Abstract

A spot-shadowing technique to mitigate damage growth in a high-energy laser is studied. Its goal is to minimize the energy loss and undesirable hot spots in intermediate planes of the laser. A nonlinear optimization algorithm solves for the complex fields required to mitigate damage growth in the National Ignition Facility amplifier chain. The method is generally applicable to any large fusion laser.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, “The National Ignition Facility: enabling fusion ignition for the 21st century,” Nucl. Fusion 44, S228-S238 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. H. Kelly, L. J. Waxer, V. Bagnoud, I. A. Begishev, J. Bromage, B. E. Kruschwitz, T. J. Kessler, S. J. Loucks, D. N. Maywar, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. F. B. Morse, J. B. Oliver, A. L. Rigatti, A. W. Schmid, C. Stoeckl, S. Dalton, L. Folnsbee, M. J. Guardalben, R. Jungquist, J. Puth, M. J. Shoup, III, D. Weiner, and J. D. Zuegel, “OMEGA EP: High-energy petawatt capability for the OMEGA Laser Facility,” J. Phys. IV 133, 75-80 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, W. G. Hollingsworth, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, and R. P. Hackel, “Growth of laser initiated damage in fused silica at 1053 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2004, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz, eds. (SPIE, 2005), Vol. 5647, pp. 197-205.
  4. M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, W. G. Hollingsworth, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, and R. P. Hackel, “Growth of laser initiated damage in fused silica at 1053 nm,” Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, Report UCRL-PROC-207885, NTIS Order No. DE2005-15014742 (2004).
  5. T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA Laser System,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495-506 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Jolly, J. F. Gleyze, J. Luce, H. Coic, and G. Deschaseaux, “Front-end sources of the LIL-LMJ fusion lasers: progress report and prospects,” Opt. Eng. 42, 1427-1438 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Kitagawa, H. Fujita, R. Kodama, H. Yoshida, S. Matsuo, T. Jitsuno, T. Kawasaki, H. Kitamura, T. Kanabe, S. Sakabe, K. Shigemori, N. Miyanaga, and Y. Izawa, “Prepulse-free petawatt laser for a fast ignitor,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 281-293 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt--an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44, S239-S246 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. D. Zuegel, S. Borneis, C. Barty, B. LeGarrec, C. Danson, N. Miyanaga, P. K. Rambo, C. LeBlanc, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, L. J. Waxer, J. H. Kelly, B. Kruschwitz, R. Jungquist, E. Moses, J. Britten, I. Jovanovic, J. Dawson, and N. Blanchot, “Laser challenges for fast ignition,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 49, 453-482 (2006).
  10. The damage mechanism on gratings may differ from regular optical surfaces; spot shadowing, however, can mitigate the damage growth on gratings whether they are metal or dielectric. Private communications with A. Schmid who specializes in measuring damage threshold at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester.
  11. R. H. Sawicki, “The National Ignition Facility: laser system, beam line design, and construction,” in Optical Engineering at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory II: The National Ignition Facility (SPIE, 2004), Vol. 5341, p. 43.
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  13. L. M. Frantz and J. S. Nodvik, “Theory of pulse propagation in a laser amplifier,” J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2346-2349 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. T. Vetterling and B. P. Flannery, “Conjugate gradient methods in multidimensions,” in Numerical recipes in C: The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed., W. H. Press and S. A. Teukolsky, eds. (Cambridge University, 2002), Chap. 10, Sec. 6, p. 414.
  15. V. Bagnoud and J. D. Zuegel, “Independent phase and amplitude control of a laser beam by use of a single-phase-only spatial light modulator,” Opt. Lett. 29, 295-297(2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. Hornung, R. Bödefeld, M. Siebold, M. Schnepp, J. Hein, R. Sauerbrey, and M. C. Kaluza, “Alignment of a tiled-grating compressor in a high-power chirped-pulse amplification laser system,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7432-7435 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. Qiao, A. Kalb, M. J. Guardalben, G. King, D. Canning, and J. H. Kelly, “Large-aperture grating tiling by interferometry for Petawatt chirped-pulseamplification systems,” Opt. Express 15, 9562-9574 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. H. Huang and T. J. Kessler, “Tiled-grating compressor configuration with uncompensated dispersion for reduction of near-field-intensity smoothing,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1854-1856(2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

2006 (2)

J. H. Kelly, L. J. Waxer, V. Bagnoud, I. A. Begishev, J. Bromage, B. E. Kruschwitz, T. J. Kessler, S. J. Loucks, D. N. Maywar, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. F. B. Morse, J. B. Oliver, A. L. Rigatti, A. W. Schmid, C. Stoeckl, S. Dalton, L. Folnsbee, M. J. Guardalben, R. Jungquist, J. Puth, M. J. Shoup, III, D. Weiner, and J. D. Zuegel, “OMEGA EP: High-energy petawatt capability for the OMEGA Laser Facility,” J. Phys. IV 133, 75-80 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Zuegel, S. Borneis, C. Barty, B. LeGarrec, C. Danson, N. Miyanaga, P. K. Rambo, C. LeBlanc, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, L. J. Waxer, J. H. Kelly, B. Kruschwitz, R. Jungquist, E. Moses, J. Britten, I. Jovanovic, J. Dawson, and N. Blanchot, “Laser challenges for fast ignition,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 49, 453-482 (2006).

2004 (4)

Y. Kitagawa, H. Fujita, R. Kodama, H. Yoshida, S. Matsuo, T. Jitsuno, T. Kawasaki, H. Kitamura, T. Kanabe, S. Sakabe, K. Shigemori, N. Miyanaga, and Y. Izawa, “Prepulse-free petawatt laser for a fast ignitor,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 281-293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt--an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44, S239-S246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, “The National Ignition Facility: enabling fusion ignition for the 21st century,” Nucl. Fusion 44, S228-S238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Bagnoud and J. D. Zuegel, “Independent phase and amplitude control of a laser beam by use of a single-phase-only spatial light modulator,” Opt. Lett. 29, 295-297(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

A. Jolly, J. F. Gleyze, J. Luce, H. Coic, and G. Deschaseaux, “Front-end sources of the LIL-LMJ fusion lasers: progress report and prospects,” Opt. Eng. 42, 1427-1438 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA Laser System,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495-506 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

L. M. Frantz and J. S. Nodvik, “Theory of pulse propagation in a laser amplifier,” J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2346-2349 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Auerbach, J. M.

W. H. Williams, J. M. Auerbach, M. A. Henesian, K. S. Jancaitis, K. R. Manes, N. C. Mehta, C. D. Orth, R. A. Sacks, M. J. Shaw, and C. C. Widmayer, “Optical propagation modeling for the National Ignition Facility,” in Optical Engineering at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory II: The National Ignition Facility, M. A. Lane and C. R. Wuest, eds. (SPIE, 2004), Vol. 5341, pp. 66-72.

Bagnoud, V.

