G. Brakenhoff, “Real time two-photon absorption microscopy using multi-point excitation,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 192, 217-226 (1998).

Canfield, B.

B. Canfield, H. Husu, J. Kontio, J. Viheriälä, T. Rytkönen, T. Niemi, E. Chandler, A. Hrin, J. Squier, and M. Kauranen, “Inhomogeneities in the nonlinear tensorial responses of arrays of gold nanodots,” New J. Phys. 10, 013001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Carriles, R.

Chandler, E.

B. Canfield, H. Husu, J. Kontio, J. Viheriälä, T. Rytkönen, T. Niemi, E. Chandler, A. Hrin, J. Squier, and M. Kauranen, “Inhomogeneities in the nonlinear tensorial responses of arrays of gold nanodots,” New J. Phys. 10, 013001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Choudhury, A.

Cisek, R.

Davis, D.

De Beule, P.

Dunsby, C.

Durfee, C.

Egner, A.

Fantini, S.

Fittinghoff, D.

D. Fittinghoff, C. Schaffer, E. Mazur, and J. Squier, “Time-decorrelated multifocal micromachining and trapping,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 559-566 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Fittinghoff and J. Squier, “Time-decorrelated multifocal array for multiphoton microscopy and micromachining,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1213-1215 (2000).
[CrossRef]

French, P.

Froner, E.

Gunzer, M.

R. Niesner, V. Andresen, J. Neumann, H. Spiecker, and M. Gunzer, “The power of single and multibeam two-photon microscopy for high-resolution and high-speed deep tissue and intravital imaging,” Biophys. J. 93, 2519-2529 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Heffer, E.

Hell, S.

Hoover, E.

Hrin, A.

B. Canfield, H. Husu, J. Kontio, J. Viheriälä, T. Rytkönen, T. Niemi, E. Chandler, A. Hrin, J. Squier, and M. Kauranen, “Inhomogeneities in the nonlinear tensorial responses of arrays of gold nanodots,” New J. Phys. 10, 013001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Husu, H.

B. Canfield, H. Husu, J. Kontio, J. Viheriälä, T. Rytkönen, T. Niemi, E. Chandler, A. Hrin, J. Squier, and M. Kauranen, “Inhomogeneities in the nonlinear tensorial responses of arrays of gold nanodots,” New J. Phys. 10, 013001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jureller, J.

Kauranen, M.

B. Canfield, H. Husu, J. Kontio, J. Viheriälä, T. Rytkönen, T. Niemi, E. Chandler, A. Hrin, J. Squier, and M. Kauranen, “Inhomogeneities in the nonlinear tensorial responses of arrays of gold nanodots,” New J. Phys. 10, 013001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

Kim, K.

Kirber, M.

Kleinfeld, D.

Kontio, J.

B. Canfield, H. Husu, J. Kontio, J. Viheriälä, T. Rytkönen, T. Niemi, E. Chandler, A. Hrin, J. Squier, and M. Kauranen, “Inhomogeneities in the nonlinear tensorial responses of arrays of gold nanodots,” New J. Phys. 10, 013001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kosicki, B.

Kumar, S.

Lanigan, P.

Lee, W.

Major, A.

Martini, J.

J. Martini, K. Schmied, R. Palmisano, K. Toensing, D. Anselmetti, and T. Merkle, “Multifocal two-photon laser scanning microscopy combined with photo-activatable GFP for in vivo monitoring of intracellular protein dynamics in real time,” J. Struct. Biol. 158, 401-409 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

D. Fittinghoff, C. Schaffer, E. Mazur, and J. Squier, “Time-decorrelated multifocal micromachining and trapping,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 559-566 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McGonagle, W.

Merkle, T.

J. Martini, K. Schmied, R. Palmisano, K. Toensing, D. Anselmetti, and T. Merkle, “Multifocal two-photon laser scanning microscopy combined with photo-activatable GFP for in vivo monitoring of intracellular protein dynamics in real time,” J. Struct. Biol. 158, 401-409 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Müller, M.

A. Buist, M. Müller, J. Squier, and G. Brakenhoff, “Real time two-photon absorption microscopy using multi-point excitation,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 192, 217-226 (1998).

