Abstract

We present a simple theoretical model for the emission from double pulse laser-induced plasmas that was developed to better understand the processes and factors involved in enhancement of plasma emission. In this model, the plasma emission is directly proportional to the square of plasma density, its volume, and the fraction of second laser pulse absorbed through inverse bremsstrahlung absorption by the plasma plume of the first laser pulse. The electron–ion collision frequency determines the profile and location of the peak of emission enhancement with respect to the delay between the two lasers, whereas the amplitude of the enhancement is mainly dependent on the increase in the mass ablation rate after the second laser pulse. The effects of increase in temperature and in plasma volume after the second laser pulse are also discussed in light of this model.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  29. M. Spyridaki, E. Koudoumas, P. Tzanetakis, C. Fotakis, R. Stoian, A. Rosenfeld, and I. V. Hertel, “Temporal pulse manipulation and ion generation in ultra fast laser ablation of silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1474-1476 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  30. R. Stoian, M. Boyle, A. Thoss, A Rosenfeld, G. Kom, I. V. Hertel, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Laser ablation of dielectrics with temporally shaped femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 353-355 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

A. De Giacomo, M. Dell'Aglio, O. De Pascale, and M. Capitelli, “From single pulse to double pulse ns-laser induced breakdown spectroscopy under water: elemental analysis of aqueous solutions and submerged solid samples,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 62, 721-738 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

V. I. Babushok, F. C. De Lucia, Jr., J. L. Gottfried, C. A. Munson, and A. W. Miziolek, “Double pulse laser ablation and plasma: laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal enhancement,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 61, 999-1014 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, P. Pardini, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “Spectroscoic and shadowgraphic analysis of laser-induced plasmas in the orthogonal double pulse pre ablation configuration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 61, 340-350 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (5)

A. C. Forsman, P. S. Banks, M. D. Perry, E. M. Campbell, A. L. Dodell, and M. S. Armas, “Double pulse machining as a technique for the enhancement of material removal rates in laser machining of metals,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 033302(2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Mao, X. Zeng, S. B. Wen, and R. E. Russo, “Time-resolved plasma properties for double pulsed laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of silicon,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 960-967 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Rai, F. Y. Yueh, and J. P. Singh, “Optical emission from laser-produced chromium and magnesium plasma under the effect of two sequential laser pulses,” Pramana, J. Phys. 65, 1075-1083 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Benedetti, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, L. Pardini, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “Effect of laser pulse energies in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in double-pulse configuration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 1392-1401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Gonzalez, C. Liu, J. Yoo, X. Mao, and R. E. Russo, “Double-pulse laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 27-31(2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

E. Koudoumas, M. Spyridaki, R. Stoian, A. Rosenfeld, P. Tzanetakis, I. V. Hertel, and C. Fotakis, “Influence of pulse temporal manipulation on the properties of laser ablated Si ion beams,” Thin Solid Films 453-454, 372-376(2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Scaffidi, W. Pearman, M. Lawrence, J. C. Carter, B. W. Colston, Jr., and S. M. Angel, “Spatial and temporal dependence of inter spark interaction in femtosecond-nanosecond dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5243-5250 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Giuffrida, M. Hidalgo, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, E. Tognoni, and C. Vallebona, “Three-dimensional analysis of laser induced plasma in single and double pulse configuration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 59, 723-735 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Noll, R. Sattamann, V. Sturm, and S. Winkelmann, “Space- and time-resolved dynamics of plasma generated by laser double pulses interacting with metallic samples,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 419-428 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

2002 (2)

R. Stoian, M. Boyle, A. Thoss, A Rosenfeld, G. Kom, I. V. Hertel, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Laser ablation of dielectrics with temporally shaped femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 353-355 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Colao, V. Lazic, R. Fantoni, and S. Pershin, “A comparison of single and double pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of aluminum samples,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 57, 1167-1179 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

S. M. Angel, D. N. Stratis, K. L. Eland, T. LaiM. A. Berg, and D. M. Gold, “LIBS using dual- and ultra-short laser pulses,” Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 369, 320-327 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Stratis, K. L. Eland, and S. M. Angel, “Effect of pulse delay time on a pre-ablation dual pulse LIBS plasma,” Appl. Spectrosc. 55, 1297-1303 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

1999 (1)

P. Mukherjee, S. Chen, and S. Witanachchi, “Effect of initial plasma geometry and temperature on dynamics of plume expansion in dual laser ablation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1546-1548 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

L. St-Onge, M. Sabsabi, and P. Cielo, “Analysis of solids using laser-induced plasma spectroscopy in double-pulse mode,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 53, 407-415 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1984 (1)

1970 (1)

R. H. Scott and A. Strasheim, “Laser-induced plasmas for analytical spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 25, 311-332(1970).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

E. H. Piepmeier and H. V. Malmstadt, “Q-switched laser energy absorption in the plume of an aluminum alloy,” Anal. Chem. 41, 700-707 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Angel, S. M.