J. H. Kelly, L. J. Waxer, V. Bagnoud, I. A. Begishev, J. Bromage, B. E. Kruschwitz, T. J. Kessler, S. J. Loucks, D. N. Maywar, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. F. B. Morse, J. B. Oliver, A. L. Rigatti, A. W. Schmid, C. Stoeckl, S. Dalton, L. Folnsbee, M. J. Guardalben, R. Jungquist, J. Puth, M. J. Shoup, III, D. Weiner, and J. D. Zuegel, “OMEGA EP: High-energy petawatt capability for the OMEGA Laser Facility,” J. Phys. IV 133, 75-80 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Bagnoud and J. D. Zuegel, “Independent phase and amplitude control of a laser beam by use of a single-phase-only spatial light modulator,” Opt. Lett. 29, 295-297(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barty, C.

J. D. Zuegel, S. Borneis, C. Barty, B. LeGarrec, C. Danson, N. Miyanaga, P. K. Rambo, C. LeBlanc, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, L. J. Waxer, J. H. Kelly, B. Kruschwitz, R. Jungquist, E. Moses, J. Britten, I. Jovanovic, J. Dawson, and N. Blanchot, “Laser challenges for fast ignition,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 49, 453-482 (2006).

Begishev, I. A.

J. H. Kelly, L. J. Waxer, V. Bagnoud, I. A. Begishev, J. Bromage, B. E. Kruschwitz, T. J. Kessler, S. J. Loucks, D. N. Maywar, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. F. B. Morse, J. B. Oliver, A. L. Rigatti, A. W. Schmid, C. Stoeckl, S. Dalton, L. Folnsbee, M. J. Guardalben, R. Jungquist, J. Puth, M. J. Shoup, III, D. Weiner, and J. D. Zuegel, “OMEGA EP: High-energy petawatt capability for the OMEGA Laser Facility,” J. Phys. IV 133, 75-80 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Blanchot, N.

J. D. Zuegel, S. Borneis, C. Barty, B. LeGarrec, C. Danson, N. Miyanaga, P. K. Rambo, C. LeBlanc, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, L. J. Waxer, J. H. Kelly, B. Kruschwitz, R. Jungquist, E. Moses, J. Britten, I. Jovanovic, J. Dawson, and N. Blanchot, “Laser challenges for fast ignition,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 49, 453-482 (2006).

Bödefeld, R.

Boehly, T. R.

T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA Laser System,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495-506 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Borneis, S.

J. D. Zuegel, S. Borneis, C. Barty, B. LeGarrec, C. Danson, N. Miyanaga, P. K. Rambo, C. LeBlanc, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, L. J. Waxer, J. H. Kelly, B. Kruschwitz, R. Jungquist, E. Moses, J. Britten, I. Jovanovic, J. Dawson, and N. Blanchot, “Laser challenges for fast ignition,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 49, 453-482 (2006).

Britten, J.

J. D. Zuegel, S. Borneis, C. Barty, B. LeGarrec, C. Danson, N. Miyanaga, P. K. Rambo, C. LeBlanc, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, L. J. Waxer, J. H. Kelly, B. Kruschwitz, R. Jungquist, E. Moses, J. Britten, I. Jovanovic, J. Dawson, and N. Blanchot, “Laser challenges for fast ignition,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 49, 453-482 (2006).

Bromage, J.

J. H. Kelly, L. J. Waxer, V. Bagnoud, I. A. Begishev, J. Bromage, B. E. Kruschwitz, T. J. Kessler, S. J. Loucks, D. N. Maywar, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. F. B. Morse, J. B. Oliver, A. L. Rigatti, A. W. Schmid, C. Stoeckl, S. Dalton, L. Folnsbee, M. J. Guardalben, R. Jungquist, J. Puth, M. J. Shoup, III, D. Weiner, and J. D. Zuegel, “OMEGA EP: High-energy petawatt capability for the OMEGA Laser Facility,” J. Phys. IV 133, 75-80 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brown, D. L.

T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA Laser System,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495-506 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brummitt, P. A.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt--an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44, S239-S246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Canning, D.

Clarke, R. J.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt--an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44, S239-S246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Coic, H.

A. Jolly, J. F. Gleyze, J. Luce, H. Coic, and G. Deschaseaux, “Front-end sources of the LIL-LMJ fusion lasers: progress report and prospects,” Opt. Eng. 42, 1427-1438 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Collier, J. L.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt--an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44, S239-S246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Craxton, R. S.

T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA Laser System,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495-506 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, S.

J. H. Kelly, L. J. Waxer, V. Bagnoud, I. A. Begishev, J. Bromage, B. E. Kruschwitz, T. J. Kessler, S. J. Loucks, D. N. Maywar, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. F. B. Morse, J. B. Oliver, A. L. Rigatti, A. W. Schmid, C. Stoeckl, S. Dalton, L. Folnsbee, M. J. Guardalben, R. Jungquist, J. Puth, M. J. Shoup, III, D. Weiner, and J. D. Zuegel, “OMEGA EP: High-energy petawatt capability for the OMEGA Laser Facility,” J. Phys. IV 133, 75-80 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Danson, C.

J. D. Zuegel, S. Borneis, C. Barty, B. LeGarrec, C. Danson, N. Miyanaga, P. K. Rambo, C. LeBlanc, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, L. J. Waxer, J. H. Kelly, B. Kruschwitz, R. Jungquist, E. Moses, J. Britten, I. Jovanovic, J. Dawson, and N. Blanchot, “Laser challenges for fast ignition,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 49, 453-482 (2006).

Danson, C. N.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt--an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44, S239-S246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, J.

J. D. Zuegel, S. Borneis, C. Barty, B. LeGarrec, C. Danson, N. Miyanaga, P. K. Rambo, C. LeBlanc, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, L. J. Waxer, J. H. Kelly, B. Kruschwitz, R. Jungquist, E. Moses, J. Britten, I. Jovanovic, J. Dawson, and N. Blanchot, “Laser challenges for fast ignition,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 49, 453-482 (2006).

Deschaseaux, G.

A. Jolly, J. F. Gleyze, J. Luce, H. Coic, and G. Deschaseaux, “Front-end sources of the LIL-LMJ fusion lasers: progress report and prospects,” Opt. Eng. 42, 1427-1438 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Donohue, E. E.

M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, W. G. Hollingsworth, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, and R. P. Hackel, “Growth of laser initiated damage in fused silica at 1053 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2004, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz, eds. (SPIE, 2005), Vol. 5647, pp. 197-205.

M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, W. G. Hollingsworth, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, and R. P. Hackel, “Growth of laser initiated damage in fused silica at 1053 nm,” Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, Report UCRL-PROC-207885, NTIS Order No. DE2005-15014742 (2004).

Feit, M. D.

M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, W. G. Hollingsworth, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, and R. P. Hackel, “Growth of laser initiated damage in fused silica at 1053 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2004, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz, eds. (SPIE, 2005), Vol. 5647, pp. 197-205.