M. Müller, Introduction to Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy (SPIE, 2006).

Naylor, A.

Nedivi, E.

Neil, M.

Neumann, J.

R. Niesner, V. Andresen, J. Neumann, H. Spiecker, and M. Gunzer, “The power of single and multibeam two-photon microscopy for high-resolution and high-speed deep tissue and intravital imaging,” Biophys. J. 93, 2519-2529 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Niemi, T.

B. Canfield, H. Husu, J. Kontio, J. Viheriälä, T. Rytkönen, T. Niemi, E. Chandler, A. Hrin, J. Squier, and M. Kauranen, “Inhomogeneities in the nonlinear tensorial responses of arrays of gold nanodots,” New J. Phys. 10, 013001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Niesner, R.

R. Niesner, V. Andresen, J. Neumann, H. Spiecker, and M. Gunzer, “The power of single and multibeam two-photon microscopy for high-resolution and high-speed deep tissue and intravital imaging,” Biophys. J. 93, 2519-2529 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Owen, D.

Palmisano, R.

J. Martini, K. Schmied, R. Palmisano, K. Toensing, D. Anselmetti, and T. Merkle, “Multifocal two-photon laser scanning microscopy combined with photo-activatable GFP for in vivo monitoring of intracellular protein dynamics in real time,” J. Struct. Biol. 158, 401-409 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pavone, F.

Pick, R.

Planchon, T.

Ragan, T.

Reich, R.

Rytkönen, T.

B. Canfield, H. Husu, J. Kontio, J. Viheriälä, T. Rytkönen, T. Niemi, E. Chandler, A. Hrin, J. Squier, and M. Kauranen, “Inhomogeneities in the nonlinear tensorial responses of arrays of gold nanodots,” New J. Phys. 10, 013001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sacconi, L.

Schaffer, C.

D. Fittinghoff, C. Schaffer, E. Mazur, and J. Squier, “Time-decorrelated multifocal micromachining and trapping,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 559-566 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, N.

Schmied, K.

J. Martini, K. Schmied, R. Palmisano, K. Toensing, D. Anselmetti, and T. Merkle, “Multifocal two-photon laser scanning microscopy combined with photo-activatable GFP for in vivo monitoring of intracellular protein dynamics in real time,” J. Struct. Biol. 158, 401-409 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sheetz, K.

So, P.

Spiecker, H.

R. Niesner, V. Andresen, J. Neumann, H. Spiecker, and M. Gunzer, “The power of single and multibeam two-photon microscopy for high-resolution and high-speed deep tissue and intravital imaging,” Biophys. J. 93, 2519-2529 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Squier, J.

R. Carriles, K. Sheetz, E. Hoover, J. Squier, and V. Barzda, “Simultaneous multifocal, multiphoton, photon counting microscopy,” Opt. Express 16, 10364-10371 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Canfield, H. Husu, J. Kontio, J. Viheriälä, T. Rytkönen, T. Niemi, E. Chandler, A. Hrin, J. Squier, and M. Kauranen, “Inhomogeneities in the nonlinear tensorial responses of arrays of gold nanodots,” New J. Phys. 10, 013001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Sheetz, E. Hoover, R. Carriles, D. Kleinfeld, and J. Squier, “Advancing multifocal nonlinear microscopy: development and application of a novel multibeam Yb:KGd(WO4)2 oscillator,” Opt. Express 16, 17574-17584 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Amir, R. Carriles, E. Hoover, T. Planchon, C. Durfee, and J. Squier, “Simultaneous imaging of multiple focal planes using a two-photon scanning microscope,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1731-1733 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Fittinghoff, C. Schaffer, E. Mazur, and J. Squier, “Time-decorrelated multifocal micromachining and trapping,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 559-566 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Fittinghoff and J. Squier, “Time-decorrelated multifocal array for multiphoton microscopy and micromachining,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1213-1215 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Buist, M. Müller, J. Squier, and G. Brakenhoff, “Real time two-photon absorption microscopy using multi-point excitation,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 192, 217-226 (1998).

Straub, M.