Armas, M. S.

A. C. Forsman, P. S. Banks, M. D. Perry, E. M. Campbell, A. L. Dodell, and M. S. Armas, “Double pulse machining as a technique for the enhancement of material removal rates in laser machining of metals,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 033302(2005).
[CrossRef]

Babushok, V. I.

V. I. Babushok, F. C. De Lucia, Jr., J. L. Gottfried, C. A. Munson, and A. W. Miziolek, “Double pulse laser ablation and plasma: laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal enhancement,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 61, 999-1014 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Banks, P. S.

A. C. Forsman, P. S. Banks, M. D. Perry, E. M. Campbell, A. L. Dodell, and M. S. Armas, “Double pulse machining as a technique for the enhancement of material removal rates in laser machining of metals,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 033302(2005).
[CrossRef]

Benedetti, P. A.

P. A. Benedetti, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, L. Pardini, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “Effect of laser pulse energies in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in double-pulse configuration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 1392-1401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Berg, M. A.

S. M. Angel, D. N. Stratis, K. L. Eland, T. LaiM. A. Berg, and D. M. Gold, “LIBS using dual- and ultra-short laser pulses,” Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 369, 320-327 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bittencourt, J. A.

J. A. Bittencourt, Fundamentals of Plasma Physics (Pergamon, 1986).

Boyle, M.

R. Stoian, M. Boyle, A. Thoss, A Rosenfeld, G. Kom, I. V. Hertel, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Laser ablation of dielectrics with temporally shaped femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 353-355 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brust, J.

Bukhonov, A. F.

V. S. Burako, A. F. Bukhonov, M. I. Nedel'ko, N. A. Savastenko, and N. V. Tarasenko, “Optical emission characteristics of carbon plasma produced by single and double pulse laser ablation,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Phenomena in Ionized Gases, J. Meichsner, D. Loffhagen, H. E. Wagner, eds. (Greifswald, 2003), Vol. 4, pp. 207-208.

Burako, V. S.

V. S. Burako, A. F. Bukhonov, M. I. Nedel'ko, N. A. Savastenko, and N. V. Tarasenko, “Optical emission characteristics of carbon plasma produced by single and double pulse laser ablation,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Phenomena in Ionized Gases, J. Meichsner, D. Loffhagen, H. E. Wagner, eds. (Greifswald, 2003), Vol. 4, pp. 207-208.

Campbell, E. E. B.

R. Stoian, M. Boyle, A. Thoss, A Rosenfeld, G. Kom, I. V. Hertel, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Laser ablation of dielectrics with temporally shaped femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 353-355 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, E. M.

A. C. Forsman, P. S. Banks, M. D. Perry, E. M. Campbell, A. L. Dodell, and M. S. Armas, “Double pulse machining as a technique for the enhancement of material removal rates in laser machining of metals,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 033302(2005).
[CrossRef]

Capitelli, M.

A. De Giacomo, M. Dell'Aglio, O. De Pascale, and M. Capitelli, “From single pulse to double pulse ns-laser induced breakdown spectroscopy under water: elemental analysis of aqueous solutions and submerged solid samples,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 62, 721-738 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Carter, J. C.

Chen, S.

P. Mukherjee, S. Chen, and S. Witanachchi, “Effect of initial plasma geometry and temperature on dynamics of plume expansion in dual laser ablation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1546-1548 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cielo, P.

L. St-Onge, M. Sabsabi, and P. Cielo, “Analysis of solids using laser-induced plasma spectroscopy in double-pulse mode,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 53, 407-415 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Colao, F.

F. Colao, V. Lazic, R. Fantoni, and S. Pershin, “A comparison of single and double pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of aluminum samples,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 57, 1167-1179 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Colston, B. W.

Corsi, M.