M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, W. G. Hollingsworth, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, and R. P. Hackel, “Growth of laser initiated damage in fused silica at 1053 nm,” Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, Report UCRL-PROC-207885, NTIS Order No. DE2005-15014742 (2004).

Fell, B.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt--an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44, S239-S246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Flannery, B. P.

W. T. Vetterling and B. P. Flannery, “Conjugate gradient methods in multidimensions,” in Numerical recipes in C: The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed., W. H. Press and S. A. Teukolsky, eds. (Cambridge University, 2002), Chap. 10, Sec. 6, p. 414.

Folnsbee, L.

J. H. Kelly, L. J. Waxer, V. Bagnoud, I. A. Begishev, J. Bromage, B. E. Kruschwitz, T. J. Kessler, S. J. Loucks, D. N. Maywar, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. F. B. Morse, J. B. Oliver, A. L. Rigatti, A. W. Schmid, C. Stoeckl, S. Dalton, L. Folnsbee, M. J. Guardalben, R. Jungquist, J. Puth, M. J. Shoup, III, D. Weiner, and J. D. Zuegel, “OMEGA EP: High-energy petawatt capability for the OMEGA Laser Facility,” J. Phys. IV 133, 75-80 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Frackiewicz, A. J.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt--an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44, S239-S246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Frantz, L. M.

L. M. Frantz and J. S. Nodvik, “Theory of pulse propagation in a laser amplifier,” J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2346-2349 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, H.

Y. Kitagawa, H. Fujita, R. Kodama, H. Yoshida, S. Matsuo, T. Jitsuno, T. Kawasaki, H. Kitamura, T. Kanabe, S. Sakabe, K. Shigemori, N. Miyanaga, and Y. Izawa, “Prepulse-free petawatt laser for a fast ignitor,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 281-293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gleyze, J. F.

A. Jolly, J. F. Gleyze, J. Luce, H. Coic, and G. Deschaseaux, “Front-end sources of the LIL-LMJ fusion lasers: progress report and prospects,” Opt. Eng. 42, 1427-1438 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Guardalben, M. J.

J. Qiao, A. Kalb, M. J. Guardalben, G. King, D. Canning, and J. H. Kelly, “Large-aperture grating tiling by interferometry for Petawatt chirped-pulseamplification systems,” Opt. Express 15, 9562-9574 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Kelly, L. J. Waxer, V. Bagnoud, I. A. Begishev, J. Bromage, B. E. Kruschwitz, T. J. Kessler, S. J. Loucks, D. N. Maywar, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. F. B. Morse, J. B. Oliver, A. L. Rigatti, A. W. Schmid, C. Stoeckl, S. Dalton, L. Folnsbee, M. J. Guardalben, R. Jungquist, J. Puth, M. J. Shoup, III, D. Weiner, and J. D. Zuegel, “OMEGA EP: High-energy petawatt capability for the OMEGA Laser Facility,” J. Phys. IV 133, 75-80 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hackel, R. P.

M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, W. G. Hollingsworth, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, and R. P. Hackel, “Growth of laser initiated damage in fused silica at 1053 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2004, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz, eds. (SPIE, 2005), Vol. 5647, pp. 197-205.

M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, W. G. Hollingsworth, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, and R. P. Hackel, “Growth of laser initiated damage in fused silica at 1053 nm,” Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, Report UCRL-PROC-207885, NTIS Order No. DE2005-15014742 (2004).

Hancock, S.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt--an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44, S239-S246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hawkes, S.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt--an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44, S239-S246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hein, J.

Henesian, M. A.

W. H. Williams, J. M. Auerbach, M. A. Henesian, K. S. Jancaitis, K. R. Manes, N. C. Mehta, C. D. Orth, R. A. Sacks, M. J. Shaw, and C. C. Widmayer, “Optical propagation modeling for the National Ignition Facility,” in Optical Engineering at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory II: The National Ignition Facility, M. A. Lane and C. R. Wuest, eds. (SPIE, 2004), Vol. 5341, pp. 66-72.

Hernandez-Gomez, C.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt--an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44, S239-S246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Holligan, P.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt--an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44, S239-S246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hollingsworth, W. G.

M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, W. G. Hollingsworth, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, and R. P. Hackel, “Growth of laser initiated damage in fused silica at 1053 nm,” Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, Report UCRL-PROC-207885, NTIS Order No. DE2005-15014742 (2004).

M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, W. G. Hollingsworth, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, and R. P. Hackel, “Growth of laser initiated damage in fused silica at 1053 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2004, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz, eds. (SPIE, 2005), Vol. 5647, pp. 197-205.

Hornung, M.

Huang, H.

Hutchinson, M. H. R.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt--an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44, S239-S246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Izawa, Y.

Y. Kitagawa, H. Fujita, R. Kodama, H. Yoshida, S. Matsuo, T. Jitsuno, T. Kawasaki, H. Kitamura, T. Kanabe, S. Sakabe, K. Shigemori, N. Miyanaga, and Y. Izawa, “Prepulse-free petawatt laser for a fast ignitor,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 281-293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jancaitis, K. S.

W. H. Williams, J. M. Auerbach, M. A. Henesian, K. S. Jancaitis, K. R. Manes, N. C. Mehta, C. D. Orth, R. A. Sacks, M. J. Shaw, and C. C. Widmayer, “Optical propagation modeling for the National Ignition Facility,” in Optical Engineering at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory II: The National Ignition Facility, M. A. Lane and C. R. Wuest, eds. (SPIE, 2004), Vol. 5341, pp. 66-72.

Jitsuno, T.

Y. Kitagawa, H. Fujita, R. Kodama, H. Yoshida, S. Matsuo, T. Jitsuno, T. Kawasaki, H. Kitamura, T. Kanabe, S. Sakabe, K. Shigemori, N. Miyanaga, and Y. Izawa, “Prepulse-free petawatt laser for a fast ignitor,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 281-293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jolly, A.

A. Jolly, J. F. Gleyze, J. Luce, H. Coic, and G. Deschaseaux, “Front-end sources of the LIL-LMJ fusion lasers: progress report and prospects,” Opt. Eng. 42, 1427-1438 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jovanovic, I.

J. D. Zuegel, S. Borneis, C. Barty, B. LeGarrec, C. Danson, N. Miyanaga, P. K. Rambo, C. LeBlanc, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, L. J. Waxer, J. H. Kelly, B. Kruschwitz, R. Jungquist, E. Moses, J. Britten, I. Jovanovic, J. Dawson, and N. Blanchot, “Laser challenges for fast ignition,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 49, 453-482 (2006).

Jungquist, R.

J. D. Zuegel, S. Borneis, C. Barty, B. LeGarrec, C. Danson, N. Miyanaga, P. K. Rambo, C. LeBlanc, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, L. J. Waxer, J. H. Kelly, B. Kruschwitz, R. Jungquist, E. Moses, J. Britten, I. Jovanovic, J. Dawson, and N. Blanchot, “Laser challenges for fast ignition,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 49, 453-482 (2006).