M. Straub and S. Hell, “Multifocal multiphoton microscopy: a fast and efficient tool for 3-D fluorescence imaging,” Bioimaging 6, 177-185 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Taghizadeh, M.

Toensing, K.

J. Martini, K. Schmied, R. Palmisano, K. Toensing, D. Anselmetti, and T. Merkle, “Multifocal two-photon laser scanning microscopy combined with photo-activatable GFP for in vivo monitoring of intracellular protein dynamics in real time,” J. Struct. Biol. 158, 401-409 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Viheriälä, J.

B. Canfield, H. Husu, J. Kontio, J. Viheriälä, T. Rytkönen, T. Niemi, E. Chandler, A. Hrin, J. Squier, and M. Kauranen, “Inhomogeneities in the nonlinear tensorial responses of arrays of gold nanodots,” New J. Phys. 10, 013001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bioimaging (1)

M. Straub and S. Hell, “Multifocal multiphoton microscopy: a fast and efficient tool for 3-D fluorescence imaging,” Bioimaging 6, 177-185 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J. (1)

R. Niesner, V. Andresen, J. Neumann, H. Spiecker, and M. Gunzer, “The power of single and multibeam two-photon microscopy for high-resolution and high-speed deep tissue and intravital imaging,” Biophys. J. 93, 2519-2529 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Fittinghoff, C. Schaffer, E. Mazur, and J. Squier, “Time-decorrelated multifocal micromachining and trapping,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 559-566 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (Oxford) (1)

A. Buist, M. Müller, J. Squier, and G. Brakenhoff, “Real time two-photon absorption microscopy using multi-point excitation,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 192, 217-226 (1998).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Struct. Biol. (1)

J. Martini, K. Schmied, R. Palmisano, K. Toensing, D. Anselmetti, and T. Merkle, “Multifocal two-photon laser scanning microscopy combined with photo-activatable GFP for in vivo monitoring of intracellular protein dynamics in real time,” J. Struct. Biol. 158, 401-409 (2007).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys. (1)

B. Canfield, H. Husu, J. Kontio, J. Viheriälä, T. Rytkönen, T. Niemi, E. Chandler, A. Hrin, J. Squier, and M. Kauranen, “Inhomogeneities in the nonlinear tensorial responses of arrays of gold nanodots,” New J. Phys. 10, 013001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

J. Jureller, H. Kim, and N. Scherer, “Stochastic scanning multiphoton multifocal microscopy,” Opt. Express 14, 3406-3414(2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Major, R. Cisek, and V. Barzda, “Femtosecond Yb:KGd(WO4)2 laser oscillator pumped by a high power fiber-coupled diode laser module,” Opt. Express 14, 12163-12168 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Bahlmann, P. So, M. Kirber, R. Reich, B. Kosicki, W. McGonagle, and K. Bellve, “Multifocal multiphoton microscopy (MMM) at a frame rate beyond 600 Hz,” Opt. Express 15, 10991 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Kim, C. Buehler, K. Bahlmann, T. Ragan, W. Lee, E. Nedivi, E. Heffer, S. Fantini, and P. So, “Multifocal multiphoton microscopy based on multianode photomultiplier tubes,” Opt. Express 15, 11658-11678 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Kumar, C. Dunsby, P. De Beule, D. Owen, U. Anand, P. Lanigan, R. Benninger, D. Davis, M. Neil, P. Anand, C. Benham, A. Naylor, and P. French, “Multifocal multiphoton excitation and time correlated single photon counting detecting for 3-D fluorescence lifetime imaging,” Opt. Express 15, 12548-12561 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Carriles, K. Sheetz, E. Hoover, J. Squier, and V. Barzda, “Simultaneous multifocal, multiphoton, photon counting microscopy,” Opt. Express 16, 10364-10371 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Sheetz, E. Hoover, R. Carriles, D. Kleinfeld, and J. Squier, “Advancing multifocal nonlinear microscopy: development and application of a novel multibeam Yb:KGd(WO4)2 oscillator,” Opt. Express 16, 17574-17584 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Other (1)

M. Müller, Introduction to Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy (SPIE, 2006).

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