M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Giuffrida, M. Hidalgo, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, E. Tognoni, and C. Vallebona, “Three-dimensional analysis of laser induced plasma in single and double pulse configuration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 59, 723-735 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cremers, D. A.

Cristoforetti, G.

G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, P. Pardini, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “Spectroscoic and shadowgraphic analysis of laser-induced plasmas in the orthogonal double pulse pre ablation configuration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 61, 340-350 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Benedetti, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, L. Pardini, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “Effect of laser pulse energies in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in double-pulse configuration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 1392-1401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Giuffrida, M. Hidalgo, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, E. Tognoni, and C. Vallebona, “Three-dimensional analysis of laser induced plasma in single and double pulse configuration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 59, 723-735 (2004).
[CrossRef]

De Giacomo, A.

A. De Giacomo, M. Dell'Aglio, O. De Pascale, and M. Capitelli, “From single pulse to double pulse ns-laser induced breakdown spectroscopy under water: elemental analysis of aqueous solutions and submerged solid samples,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 62, 721-738 (2007).
[CrossRef]

De Lucia, F. C.

V. I. Babushok, F. C. De Lucia, Jr., J. L. Gottfried, C. A. Munson, and A. W. Miziolek, “Double pulse laser ablation and plasma: laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal enhancement,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 61, 999-1014 (2006).
[CrossRef]

De Pascale, O.

A. De Giacomo, M. Dell'Aglio, O. De Pascale, and M. Capitelli, “From single pulse to double pulse ns-laser induced breakdown spectroscopy under water: elemental analysis of aqueous solutions and submerged solid samples,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 62, 721-738 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dell'Aglio, M.

A. De Giacomo, M. Dell'Aglio, O. De Pascale, and M. Capitelli, “From single pulse to double pulse ns-laser induced breakdown spectroscopy under water: elemental analysis of aqueous solutions and submerged solid samples,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 62, 721-738 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dodell, A. L.

A. C. Forsman, P. S. Banks, M. D. Perry, E. M. Campbell, A. L. Dodell, and M. S. Armas, “Double pulse machining as a technique for the enhancement of material removal rates in laser machining of metals,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 033302(2005).
[CrossRef]

Eland, K. L.

Fantoni, R.

F. Colao, V. Lazic, R. Fantoni, and S. Pershin, “A comparison of single and double pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of aluminum samples,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 57, 1167-1179 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Forsman, A. C.

A. C. Forsman, P. S. Banks, M. D. Perry, E. M. Campbell, A. L. Dodell, and M. S. Armas, “Double pulse machining as a technique for the enhancement of material removal rates in laser machining of metals,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 033302(2005).
[CrossRef]

Fotakis, C.

E. Koudoumas, M. Spyridaki, R. Stoian, A. Rosenfeld, P. Tzanetakis, I. V. Hertel, and C. Fotakis, “Influence of pulse temporal manipulation on the properties of laser ablated Si ion beams,” Thin Solid Films 453-454, 372-376(2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Spyridaki, E. Koudoumas, P. Tzanetakis, C. Fotakis, R. Stoian, A. Rosenfeld, and I. V. Hertel, “Temporal pulse manipulation and ion generation in ultra fast laser ablation of silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1474-1476 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Giuffrida, M.

M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Giuffrida, M. Hidalgo, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, E. Tognoni, and C. Vallebona, “Three-dimensional analysis of laser induced plasma in single and double pulse configuration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 59, 723-735 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gold, D. M.

S. M. Angel, D. N. Stratis, K. L. Eland, T. LaiM. A. Berg, and D. M. Gold, “LIBS using dual- and ultra-short laser pulses,” Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 369, 320-327 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gonzalez, J.

J. Gonzalez, C. Liu, J. Yoo, X. Mao, and R. E. Russo, “Double-pulse laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 27-31(2005).
[CrossRef]

Gottfried, J. L.

V. I. Babushok, F. C. De Lucia, Jr., J. L. Gottfried, C. A. Munson, and A. W. Miziolek, “Double pulse laser ablation and plasma: laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal enhancement,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 61, 999-1014 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hertel, I. V.