J. H. Kelly, L. J. Waxer, V. Bagnoud, I. A. Begishev, J. Bromage, B. E. Kruschwitz, T. J. Kessler, S. J. Loucks, D. N. Maywar, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. F. B. Morse, J. B. Oliver, A. L. Rigatti, A. W. Schmid, C. Stoeckl, S. Dalton, L. Folnsbee, M. J. Guardalben, R. Jungquist, J. Puth, M. J. Shoup, III, D. Weiner, and J. D. Zuegel, “OMEGA EP: High-energy petawatt capability for the OMEGA Laser Facility,” J. Phys. IV 133, 75-80 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kalb, A.

Kaluza, M. C.

Kanabe, T.

Y. Kitagawa, H. Fujita, R. Kodama, H. Yoshida, S. Matsuo, T. Jitsuno, T. Kawasaki, H. Kitamura, T. Kanabe, S. Sakabe, K. Shigemori, N. Miyanaga, and Y. Izawa, “Prepulse-free petawatt laser for a fast ignitor,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 281-293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kawasaki, T.

Y. Kitagawa, H. Fujita, R. Kodama, H. Yoshida, S. Matsuo, T. Jitsuno, T. Kawasaki, H. Kitamura, T. Kanabe, S. Sakabe, K. Shigemori, N. Miyanaga, and Y. Izawa, “Prepulse-free petawatt laser for a fast ignitor,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 281-293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Keck, R. L.

T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA Laser System,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495-506 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, J. H.

J. Qiao, A. Kalb, M. J. Guardalben, G. King, D. Canning, and J. H. Kelly, “Large-aperture grating tiling by interferometry for Petawatt chirped-pulseamplification systems,” Opt. Express 15, 9562-9574 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Zuegel, S. Borneis, C. Barty, B. LeGarrec, C. Danson, N. Miyanaga, P. K. Rambo, C. LeBlanc, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, L. J. Waxer, J. H. Kelly, B. Kruschwitz, R. Jungquist, E. Moses, J. Britten, I. Jovanovic, J. Dawson, and N. Blanchot, “Laser challenges for fast ignition,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 49, 453-482 (2006).

J. H. Kelly, L. J. Waxer, V. Bagnoud, I. A. Begishev, J. Bromage, B. E. Kruschwitz, T. J. Kessler, S. J. Loucks, D. N. Maywar, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. F. B. Morse, J. B. Oliver, A. L. Rigatti, A. W. Schmid, C. Stoeckl, S. Dalton, L. Folnsbee, M. J. Guardalben, R. Jungquist, J. Puth, M. J. Shoup, III, D. Weiner, and J. D. Zuegel, “OMEGA EP: High-energy petawatt capability for the OMEGA Laser Facility,” J. Phys. IV 133, 75-80 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA Laser System,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495-506 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kessler, T. J.

H. Huang and T. J. Kessler, “Tiled-grating compressor configuration with uncompensated dispersion for reduction of near-field-intensity smoothing,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1854-1856(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Zuegel, S. Borneis, C. Barty, B. LeGarrec, C. Danson, N. Miyanaga, P. K. Rambo, C. LeBlanc, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, L. J. Waxer, J. H. Kelly, B. Kruschwitz, R. Jungquist, E. Moses, J. Britten, I. Jovanovic, J. Dawson, and N. Blanchot, “Laser challenges for fast ignition,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 49, 453-482 (2006).

J. H. Kelly, L. J. Waxer, V. Bagnoud, I. A. Begishev, J. Bromage, B. E. Kruschwitz, T. J. Kessler, S. J. Loucks, D. N. Maywar, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. F. B. Morse, J. B. Oliver, A. L. Rigatti, A. W. Schmid, C. Stoeckl, S. Dalton, L. Folnsbee, M. J. Guardalben, R. Jungquist, J. Puth, M. J. Shoup, III, D. Weiner, and J. D. Zuegel, “OMEGA EP: High-energy petawatt capability for the OMEGA Laser Facility,” J. Phys. IV 133, 75-80 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA Laser System,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495-506 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kidd, A.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt--an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44, S239-S246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

King, G.

Kitagawa, Y.

Y. Kitagawa, H. Fujita, R. Kodama, H. Yoshida, S. Matsuo, T. Jitsuno, T. Kawasaki, H. Kitamura, T. Kanabe, S. Sakabe, K. Shigemori, N. Miyanaga, and Y. Izawa, “Prepulse-free petawatt laser for a fast ignitor,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 281-293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kitamura, H.

Y. Kitagawa, H. Fujita, R. Kodama, H. Yoshida, S. Matsuo, T. Jitsuno, T. Kawasaki, H. Kitamura, T. Kanabe, S. Sakabe, K. Shigemori, N. Miyanaga, and Y. Izawa, “Prepulse-free petawatt laser for a fast ignitor,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 281-293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Knauer, J. P.

T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA Laser System,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495-506 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kodama, R.

Y. Kitagawa, H. Fujita, R. Kodama, H. Yoshida, S. Matsuo, T. Jitsuno, T. Kawasaki, H. Kitamura, T. Kanabe, S. Sakabe, K. Shigemori, N. Miyanaga, and Y. Izawa, “Prepulse-free petawatt laser for a fast ignitor,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 281-293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kruschwitz, B.

J. D. Zuegel, S. Borneis, C. Barty, B. LeGarrec, C. Danson, N. Miyanaga, P. K. Rambo, C. LeBlanc, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, L. J. Waxer, J. H. Kelly, B. Kruschwitz, R. Jungquist, E. Moses, J. Britten, I. Jovanovic, J. Dawson, and N. Blanchot, “Laser challenges for fast ignition,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 49, 453-482 (2006).

Kruschwitz, B. E.

J. H. Kelly, L. J. Waxer, V. Bagnoud, I. A. Begishev, J. Bromage, B. E. Kruschwitz, T. J. Kessler, S. J. Loucks, D. N. Maywar, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. F. B. Morse, J. B. Oliver, A. L. Rigatti, A. W. Schmid, C. Stoeckl, S. Dalton, L. Folnsbee, M. J. Guardalben, R. Jungquist, J. Puth, M. J. Shoup, III, D. Weiner, and J. D. Zuegel, “OMEGA EP: High-energy petawatt capability for the OMEGA Laser Facility,” J. Phys. IV 133, 75-80 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kumpan, S. A.

T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA Laser System,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495-506 (1997).
[CrossRef]

LeBlanc, C.

J. D. Zuegel, S. Borneis, C. Barty, B. LeGarrec, C. Danson, N. Miyanaga, P. K. Rambo, C. LeBlanc, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, L. J. Waxer, J. H. Kelly, B. Kruschwitz, R. Jungquist, E. Moses, J. Britten, I. Jovanovic, J. Dawson, and N. Blanchot, “Laser challenges for fast ignition,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 49, 453-482 (2006).

LeGarrec, B.

