Abstract

Roughness measurements are of main importance in characterizing the optical properties of papers and prints. However, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the surface size and the spacing of the measures to be optically representative of the surface structure. Paper is a multiscale medium, and the roughness parameters extracted from the three-dimensional (3D) surface mapping depend on both the size and the step of discretization. Ray tracing, based on optical geometry, could be a tool to model the light reflection on a paper surface. Ray-tracer software was therefore developed. A new optical device was used to measure paper surface topographies at various scales. Ray tracing simulations were then performed on the 3D mapping and compared to the scattering indicatrix obtained with a classical goniometer. Hence it was possible to identify a magnification for various types of paper grades that is optically representative of the specular gloss.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. F. Bloch, S. Rolland du Roscoat, C. Mercier, P. Vernhes, B. Pineaux, A. Blayo, and P. Mangin, “Influence of paper structure on printability: characterization using x-ray synchrotron microtomography,” in NIP22: International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2006), pp. 449-453.
  2. P. Vernhes, C.-S. Rolland du Roscoat, A. Blayo, B. Pineaux, and J. F. Bloch, “Synchrotron x-ray microtomography: a new tool to characterize the interaction between paper and toner,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 52, 6 (2008).
  3. G. Chinga, “Detailed characterization of paper surface structure for gloss assessment,” J. Pulp Pap. Sci. 30, 222-227 (2004).
  4. G. Chinga and T. Helle, “Relationships between the coating surface structural variation and print quality,” J. Pulp Pap. Sci. 29, 179-184 (2003).
  5. M. C. Beland, S. Lindberg, and P. A. Johansson, “Optical measurement and perception of gloss quality of printed matte-coated paper,” J. Pulp Pap. Sci. 26, 120-123 (2000).
  6. M. C. Beland and L. Mattsson, “Optical print quality of coated papers,” J. Pulp Pap. Sci. 23, 493-498 (1997).
  7. J. S. Arney, L. Ye, J. Wible, and T. Oswald, “Analysis of paper gloss,” J. Pulp Pap. Sci. 32, 19-23 (2006).
  8. J. S. Arney, H. Heo, and R. G. Anderson, “A micro-goniophotometer and the measurement of print gloss,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 48, 458-463 (2004).
  9. J. S. Arney, J. Michel, and K. Pollmeier, “Technique for analysis of surface topography of photographic prints by spatial analysis of first surface reflectance,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 46, 350-358 (2002).
  10. T. Pettersson and A. Fogden, “Leveling during toner fusing: effects on surface roughness and gloss of printed paper,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 50, 202-215 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Chinga, T. Stoen, and O. W. Gregersen, “On the roughening effect of laboratory heatset offset printing on SC and LWC paper surfaces,” J. Pulp Pap. Sci. 30, 307-311 (2004).
  12. P. Aslund, P. A. Johansson, and E. Blohm, “Photometric method for dynamic measurements of paper roughening after a moistening printing nip,” Nord. Pulp Paper Res. J. 19, 460-465 (2004).
  13. I. Arino, U. Kleist, G. G. Barros, P. A. Johansson, and M. Rigdahl, “Surface texture characterization of injection-molded pigmented plastics,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 44, 1615-1626 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. S. Aspler and M. C. Beland, “A review of fiber rising and surface roughening effects in paper,” J. Pulp Pap. Sci. 20, 27-32 (1994).
  15. S. Hartmuth, S. Mario, and S. Stefan, “Comparison of 3D surface reconstruction data from certified depth standards obtained by SEM and an infinite focus measurement machine (IFM),” Microchim. Acta 155, 279-284 (2006).
  16. ISO 25178-6, “Geometrical product specifications (GPS)--surface texture: areal. Part 6. Classification of methods for measuring surface texture,” (ISO, 2008).
  17. H. Granberg and M. C. Beland, “Modelling the angle-dependent light scattering from sheets of pulp fibre fragments,” Nord. Pulp Paper Res. J. 19, 354-359 (2004).
  18. M. Lindstrand, “Gloss: measurement, characterization and visualization in the light of visual evaluation,” Ph.D. dissertation (Linkopings Universitet, 2002).