E. Koudoumas, M. Spyridaki, R. Stoian, A. Rosenfeld, P. Tzanetakis, I. V. Hertel, and C. Fotakis, “Influence of pulse temporal manipulation on the properties of laser ablated Si ion beams,” Thin Solid Films 453-454, 372-376(2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Spyridaki, E. Koudoumas, P. Tzanetakis, C. Fotakis, R. Stoian, A. Rosenfeld, and I. V. Hertel, “Temporal pulse manipulation and ion generation in ultra fast laser ablation of silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1474-1476 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Stoian, M. Boyle, A. Thoss, A Rosenfeld, G. Kom, I. V. Hertel, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Laser ablation of dielectrics with temporally shaped femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 353-355 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hidalgo, M.

M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Giuffrida, M. Hidalgo, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, E. Tognoni, and C. Vallebona, “Three-dimensional analysis of laser induced plasma in single and double pulse configuration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 59, 723-735 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kom, G.

R. Stoian, M. Boyle, A. Thoss, A Rosenfeld, G. Kom, I. V. Hertel, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Laser ablation of dielectrics with temporally shaped femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 353-355 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Koudoumas, E.

E. Koudoumas, M. Spyridaki, R. Stoian, A. Rosenfeld, P. Tzanetakis, I. V. Hertel, and C. Fotakis, “Influence of pulse temporal manipulation on the properties of laser ablated Si ion beams,” Thin Solid Films 453-454, 372-376(2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Spyridaki, E. Koudoumas, P. Tzanetakis, C. Fotakis, R. Stoian, A. Rosenfeld, and I. V. Hertel, “Temporal pulse manipulation and ion generation in ultra fast laser ablation of silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1474-1476 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuwako, A.

Lai, T.

S. M. Angel, D. N. Stratis, K. L. Eland, T. LaiM. A. Berg, and D. M. Gold, “LIBS using dual- and ultra-short laser pulses,” Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 369, 320-327 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lawrence, M.

Lazic, V.

F. Colao, V. Lazic, R. Fantoni, and S. Pershin, “A comparison of single and double pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of aluminum samples,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 57, 1167-1179 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Legnaioli, S.

G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, P. Pardini, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “Spectroscoic and shadowgraphic analysis of laser-induced plasmas in the orthogonal double pulse pre ablation configuration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 61, 340-350 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Benedetti, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, L. Pardini, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “Effect of laser pulse energies in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in double-pulse configuration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 1392-1401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Giuffrida, M. Hidalgo, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, E. Tognoni, and C. Vallebona, “Three-dimensional analysis of laser induced plasma in single and double pulse configuration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 59, 723-735 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leis, F.

Liu, C.

J. Gonzalez, C. Liu, J. Yoo, X. Mao, and R. E. Russo, “Double-pulse laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 27-31(2005).
[CrossRef]

Loree, T. R.

Maeda, K.

Malmstadt, H. V.

E. H. Piepmeier and H. V. Malmstadt, “Q-switched laser energy absorption in the plume of an aluminum alloy,” Anal. Chem. 41, 700-707 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Mao, X.

X. Mao, X. Zeng, S. B. Wen, and R. E. Russo, “Time-resolved plasma properties for double pulsed laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of silicon,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 960-967 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Gonzalez, C. Liu, J. Yoo, X. Mao, and R. E. Russo, “Double-pulse laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 27-31(2005).
[CrossRef]

Max, C. E.

C. E. Max, “Physics of the coronal plasma in laser fusion targets,” in Laser Plasma Interaction, R. Balian and J. C. Adams, eds. (North-Holland, 1982).

Miziolek, A. W.

V. I. Babushok, F. C. De Lucia, Jr., J. L. Gottfried, C. A. Munson, and A. W. Miziolek, “Double pulse laser ablation and plasma: laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal enhancement,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 61, 999-1014 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, P.

P. Mukherjee, S. Chen, and S. Witanachchi, “Effect of initial plasma geometry and temperature on dynamics of plume expansion in dual laser ablation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1546-1548 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Munson, C. A.

V. I. Babushok, F. C. De Lucia, Jr., J. L. Gottfried, C. A. Munson, and A. W. Miziolek, “Double pulse laser ablation and plasma: laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal enhancement,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 61, 999-1014 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nedel'ko, M. I.

V. S. Burako, A. F. Bukhonov, M. I. Nedel'ko, N. A. Savastenko, and N. V. Tarasenko, “Optical emission characteristics of carbon plasma produced by single and double pulse laser ablation,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Phenomena in Ionized Gases, J. Meichsner, D. Loffhagen, H. E. Wagner, eds. (Greifswald, 2003), Vol. 4, pp. 207-208.