J. D. Zuegel, S. Borneis, C. Barty, B. LeGarrec, C. Danson, N. Miyanaga, P. K. Rambo, C. LeBlanc, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, L. J. Waxer, J. H. Kelly, B. Kruschwitz, R. Jungquist, E. Moses, J. Britten, I. Jovanovic, J. Dawson, and N. Blanchot, “Laser challenges for fast ignition,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 49, 453-482 (2006).

Lester, W. J.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt--an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44, S239-S246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Letzring, S. A.

T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA Laser System,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495-506 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Loucks, S. J.

J. H. Kelly, L. J. Waxer, V. Bagnoud, I. A. Begishev, J. Bromage, B. E. Kruschwitz, T. J. Kessler, S. J. Loucks, D. N. Maywar, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. F. B. Morse, J. B. Oliver, A. L. Rigatti, A. W. Schmid, C. Stoeckl, S. Dalton, L. Folnsbee, M. J. Guardalben, R. Jungquist, J. Puth, M. J. Shoup, III, D. Weiner, and J. D. Zuegel, “OMEGA EP: High-energy petawatt capability for the OMEGA Laser Facility,” J. Phys. IV 133, 75-80 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA Laser System,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495-506 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Luce, J.

A. Jolly, J. F. Gleyze, J. Luce, H. Coic, and G. Deschaseaux, “Front-end sources of the LIL-LMJ fusion lasers: progress report and prospects,” Opt. Eng. 42, 1427-1438 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Manes, K. R.

W. H. Williams, J. M. Auerbach, M. A. Henesian, K. S. Jancaitis, K. R. Manes, N. C. Mehta, C. D. Orth, R. A. Sacks, M. J. Shaw, and C. C. Widmayer, “Optical propagation modeling for the National Ignition Facility,” in Optical Engineering at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory II: The National Ignition Facility, M. A. Lane and C. R. Wuest, eds. (SPIE, 2004), Vol. 5341, pp. 66-72.

Marshall, F. J.

T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA Laser System,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495-506 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Matsuo, S.

Y. Kitagawa, H. Fujita, R. Kodama, H. Yoshida, S. Matsuo, T. Jitsuno, T. Kawasaki, H. Kitamura, T. Kanabe, S. Sakabe, K. Shigemori, N. Miyanaga, and Y. Izawa, “Prepulse-free petawatt laser for a fast ignitor,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 281-293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maywar, D. N.

J. H. Kelly, L. J. Waxer, V. Bagnoud, I. A. Begishev, J. Bromage, B. E. Kruschwitz, T. J. Kessler, S. J. Loucks, D. N. Maywar, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. F. B. Morse, J. B. Oliver, A. L. Rigatti, A. W. Schmid, C. Stoeckl, S. Dalton, L. Folnsbee, M. J. Guardalben, R. Jungquist, J. Puth, M. J. Shoup, III, D. Weiner, and J. D. Zuegel, “OMEGA EP: High-energy petawatt capability for the OMEGA Laser Facility,” J. Phys. IV 133, 75-80 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McCrory, R. L.

J. H. Kelly, L. J. Waxer, V. Bagnoud, I. A. Begishev, J. Bromage, B. E. Kruschwitz, T. J. Kessler, S. J. Loucks, D. N. Maywar, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. F. B. Morse, J. B. Oliver, A. L. Rigatti, A. W. Schmid, C. Stoeckl, S. Dalton, L. Folnsbee, M. J. Guardalben, R. Jungquist, J. Puth, M. J. Shoup, III, D. Weiner, and J. D. Zuegel, “OMEGA EP: High-energy petawatt capability for the OMEGA Laser Facility,” J. Phys. IV 133, 75-80 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA Laser System,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495-506 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mehta, N. C.

W. H. Williams, J. M. Auerbach, M. A. Henesian, K. S. Jancaitis, K. R. Manes, N. C. Mehta, C. D. Orth, R. A. Sacks, M. J. Shaw, and C. C. Widmayer, “Optical propagation modeling for the National Ignition Facility,” in Optical Engineering at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory II: The National Ignition Facility, M. A. Lane and C. R. Wuest, eds. (SPIE, 2004), Vol. 5341, pp. 66-72.

Meyerhofer, D. D.

J. H. Kelly, L. J. Waxer, V. Bagnoud, I. A. Begishev, J. Bromage, B. E. Kruschwitz, T. J. Kessler, S. J. Loucks, D. N. Maywar, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. F. B. Morse, J. B. Oliver, A. L. Rigatti, A. W. Schmid, C. Stoeckl, S. Dalton, L. Folnsbee, M. J. Guardalben, R. Jungquist, J. Puth, M. J. Shoup, III, D. Weiner, and J. D. Zuegel, “OMEGA EP: High-energy petawatt capability for the OMEGA Laser Facility,” J. Phys. IV 133, 75-80 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miller, G. H.

G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, “The National Ignition Facility: enabling fusion ignition for the 21st century,” Nucl. Fusion 44, S228-S238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Miyanaga, N.

J. D. Zuegel, S. Borneis, C. Barty, B. LeGarrec, C. Danson, N. Miyanaga, P. K. Rambo, C. LeBlanc, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, L. J. Waxer, J. H. Kelly, B. Kruschwitz, R. Jungquist, E. Moses, J. Britten, I. Jovanovic, J. Dawson, and N. Blanchot, “Laser challenges for fast ignition,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 49, 453-482 (2006).

Y. Kitagawa, H. Fujita, R. Kodama, H. Yoshida, S. Matsuo, T. Jitsuno, T. Kawasaki, H. Kitamura, T. Kanabe, S. Sakabe, K. Shigemori, N. Miyanaga, and Y. Izawa, “Prepulse-free petawatt laser for a fast ignitor,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 281-293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Morse, S. F. B.

J. H. Kelly, L. J. Waxer, V. Bagnoud, I. A. Begishev, J. Bromage, B. E. Kruschwitz, T. J. Kessler, S. J. Loucks, D. N. Maywar, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. F. B. Morse, J. B. Oliver, A. L. Rigatti, A. W. Schmid, C. Stoeckl, S. Dalton, L. Folnsbee, M. J. Guardalben, R. Jungquist, J. Puth, M. J. Shoup, III, D. Weiner, and J. D. Zuegel, “OMEGA EP: High-energy petawatt capability for the OMEGA Laser Facility,” J. Phys. IV 133, 75-80 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA Laser System,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495-506 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Moses, E.

J. D. Zuegel, S. Borneis, C. Barty, B. LeGarrec, C. Danson, N. Miyanaga, P. K. Rambo, C. LeBlanc, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, L. J. Waxer, J. H. Kelly, B. Kruschwitz, R. Jungquist, E. Moses, J. Britten, I. Jovanovic, J. Dawson, and N. Blanchot, “Laser challenges for fast ignition,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 49, 453-482 (2006).

Moses, E. I.