  19. P. Edstrom, “Mathematical modelling of light scattering in paper and print,” Ph.D. dissertation (Mid Sweden University, 2004).
  20. “Standard terminology of apparence,” A. E284 (American Society of Testing and Materials, 1999).
  21. M. C. Beland and J. Bennet, “Effect of local microroughness on the gloss uniformity of printed paper surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2719-2726 (2000).
  22. R. M. Leekley, C. W. Denzer, and R. F. Tyler, “Measurement of surface reflection from papers and prints,” Tappi J. 53, 615-621 (1970).
  23. D. I. Lee, “A fundamental study on gloss,” in TAPPI 1974 Coating Conference Proceedings (TAPPI, 1974), pp. 97-103.
  24. M. Lindstrand, “Gloss characterization by angularly and spacially resolved reflectometry in the light of visual evaluation,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 49, 61-70 (2002).
  25. R.Hunter, ed., The Measurement of Appearance (Wiley, 1987).
  26. M. C. Beland, “Multiple scattering of light calculated from the topography of printed paper surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2719-2726 (2000).
  27. R. Alexandra-Katz and R. G. Barrera, “Surface correlation effect on gloss,” J. Polym. Sci. Part B Polym. Phys. 36, 1321-1334 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  28. G. Lixin and W. Zhensen, “Application of FFT to light scattering from one-dimensional fractal rough surface,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 35, 317-322 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  29. I. Simonsen, A. Larsen, E. Andreassen, E. Ommundsen, and K. Nord-Varhaug, “Estimation of gloss from rough surface parameters,” Phys. Status Solidi A 242, 2995-3000(2005).
  30. P. Hermansson, G. Forssell, and J. Fagerstrom, “A review of models for scattering from rough surfaces” (Swedish Defense Research Agency, 2003).
  31. N. J. Elton, “A two-scale roughness model for the gloss of coated paper,” J. Opt. A 10, 085002 (2008).
  32. K. Tang and R. O. Buckius, “A statistical model of wave scattering from random rough surfaces,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 44, 4059-4073 (2001).
  33. K. Tang, R. Dimenna, and R. Buckius, “Region of validity of the geometrics optics approximation for angular scattering from very rough surface,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 40, 49-59 (1996).
  34. V. G. W. Harrison, “Gloss measurement of papers: application of the Barkas analysis,” Br. J. Appl. Phys 1, 46-53 (1950).
  35. L. F. Gate and D. J. Parsons, “The specular reflection of polarized light from coated paper,” in Transactions of the 10th Fundamental Research Symposium (Oxford University, 1993), pp. 263-284.
  36. T. R. Lettieri, E. Marx, J. Song, and T. V. Vorburger, “Light scattering from glossy coatings on paper,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4439-4447 (1993).
  37. P. Vernhes, J. F. Bloch, A. Blayo, C. Mercier, and B. Pineaux, “Statistical analysis of paper surface microstructure: a multi scale approach,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 7431 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  38. I. Arino, U. Kleist, L. Mattsson, and M. Rigdahl, “On the relation between surface texture and gloss of injection-molded pigmented plastics,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 45, 1343-1356 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  39. P. S. Beckmann and A. Spizzochino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Pergamon Press, 1963).
  40. V. Bliznyuk, H. Assender, and K. Porfyrakis, “How surface topography relates to material's properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 297, 973-976 (2002).
  41. L. Gate, W. Windle, and M. Hine, “The relationship between gloss and surface microstructure of coatings,” Tappi J. 56, 61-65 (1973).
  42. M. A. Macgregor and P. Johansson, “Submillimetre gloss variations in coated paper. Part 1: The gloss imaging equipment and analytical techniques,” Tappi J. 73, 161-168 (1990).
  43. K. E. Torrance, “Monochromatic directional distribution of reflected thermal radiation from roughened dielectric surfaces,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Minnesota, 1964).
  44. K. Tang and R. Buckius, “The geometrics optics approximation for reflection from two dimensional random rough surfaces,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 41, 2037-2047 (1998).