Niemax, K.

Noll, R.

R. Noll, R. Sattamann, V. Sturm, and S. Winkelmann, “Space- and time-resolved dynamics of plasma generated by laser double pulses interacting with metallic samples,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 419-428 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Palleschi, V.

G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, P. Pardini, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “Spectroscoic and shadowgraphic analysis of laser-induced plasmas in the orthogonal double pulse pre ablation configuration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 61, 340-350 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Benedetti, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, L. Pardini, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “Effect of laser pulse energies in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in double-pulse configuration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 1392-1401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Giuffrida, M. Hidalgo, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, E. Tognoni, and C. Vallebona, “Three-dimensional analysis of laser induced plasma in single and double pulse configuration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 59, 723-735 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pardini, L.

P. A. Benedetti, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, L. Pardini, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “Effect of laser pulse energies in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in double-pulse configuration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 1392-1401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pardini, P.

G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, P. Pardini, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “Spectroscoic and shadowgraphic analysis of laser-induced plasmas in the orthogonal double pulse pre ablation configuration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 61, 340-350 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pearman, W.

Perry, M. D.

A. C. Forsman, P. S. Banks, M. D. Perry, E. M. Campbell, A. L. Dodell, and M. S. Armas, “Double pulse machining as a technique for the enhancement of material removal rates in laser machining of metals,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 033302(2005).
[CrossRef]

Pershin, S.

F. Colao, V. Lazic, R. Fantoni, and S. Pershin, “A comparison of single and double pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of aluminum samples,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 57, 1167-1179 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Piepmeier, E. H.

E. H. Piepmeier and H. V. Malmstadt, “Q-switched laser energy absorption in the plume of an aluminum alloy,” Anal. Chem. 41, 700-707 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Radziamski, L. J.

Rai, V. N.

V. N. Rai, F. Y. Yueh, and J. P. Singh, “Optical emission from laser-produced chromium and magnesium plasma under the effect of two sequential laser pulses,” Pramana, J. Phys. 65, 1075-1083 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Rai, F. Y. Yueh, and J. P. Singh, “Study of laser-induced breakdown emission from liquid under double pulse excitation,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2085-2093 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosenfeld, A

R. Stoian, M. Boyle, A. Thoss, A Rosenfeld, G. Kom, I. V. Hertel, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Laser ablation of dielectrics with temporally shaped femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 353-355 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rosenfeld, A.

E. Koudoumas, M. Spyridaki, R. Stoian, A. Rosenfeld, P. Tzanetakis, I. V. Hertel, and C. Fotakis, “Influence of pulse temporal manipulation on the properties of laser ablated Si ion beams,” Thin Solid Films 453-454, 372-376(2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Spyridaki, E. Koudoumas, P. Tzanetakis, C. Fotakis, R. Stoian, A. Rosenfeld, and I. V. Hertel, “Temporal pulse manipulation and ion generation in ultra fast laser ablation of silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1474-1476 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Russo, R. E.

J. Gonzalez, C. Liu, J. Yoo, X. Mao, and R. E. Russo, “Double-pulse laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 27-31(2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Mao, X. Zeng, S. B. Wen, and R. E. Russo, “Time-resolved plasma properties for double pulsed laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of silicon,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 960-967 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sabsabi, M.

L. St-Onge, M. Sabsabi, and P. Cielo, “Analysis of solids using laser-induced plasma spectroscopy in double-pulse mode,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 53, 407-415 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Salvetti, A.

G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, P. Pardini, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “Spectroscoic and shadowgraphic analysis of laser-induced plasmas in the orthogonal double pulse pre ablation configuration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 61, 340-350 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Benedetti, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, L. Pardini, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “Effect of laser pulse energies in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in double-pulse configuration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 1392-1401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Giuffrida, M. Hidalgo, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, E. Tognoni, and C. Vallebona, “Three-dimensional analysis of laser induced plasma in single and double pulse configuration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 59, 723-735 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sattamann, R.

R. Noll, R. Sattamann, V. Sturm, and S. Winkelmann, “Space- and time-resolved dynamics of plasma generated by laser double pulses interacting with metallic samples,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 419-428 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Savastenko, N. A.