G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, “The National Ignition Facility: enabling fusion ignition for the 21st century,” Nucl. Fusion 44, S228-S238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Musgrave, I. O.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt--an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44, S239-S246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Neely, D.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt--an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44, S239-S246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Neville, D. R.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt--an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44, S239-S246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nodvik, J. S.

L. M. Frantz and J. S. Nodvik, “Theory of pulse propagation in a laser amplifier,” J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2346-2349 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Norreys, P. A.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt--an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44, S239-S246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Norton, M. A.

M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, W. G. Hollingsworth, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, and R. P. Hackel, “Growth of laser initiated damage in fused silica at 1053 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2004, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz, eds. (SPIE, 2005), Vol. 5647, pp. 197-205.

M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, W. G. Hollingsworth, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, and R. P. Hackel, “Growth of laser initiated damage in fused silica at 1053 nm,” Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, Report UCRL-PROC-207885, NTIS Order No. DE2005-15014742 (2004).

Oliver, J. B.

J. H. Kelly, L. J. Waxer, V. Bagnoud, I. A. Begishev, J. Bromage, B. E. Kruschwitz, T. J. Kessler, S. J. Loucks, D. N. Maywar, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. F. B. Morse, J. B. Oliver, A. L. Rigatti, A. W. Schmid, C. Stoeckl, S. Dalton, L. Folnsbee, M. J. Guardalben, R. Jungquist, J. Puth, M. J. Shoup, III, D. Weiner, and J. D. Zuegel, “OMEGA EP: High-energy petawatt capability for the OMEGA Laser Facility,” J. Phys. IV 133, 75-80 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Orth, C. D.

W. H. Williams, J. M. Auerbach, M. A. Henesian, K. S. Jancaitis, K. R. Manes, N. C. Mehta, C. D. Orth, R. A. Sacks, M. J. Shaw, and C. C. Widmayer, “Optical propagation modeling for the National Ignition Facility,” in Optical Engineering at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory II: The National Ignition Facility, M. A. Lane and C. R. Wuest, eds. (SPIE, 2004), Vol. 5341, pp. 66-72.

Pepler, D. A.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt--an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44, S239-S246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Puth, J.

J. H. Kelly, L. J. Waxer, V. Bagnoud, I. A. Begishev, J. Bromage, B. E. Kruschwitz, T. J. Kessler, S. J. Loucks, D. N. Maywar, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. F. B. Morse, J. B. Oliver, A. L. Rigatti, A. W. Schmid, C. Stoeckl, S. Dalton, L. Folnsbee, M. J. Guardalben, R. Jungquist, J. Puth, M. J. Shoup, III, D. Weiner, and J. D. Zuegel, “OMEGA EP: High-energy petawatt capability for the OMEGA Laser Facility,” J. Phys. IV 133, 75-80 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Qiao, J.

Rambo, P. K.

J. D. Zuegel, S. Borneis, C. Barty, B. LeGarrec, C. Danson, N. Miyanaga, P. K. Rambo, C. LeBlanc, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, L. J. Waxer, J. H. Kelly, B. Kruschwitz, R. Jungquist, E. Moses, J. Britten, I. Jovanovic, J. Dawson, and N. Blanchot, “Laser challenges for fast ignition,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 49, 453-482 (2006).

Reason, C. J.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt--an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44, S239-S246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rigatti, A. L.

J. H. Kelly, L. J. Waxer, V. Bagnoud, I. A. Begishev, J. Bromage, B. E. Kruschwitz, T. J. Kessler, S. J. Loucks, D. N. Maywar, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. F. B. Morse, J. B. Oliver, A. L. Rigatti, A. W. Schmid, C. Stoeckl, S. Dalton, L. Folnsbee, M. J. Guardalben, R. Jungquist, J. Puth, M. J. Shoup, III, D. Weiner, and J. D. Zuegel, “OMEGA EP: High-energy petawatt capability for the OMEGA Laser Facility,” J. Phys. IV 133, 75-80 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rubenchik, A. M.

M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, W. G. Hollingsworth, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, and R. P. Hackel, “Growth of laser initiated damage in fused silica at 1053 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2004, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz, eds. (SPIE, 2005), Vol. 5647, pp. 197-205.

M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, W. G. Hollingsworth, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, and R. P. Hackel, “Growth of laser initiated damage in fused silica at 1053 nm,” Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, Report UCRL-PROC-207885, NTIS Order No. DE2005-15014742 (2004).

Sacks, R. A.

W. H. Williams, J. M. Auerbach, M. A. Henesian, K. S. Jancaitis, K. R. Manes, N. C. Mehta, C. D. Orth, R. A. Sacks, M. J. Shaw, and C. C. Widmayer, “Optical propagation modeling for the National Ignition Facility,” in Optical Engineering at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory II: The National Ignition Facility, M. A. Lane and C. R. Wuest, eds. (SPIE, 2004), Vol. 5341, pp. 66-72.

Sakabe, S.

Y. Kitagawa, H. Fujita, R. Kodama, H. Yoshida, S. Matsuo, T. Jitsuno, T. Kawasaki, H. Kitamura, T. Kanabe, S. Sakabe, K. Shigemori, N. Miyanaga, and Y. Izawa, “Prepulse-free petawatt laser for a fast ignitor,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 281-293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sauerbrey, R.

Sawicki, R. H.

R. H. Sawicki, “The National Ignition Facility: laser system, beam line design, and construction,” in Optical Engineering at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory II: The National Ignition Facility (SPIE, 2004), Vol. 5341, p. 43.

Schmid, A. W.

J. D. Zuegel, S. Borneis, C. Barty, B. LeGarrec, C. Danson, N. Miyanaga, P. K. Rambo, C. LeBlanc, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, L. J. Waxer, J. H. Kelly, B. Kruschwitz, R. Jungquist, E. Moses, J. Britten, I. Jovanovic, J. Dawson, and N. Blanchot, “Laser challenges for fast ignition,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 49, 453-482 (2006).

J. H. Kelly, L. J. Waxer, V. Bagnoud, I. A. Begishev, J. Bromage, B. E. Kruschwitz, T. J. Kessler, S. J. Loucks, D. N. Maywar, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. F. B. Morse, J. B. Oliver, A. L. Rigatti, A. W. Schmid, C. Stoeckl, S. Dalton, L. Folnsbee, M. J. Guardalben, R. Jungquist, J. Puth, M. J. Shoup, III, D. Weiner, and J. D. Zuegel, “OMEGA EP: High-energy petawatt capability for the OMEGA Laser Facility,” J. Phys. IV 133, 75-80 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schnepp, M.

Seka, W.

T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA Laser System,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495-506 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shaikh, W.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt--an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44, S239-S246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, M. J.

W. H. Williams, J. M. Auerbach, M. A. Henesian, K. S. Jancaitis, K. R. Manes, N. C. Mehta, C. D. Orth, R. A. Sacks, M. J. Shaw, and C. C. Widmayer, “Optical propagation modeling for the National Ignition Facility,” in Optical Engineering at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory II: The National Ignition Facility, M. A. Lane and C. R. Wuest, eds. (SPIE, 2004), Vol. 5341, pp. 66-72.