2008 (4)

P. Vernhes, C.-S. Rolland du Roscoat, A. Blayo, B. Pineaux, and J. F. Bloch, “Synchrotron x-ray microtomography: a new tool to characterize the interaction between paper and toner,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 52, 6 (2008).

ISO 25178-6, “Geometrical product specifications (GPS)--surface texture: areal. Part 6. Classification of methods for measuring surface texture,” (ISO, 2008).

N. J. Elton, “A two-scale roughness model for the gloss of coated paper,” J. Opt. A 10, 085002 (2008).

P. Vernhes, J. F. Bloch, A. Blayo, C. Mercier, and B. Pineaux, “Statistical analysis of paper surface microstructure: a multi scale approach,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 7431 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

J. S. Arney, L. Ye, J. Wible, and T. Oswald, “Analysis of paper gloss,” J. Pulp Pap. Sci. 32, 19-23 (2006).

J. F. Bloch, S. Rolland du Roscoat, C. Mercier, P. Vernhes, B. Pineaux, A. Blayo, and P. Mangin, “Influence of paper structure on printability: characterization using x-ray synchrotron microtomography,” in NIP22: International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2006), pp. 449-453.

S. Hartmuth, S. Mario, and S. Stefan, “Comparison of 3D surface reconstruction data from certified depth standards obtained by SEM and an infinite focus measurement machine (IFM),” Microchim. Acta 155, 279-284 (2006).

T. Pettersson and A. Fogden, “Leveling during toner fusing: effects on surface roughness and gloss of printed paper,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 50, 202-215 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

I. Simonsen, A. Larsen, E. Andreassen, E. Ommundsen, and K. Nord-Varhaug, “Estimation of gloss from rough surface parameters,” Phys. Status Solidi A 242, 2995-3000(2005).

I. Arino, U. Kleist, L. Mattsson, and M. Rigdahl, “On the relation between surface texture and gloss of injection-molded pigmented plastics,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 45, 1343-1356 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (7)

G. Chinga, T. Stoen, and O. W. Gregersen, “On the roughening effect of laboratory heatset offset printing on SC and LWC paper surfaces,” J. Pulp Pap. Sci. 30, 307-311 (2004).

P. Aslund, P. A. Johansson, and E. Blohm, “Photometric method for dynamic measurements of paper roughening after a moistening printing nip,” Nord. Pulp Paper Res. J. 19, 460-465 (2004).

I. Arino, U. Kleist, G. G. Barros, P. A. Johansson, and M. Rigdahl, “Surface texture characterization of injection-molded pigmented plastics,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 44, 1615-1626 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Chinga, “Detailed characterization of paper surface structure for gloss assessment,” J. Pulp Pap. Sci. 30, 222-227 (2004).

J. S. Arney, H. Heo, and R. G. Anderson, “A micro-goniophotometer and the measurement of print gloss,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 48, 458-463 (2004).

H. Granberg and M. C. Beland, “Modelling the angle-dependent light scattering from sheets of pulp fibre fragments,” Nord. Pulp Paper Res. J. 19, 354-359 (2004).

P. Edstrom, “Mathematical modelling of light scattering in paper and print,” Ph.D. dissertation (Mid Sweden University, 2004).

2003 (2)

G. Chinga and T. Helle, “Relationships between the coating surface structural variation and print quality,” J. Pulp Pap. Sci. 29, 179-184 (2003).

P. Hermansson, G. Forssell, and J. Fagerstrom, “A review of models for scattering from rough surfaces” (Swedish Defense Research Agency, 2003).

2002 (5)

M. Lindstrand, “Gloss characterization by angularly and spacially resolved reflectometry in the light of visual evaluation,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 49, 61-70 (2002).

G. Lixin and W. Zhensen, “Application of FFT to light scattering from one-dimensional fractal rough surface,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 35, 317-322 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Lindstrand, “Gloss: measurement, characterization and visualization in the light of visual evaluation,” Ph.D. dissertation (Linkopings Universitet, 2002).

J. S. Arney, J. Michel, and K. Pollmeier, “Technique for analysis of surface topography of photographic prints by spatial analysis of first surface reflectance,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 46, 350-358 (2002).

V. Bliznyuk, H. Assender, and K. Porfyrakis, “How surface topography relates to material's properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 297, 973-976 (2002).

2001 (1)

K. Tang and R. O. Buckius, “A statistical model of wave scattering from random rough surfaces,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 44, 4059-4073 (2001).

2000 (3)

1999 (1)

“Standard terminology of apparence,” A. E284 (American Society of Testing and Materials, 1999).