V. S. Burako, A. F. Bukhonov, M. I. Nedel'ko, N. A. Savastenko, and N. V. Tarasenko, “Optical emission characteristics of carbon plasma produced by single and double pulse laser ablation,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Phenomena in Ionized Gases, J. Meichsner, D. Loffhagen, H. E. Wagner, eds. (Greifswald, 2003), Vol. 4, pp. 207-208.

Scaffidi, J.

Scott, R. H.

R. H. Scott and A. Strasheim, “Laser-induced plasmas for analytical spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 25, 311-332(1970).
[CrossRef]

Sdorra, W.

Singh, J. P.

V. N. Rai, F. Y. Yueh, and J. P. Singh, “Optical emission from laser-produced chromium and magnesium plasma under the effect of two sequential laser pulses,” Pramana, J. Phys. 65, 1075-1083 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Rai, F. Y. Yueh, and J. P. Singh, “Study of laser-induced breakdown emission from liquid under double pulse excitation,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2085-2093 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Singh and S. N. Thakur, Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (Elsevier, 2007), Chap. 6.

Spyridaki, M.

E. Koudoumas, M. Spyridaki, R. Stoian, A. Rosenfeld, P. Tzanetakis, I. V. Hertel, and C. Fotakis, “Influence of pulse temporal manipulation on the properties of laser ablated Si ion beams,” Thin Solid Films 453-454, 372-376(2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Spyridaki, E. Koudoumas, P. Tzanetakis, C. Fotakis, R. Stoian, A. Rosenfeld, and I. V. Hertel, “Temporal pulse manipulation and ion generation in ultra fast laser ablation of silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1474-1476 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stoian, R.

E. Koudoumas, M. Spyridaki, R. Stoian, A. Rosenfeld, P. Tzanetakis, I. V. Hertel, and C. Fotakis, “Influence of pulse temporal manipulation on the properties of laser ablated Si ion beams,” Thin Solid Films 453-454, 372-376(2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Spyridaki, E. Koudoumas, P. Tzanetakis, C. Fotakis, R. Stoian, A. Rosenfeld, and I. V. Hertel, “Temporal pulse manipulation and ion generation in ultra fast laser ablation of silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1474-1476 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Stoian, M. Boyle, A. Thoss, A Rosenfeld, G. Kom, I. V. Hertel, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Laser ablation of dielectrics with temporally shaped femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 353-355 (2002).
[CrossRef]

St-Onge, L.

L. St-Onge, M. Sabsabi, and P. Cielo, “Analysis of solids using laser-induced plasma spectroscopy in double-pulse mode,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 53, 407-415 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Strasheim, A.

R. H. Scott and A. Strasheim, “Laser-induced plasmas for analytical spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 25, 311-332(1970).
[CrossRef]

Stratis, D. N.

Sturm, V.

R. Noll, R. Sattamann, V. Sturm, and S. Winkelmann, “Space- and time-resolved dynamics of plasma generated by laser double pulses interacting with metallic samples,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 419-428 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tarasenko, N. V.

V. S. Burako, A. F. Bukhonov, M. I. Nedel'ko, N. A. Savastenko, and N. V. Tarasenko, “Optical emission characteristics of carbon plasma produced by single and double pulse laser ablation,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Phenomena in Ionized Gases, J. Meichsner, D. Loffhagen, H. E. Wagner, eds. (Greifswald, 2003), Vol. 4, pp. 207-208.

Thakur, S. N.

J. P. Singh and S. N. Thakur, Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (Elsevier, 2007), Chap. 6.

Thoss, A.

R. Stoian, M. Boyle, A. Thoss, A Rosenfeld, G. Kom, I. V. Hertel, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Laser ablation of dielectrics with temporally shaped femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 353-355 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tognoni, E.

G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, P. Pardini, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “Spectroscoic and shadowgraphic analysis of laser-induced plasmas in the orthogonal double pulse pre ablation configuration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 61, 340-350 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Benedetti, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, L. Pardini, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “Effect of laser pulse energies in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in double-pulse configuration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 1392-1401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Giuffrida, M. Hidalgo, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, E. Tognoni, and C. Vallebona, “Three-dimensional analysis of laser induced plasma in single and double pulse configuration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 59, 723-735 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tzanetakis, P.