Shigemori, K.

Y. Kitagawa, H. Fujita, R. Kodama, H. Yoshida, S. Matsuo, T. Jitsuno, T. Kawasaki, H. Kitamura, T. Kanabe, S. Sakabe, K. Shigemori, N. Miyanaga, and Y. Izawa, “Prepulse-free petawatt laser for a fast ignitor,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 281-293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shoup, M. J.

J. H. Kelly, L. J. Waxer, V. Bagnoud, I. A. Begishev, J. Bromage, B. E. Kruschwitz, T. J. Kessler, S. J. Loucks, D. N. Maywar, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. F. B. Morse, J. B. Oliver, A. L. Rigatti, A. W. Schmid, C. Stoeckl, S. Dalton, L. Folnsbee, M. J. Guardalben, R. Jungquist, J. Puth, M. J. Shoup, III, D. Weiner, and J. D. Zuegel, “OMEGA EP: High-energy petawatt capability for the OMEGA Laser Facility,” J. Phys. IV 133, 75-80 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Siebold, M.

Soures, J. M.

T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA Laser System,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495-506 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stoeckl, C.

J. H. Kelly, L. J. Waxer, V. Bagnoud, I. A. Begishev, J. Bromage, B. E. Kruschwitz, T. J. Kessler, S. J. Loucks, D. N. Maywar, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. F. B. Morse, J. B. Oliver, A. L. Rigatti, A. W. Schmid, C. Stoeckl, S. Dalton, L. Folnsbee, M. J. Guardalben, R. Jungquist, J. Puth, M. J. Shoup, III, D. Weiner, and J. D. Zuegel, “OMEGA EP: High-energy petawatt capability for the OMEGA Laser Facility,” J. Phys. IV 133, 75-80 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Verdon, C. P.

T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA Laser System,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495-506 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vetterling, W. T.

W. T. Vetterling and B. P. Flannery, “Conjugate gradient methods in multidimensions,” in Numerical recipes in C: The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed., W. H. Press and S. A. Teukolsky, eds. (Cambridge University, 2002), Chap. 10, Sec. 6, p. 414.

Waxer, L. J.

J. D. Zuegel, S. Borneis, C. Barty, B. LeGarrec, C. Danson, N. Miyanaga, P. K. Rambo, C. LeBlanc, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, L. J. Waxer, J. H. Kelly, B. Kruschwitz, R. Jungquist, E. Moses, J. Britten, I. Jovanovic, J. Dawson, and N. Blanchot, “Laser challenges for fast ignition,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 49, 453-482 (2006).

J. H. Kelly, L. J. Waxer, V. Bagnoud, I. A. Begishev, J. Bromage, B. E. Kruschwitz, T. J. Kessler, S. J. Loucks, D. N. Maywar, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. F. B. Morse, J. B. Oliver, A. L. Rigatti, A. W. Schmid, C. Stoeckl, S. Dalton, L. Folnsbee, M. J. Guardalben, R. Jungquist, J. Puth, M. J. Shoup, III, D. Weiner, and J. D. Zuegel, “OMEGA EP: High-energy petawatt capability for the OMEGA Laser Facility,” J. Phys. IV 133, 75-80 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, D.

J. H. Kelly, L. J. Waxer, V. Bagnoud, I. A. Begishev, J. Bromage, B. E. Kruschwitz, T. J. Kessler, S. J. Loucks, D. N. Maywar, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. F. B. Morse, J. B. Oliver, A. L. Rigatti, A. W. Schmid, C. Stoeckl, S. Dalton, L. Folnsbee, M. J. Guardalben, R. Jungquist, J. Puth, M. J. Shoup, III, D. Weiner, and J. D. Zuegel, “OMEGA EP: High-energy petawatt capability for the OMEGA Laser Facility,” J. Phys. IV 133, 75-80 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Widmayer, C. C.

W. H. Williams, J. M. Auerbach, M. A. Henesian, K. S. Jancaitis, K. R. Manes, N. C. Mehta, C. D. Orth, R. A. Sacks, M. J. Shaw, and C. C. Widmayer, “Optical propagation modeling for the National Ignition Facility,” in Optical Engineering at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory II: The National Ignition Facility, M. A. Lane and C. R. Wuest, eds. (SPIE, 2004), Vol. 5341, pp. 66-72.

Williams, W. H.

W. H. Williams, J. M. Auerbach, M. A. Henesian, K. S. Jancaitis, K. R. Manes, N. C. Mehta, C. D. Orth, R. A. Sacks, M. J. Shaw, and C. C. Widmayer, “Optical propagation modeling for the National Ignition Facility,” in Optical Engineering at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory II: The National Ignition Facility, M. A. Lane and C. R. Wuest, eds. (SPIE, 2004), Vol. 5341, pp. 66-72.

Winstone, T. B.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt--an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44, S239-S246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wuest, C. R.

G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, “The National Ignition Facility: enabling fusion ignition for the 21st century,” Nucl. Fusion 44, S228-S238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wyatt, R. W. W.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt--an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44, S239-S246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wyborn, B. E.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt--an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44, S239-S246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, H.

Y. Kitagawa, H. Fujita, R. Kodama, H. Yoshida, S. Matsuo, T. Jitsuno, T. Kawasaki, H. Kitamura, T. Kanabe, S. Sakabe, K. Shigemori, N. Miyanaga, and Y. Izawa, “Prepulse-free petawatt laser for a fast ignitor,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 281-293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zuegel, J. D.

J. D. Zuegel, S. Borneis, C. Barty, B. LeGarrec, C. Danson, N. Miyanaga, P. K. Rambo, C. LeBlanc, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, L. J. Waxer, J. H. Kelly, B. Kruschwitz, R. Jungquist, E. Moses, J. Britten, I. Jovanovic, J. Dawson, and N. Blanchot, “Laser challenges for fast ignition,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 49, 453-482 (2006).