E. Koudoumas, M. Spyridaki, R. Stoian, A. Rosenfeld, P. Tzanetakis, I. V. Hertel, and C. Fotakis, “Influence of pulse temporal manipulation on the properties of laser ablated Si ion beams,” Thin Solid Films 453-454, 372-376(2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Spyridaki, E. Koudoumas, P. Tzanetakis, C. Fotakis, R. Stoian, A. Rosenfeld, and I. V. Hertel, “Temporal pulse manipulation and ion generation in ultra fast laser ablation of silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1474-1476 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, Y.

Uebbing, J.

Vallebona, C.

M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Giuffrida, M. Hidalgo, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, E. Tognoni, and C. Vallebona, “Three-dimensional analysis of laser induced plasma in single and double pulse configuration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 59, 723-735 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wen, S. B.

X. Mao, X. Zeng, S. B. Wen, and R. E. Russo, “Time-resolved plasma properties for double pulsed laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of silicon,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 960-967 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Winkelmann, S.

R. Noll, R. Sattamann, V. Sturm, and S. Winkelmann, “Space- and time-resolved dynamics of plasma generated by laser double pulses interacting with metallic samples,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 419-428 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Witanachchi, S.

P. Mukherjee, S. Chen, and S. Witanachchi, “Effect of initial plasma geometry and temperature on dynamics of plume expansion in dual laser ablation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1546-1548 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, J.

J. Gonzalez, C. Liu, J. Yoo, X. Mao, and R. E. Russo, “Double-pulse laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 27-31(2005).
[CrossRef]

Yueh, F. Y.

V. N. Rai, F. Y. Yueh, and J. P. Singh, “Optical emission from laser-produced chromium and magnesium plasma under the effect of two sequential laser pulses,” Pramana, J. Phys. 65, 1075-1083 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Rai, F. Y. Yueh, and J. P. Singh, “Study of laser-induced breakdown emission from liquid under double pulse excitation,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2085-2093 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeng, X.

X. Mao, X. Zeng, S. B. Wen, and R. E. Russo, “Time-resolved plasma properties for double pulsed laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of silicon,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 960-967 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (1)

E. H. Piepmeier and H. V. Malmstadt, “Q-switched laser energy absorption in the plume of an aluminum alloy,” Anal. Chem. 41, 700-707 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

M. Spyridaki, E. Koudoumas, P. Tzanetakis, C. Fotakis, R. Stoian, A. Rosenfeld, and I. V. Hertel, “Temporal pulse manipulation and ion generation in ultra fast laser ablation of silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1474-1476 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Stoian, M. Boyle, A. Thoss, A Rosenfeld, G. Kom, I. V. Hertel, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Laser ablation of dielectrics with temporally shaped femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 353-355 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Mukherjee, S. Chen, and S. Witanachchi, “Effect of initial plasma geometry and temperature on dynamics of plume expansion in dual laser ablation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1546-1548 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. (5)

Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. (1)

S. M. Angel, D. N. Stratis, K. L. Eland, T. LaiM. A. Berg, and D. M. Gold, “LIBS using dual- and ultra-short laser pulses,” Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 369, 320-327 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Anal. At. Spectrom. (1)

R. Noll, R. Sattamann, V. Sturm, and S. Winkelmann, “Space- and time-resolved dynamics of plasma generated by laser double pulses interacting with metallic samples,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 419-428 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. C. Forsman, P. S. Banks, M. D. Perry, E. M. Campbell, A. L. Dodell, and M. S. Armas, “Double pulse machining as a technique for the enhancement of material removal rates in laser machining of metals,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 033302(2005).
[CrossRef]

Pramana, J. Phys. (1)

V. N. Rai, F. Y. Yueh, and J. P. Singh, “Optical emission from laser-produced chromium and magnesium plasma under the effect of two sequential laser pulses,” Pramana, J. Phys. 65, 1075-1083 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta Part B (10)