J. H. Kelly, L. J. Waxer, V. Bagnoud, I. A. Begishev, J. Bromage, B. E. Kruschwitz, T. J. Kessler, S. J. Loucks, D. N. Maywar, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. F. B. Morse, J. B. Oliver, A. L. Rigatti, A. W. Schmid, C. Stoeckl, S. Dalton, L. Folnsbee, M. J. Guardalben, R. Jungquist, J. Puth, M. J. Shoup, III, D. Weiner, and J. D. Zuegel, “OMEGA EP: High-energy petawatt capability for the OMEGA Laser Facility,” J. Phys. IV 133, 75-80 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Bagnoud and J. D. Zuegel, “Independent phase and amplitude control of a laser beam by use of a single-phase-only spatial light modulator,” Opt. Lett. 29, 295-297(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Fusion Sci. Technol. (1)

J. D. Zuegel, S. Borneis, C. Barty, B. LeGarrec, C. Danson, N. Miyanaga, P. K. Rambo, C. LeBlanc, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, L. J. Waxer, J. H. Kelly, B. Kruschwitz, R. Jungquist, E. Moses, J. Britten, I. Jovanovic, J. Dawson, and N. Blanchot, “Laser challenges for fast ignition,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 49, 453-482 (2006).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. Kitagawa, H. Fujita, R. Kodama, H. Yoshida, S. Matsuo, T. Jitsuno, T. Kawasaki, H. Kitamura, T. Kanabe, S. Sakabe, K. Shigemori, N. Miyanaga, and Y. Izawa, “Prepulse-free petawatt laser for a fast ignitor,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 281-293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

L. M. Frantz and J. S. Nodvik, “Theory of pulse propagation in a laser amplifier,” J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2346-2349 (1963).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. IV (1)

J. H. Kelly, L. J. Waxer, V. Bagnoud, I. A. Begishev, J. Bromage, B. E. Kruschwitz, T. J. Kessler, S. J. Loucks, D. N. Maywar, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. F. B. Morse, J. B. Oliver, A. L. Rigatti, A. W. Schmid, C. Stoeckl, S. Dalton, L. Folnsbee, M. J. Guardalben, R. Jungquist, J. Puth, M. J. Shoup, III, D. Weiner, and J. D. Zuegel, “OMEGA EP: High-energy petawatt capability for the OMEGA Laser Facility,” J. Phys. IV 133, 75-80 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Fusion (2)

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt--an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44, S239-S246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, “The National Ignition Facility: enabling fusion ignition for the 21st century,” Nucl. Fusion 44, S228-S238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA Laser System,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495-506 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

A. Jolly, J. F. Gleyze, J. Luce, H. Coic, and G. Deschaseaux, “Front-end sources of the LIL-LMJ fusion lasers: progress report and prospects,” Opt. Eng. 42, 1427-1438 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (6)

W. T. Vetterling and B. P. Flannery, “Conjugate gradient methods in multidimensions,” in Numerical recipes in C: The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed., W. H. Press and S. A. Teukolsky, eds. (Cambridge University, 2002), Chap. 10, Sec. 6, p. 414.

M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, W. G. Hollingsworth, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, and R. P. Hackel, “Growth of laser initiated damage in fused silica at 1053 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2004, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz, eds. (SPIE, 2005), Vol. 5647, pp. 197-205.

M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, W. G. Hollingsworth, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, and R. P. Hackel, “Growth of laser initiated damage in fused silica at 1053 nm,” Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, Report UCRL-PROC-207885, NTIS Order No. DE2005-15014742 (2004).

The damage mechanism on gratings may differ from regular optical surfaces; spot shadowing, however, can mitigate the damage growth on gratings whether they are metal or dielectric. Private communications with A. Schmid who specializes in measuring damage threshold at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester.

R. H. Sawicki, “The National Ignition Facility: laser system, beam line design, and construction,” in Optical Engineering at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory II: The National Ignition Facility (SPIE, 2004), Vol. 5341, p. 43.

W. H. Williams, J. M. Auerbach, M. A. Henesian, K. S. Jancaitis, K. R. Manes, N. C. Mehta, C. D. Orth, R. A. Sacks, M. J. Shaw, and C. C. Widmayer, “Optical propagation modeling for the National Ignition Facility,” in Optical Engineering at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory II: The National Ignition Facility, M. A. Lane and C. R. Wuest, eds. (SPIE, 2004), Vol. 5341, pp. 66-72.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of NIF front end and amplifiers. SF, spatial-filter lens; PC, Pockels cell; RP0, image-relay plane in the PAM; SF1 and SF2, cavity spatial filter; SF3 and SF4, transport spatial filter; A, C, and D, mirrors; B, polarizer. All focal lengths of SF3 and SF4 are 30 m . The distance from SF4 to FCC is approximately 62 to 74 m . depending on the location of each beam line. The half-acceptance angle of the transport spatial filter is 100 μrad on first pass (injection) and 200 μrad on second pass (last pass). Half-acceptance angle of the cavity spatial filter is 200 μrad for all four passes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Summary of initial NIF intensity-only spot-shadowing results. Beam line out at (a) SF4 and at (b) FCC using 0.5, 1, and 1.5 cm diameter flattop profile holes. Beam line out at (c) SF4 and at (d) FCC using 2 cm diameter flattop holes. The average fluence except at the holes is 16 J / cm 2 , which corresponds to 3.4 GW / cm 2 using a 4.4 ns effective pulse width.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Resimulation with a simplified code. Intensity and phase distributions at SF3, SF4, and FCC with increasing input power. Input energy of the solid curves is 10 times larger than that of the dotted curves. The input field is masked only in its amplitude with a flattop profile of a 1 cm diameter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Distribution of ray positions at SF3 and SF4 using 1 cm diameter spot shadowing. Each point represents a ray point and is gray coded for easy tracking. The black zone in (a) collapses to focus in (b), indicating that it is the main contributor to the SF4 hot spot. The black zone corresponds to the circled region of the shadow spot at SF3 intensity (c) and phase (e). Note that the rays in the hollow zone in (a) diverge outside the region of interest and were not drawn in this figure.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Effect of low-order phase correction on the SF3-plane phase. Two cases of positive and negative low-order phase profiles are indicated by circles. The net phase difference is the difference in the SF3 phase with and without input phase correction. Input intensity was assumed uniform without any spot shadowing.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Heuristic solution. (a), (b) Input intensity and phase at RP0, (c) phase at SF3, and (d), (e) intensity profile at SF4 and FCC planes, respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Region denotations. r 1 is 0.5 cm , and r 2 is 1 cm . The origin is at the center of the beam. Radially symmetric intensity and phase distribution in Region 2 is optimized. Amplitude in Region 1 is always set to zero, and Region 3 denotes regular field distribution outside the spot shadow.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The convergence of error metric components. Weighting factors for each component of the error metric are 4, 1, 1, 0.5. In the graph shown, weighting factors were not multiplied in the individual error metric component.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Optimized solution. (a), (b) Input intensity and phase at RP0, (c) phase at SF3, and (d), (e) intensity profile at SF4 and FCC planes, respectively.

Equations (6)

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ϕ ( r ) = 2 π η r 2 2 2 λ F [ ( r r 2 ) 4 ( r r 2 ) 2 ] , r r 2 ,
F ( a 1 , a 2 , , ϕ 1 , ϕ 2 , ) α 1 F 1 + α 2 F 2 + α 3 F 3 + α 4 F 4 ,
F 1 = | I SF 4 ( r = 0 ) - I SF 4 , nom | / I SF 4 , nom ,
F 2 = I FCC ( r = 0 ) / I FCC , nom ,
F 3 = P FCC , Ω 1 / P FCC , Ω 1 , nom ,
F 4 = | P FCC , Ω 2 , nom P FCC , Ω 2 | / P FCC , Ω 2 , nom .

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