P. A. Benedetti, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, L. Pardini, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “Effect of laser pulse energies in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in double-pulse configuration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 1392-1401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Gonzalez, C. Liu, J. Yoo, X. Mao, and R. E. Russo, “Double-pulse laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 27-31(2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Giuffrida, M. Hidalgo, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, E. Tognoni, and C. Vallebona, “Three-dimensional analysis of laser induced plasma in single and double pulse configuration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 59, 723-735 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, P. Pardini, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “Spectroscoic and shadowgraphic analysis of laser-induced plasmas in the orthogonal double pulse pre ablation configuration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 61, 340-350 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Mao, X. Zeng, S. B. Wen, and R. E. Russo, “Time-resolved plasma properties for double pulsed laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of silicon,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 960-967 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Colao, V. Lazic, R. Fantoni, and S. Pershin, “A comparison of single and double pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of aluminum samples,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 57, 1167-1179 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. St-Onge, M. Sabsabi, and P. Cielo, “Analysis of solids using laser-induced plasma spectroscopy in double-pulse mode,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 53, 407-415 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Scott and A. Strasheim, “Laser-induced plasmas for analytical spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 25, 311-332(1970).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Babushok, F. C. De Lucia, Jr., J. L. Gottfried, C. A. Munson, and A. W. Miziolek, “Double pulse laser ablation and plasma: laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal enhancement,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 61, 999-1014 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. De Giacomo, M. Dell'Aglio, O. De Pascale, and M. Capitelli, “From single pulse to double pulse ns-laser induced breakdown spectroscopy under water: elemental analysis of aqueous solutions and submerged solid samples,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 62, 721-738 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

E. Koudoumas, M. Spyridaki, R. Stoian, A. Rosenfeld, P. Tzanetakis, I. V. Hertel, and C. Fotakis, “Influence of pulse temporal manipulation on the properties of laser ablated Si ion beams,” Thin Solid Films 453-454, 372-376(2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

J. P. Singh and S. N. Thakur, Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (Elsevier, 2007), Chap. 6.

V. S. Burako, A. F. Bukhonov, M. I. Nedel'ko, N. A. Savastenko, and N. V. Tarasenko, “Optical emission characteristics of carbon plasma produced by single and double pulse laser ablation,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Phenomena in Ionized Gases, J. Meichsner, D. Loffhagen, H. E. Wagner, eds. (Greifswald, 2003), Vol. 4, pp. 207-208.

C. E. Max, “Physics of the coronal plasma in laser fusion targets,” in Laser Plasma Interaction, R. Balian and J. C. Adams, eds. (North-Holland, 1982).

J. A. Bittencourt, Fundamentals of Plasma Physics (Pergamon, 1986).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Variation in enhancement in emission with change in delay between lasers for different electron–ion collision frequencies v e i (assuming that m ˙ 1 = m ˙ 2 and C s 1 = C s 2 ).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Variation in intensity ( 279.55 nm ) from Mg ion in a collinear double pulse LIBS experiment with change in delay between lasers (gate delay/gate width 10 μs / 10 μs ; second laser pulse energy L 2 120 mJ ) [Ref. [8]].

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Variation in enhancement in emission with delay between lasers for different ratios of mass ablation rates m ˙ 2 / m ˙ 1 (assuming v e i = 10 10 s 1 and C s 1 = C s 2 ).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Variation in enhancement in emission with time (detector gate delay) after second laser pulse for different electron–ion collision frequencies v e i (assuming m ˙ 2 / m ˙ 1 = 3.5 , Δ t = 3 μs , and C s 1 = C s 2 ).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Double pulse LIBS signal variation with detector gate delay time from the second laser pulse ( Δ t = 2 μs ).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Variation in enhancement in emission with delay between lasers for different plasma expansion speeds C s 2 / C s 1 (assuming v e i = 3.62 × 10 10 s 1 and m ˙ 1 = m ˙ 2 ).

Equations (7)

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k i b Z n e 2 T e 3 / 2 ( 1 n e n c ) 1 / 2 ,
α abs = 1 exp ( k i b L ) .
α abs = 1 exp { 32 15 L ν e i ( L ) c } ,
ν e i = 3.62 × 10 6 n i T e 3 / 2 ln Λ ,
I 1 ( m ˙ 1 π R 2 τ L π R 2 C s 1 t 1 ) 2 ( π R 2 C s 1 t 1 ) ,
I 2 ( m ˙ 2 π R 2 τ L π R 2 C s 1 Δ t + π R 2 C s 2 t 2 ) 2 ( π R 2 C s 1 Δ t + π R 2 C s 2 t 2 ) [ 1 exp { 32 15 C s 1 Δ t ν e i c } ] ,
E = I 1 + I 2 I 1 = 1 + I 2 I 1 , E = 1 + ( m ˙ 2 m ˙ 1 ) 2 [ 1 exp { 32 15 C s 1 Δ t v e i c } ] ( Δ t t 1 + C s 2 C s 1 t 2 t 1 ) .

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