1998 (2)

R. Alexandra-Katz and R. G. Barrera, “Surface correlation effect on gloss,” J. Polym. Sci. Part B Polym. Phys. 36, 1321-1334 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Tang and R. Buckius, “The geometrics optics approximation for reflection from two dimensional random rough surfaces,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 41, 2037-2047 (1998).

1997 (1)

M. C. Beland and L. Mattsson, “Optical print quality of coated papers,” J. Pulp Pap. Sci. 23, 493-498 (1997).

1996 (1)

K. Tang, R. Dimenna, and R. Buckius, “Region of validity of the geometrics optics approximation for angular scattering from very rough surface,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 40, 49-59 (1996).

1994 (1)

J. S. Aspler and M. C. Beland, “A review of fiber rising and surface roughening effects in paper,” J. Pulp Pap. Sci. 20, 27-32 (1994).

1993 (2)

L. F. Gate and D. J. Parsons, “The specular reflection of polarized light from coated paper,” in Transactions of the 10th Fundamental Research Symposium (Oxford University, 1993), pp. 263-284.

T. R. Lettieri, E. Marx, J. Song, and T. V. Vorburger, “Light scattering from glossy coatings on paper,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4439-4447 (1993).

1990 (1)

M. A. Macgregor and P. Johansson, “Submillimetre gloss variations in coated paper. Part 1: The gloss imaging equipment and analytical techniques,” Tappi J. 73, 161-168 (1990).

1987 (1)

R.Hunter, ed., The Measurement of Appearance (Wiley, 1987).

1974 (1)

D. I. Lee, “A fundamental study on gloss,” in TAPPI 1974 Coating Conference Proceedings (TAPPI, 1974), pp. 97-103.

1973 (1)

L. Gate, W. Windle, and M. Hine, “The relationship between gloss and surface microstructure of coatings,” Tappi J. 56, 61-65 (1973).

1970 (1)

R. M. Leekley, C. W. Denzer, and R. F. Tyler, “Measurement of surface reflection from papers and prints,” Tappi J. 53, 615-621 (1970).

1964 (1)

K. E. Torrance, “Monochromatic directional distribution of reflected thermal radiation from roughened dielectric surfaces,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Minnesota, 1964).

1963 (1)

P. S. Beckmann and A. Spizzochino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Pergamon Press, 1963).

1950 (1)

V. G. W. Harrison, “Gloss measurement of papers: application of the Barkas analysis,” Br. J. Appl. Phys 1, 46-53 (1950).

Alexandra-Katz, R.

R. Alexandra-Katz and R. G. Barrera, “Surface correlation effect on gloss,” J. Polym. Sci. Part B Polym. Phys. 36, 1321-1334 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, R. G.

J. S. Arney, H. Heo, and R. G. Anderson, “A micro-goniophotometer and the measurement of print gloss,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 48, 458-463 (2004).

Andreassen, E.

I. Simonsen, A. Larsen, E. Andreassen, E. Ommundsen, and K. Nord-Varhaug, “Estimation of gloss from rough surface parameters,” Phys. Status Solidi A 242, 2995-3000(2005).

Arino, I.

I. Arino, U. Kleist, L. Mattsson, and M. Rigdahl, “On the relation between surface texture and gloss of injection-molded pigmented plastics,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 45, 1343-1356 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Arino, U. Kleist, G. G. Barros, P. A. Johansson, and M. Rigdahl, “Surface texture characterization of injection-molded pigmented plastics,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 44, 1615-1626 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Arney, J. S.

J. S. Arney, L. Ye, J. Wible, and T. Oswald, “Analysis of paper gloss,” J. Pulp Pap. Sci. 32, 19-23 (2006).

J. S. Arney, H. Heo, and R. G. Anderson, “A micro-goniophotometer and the measurement of print gloss,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 48, 458-463 (2004).

J. S. Arney, J. Michel, and K. Pollmeier, “Technique for analysis of surface topography of photographic prints by spatial analysis of first surface reflectance,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 46, 350-358 (2002).

Aslund, P.

P. Aslund, P. A. Johansson, and E. Blohm, “Photometric method for dynamic measurements of paper roughening after a moistening printing nip,” Nord. Pulp Paper Res. J. 19, 460-465 (2004).

Aspler, J. S.

J. S. Aspler and M. C. Beland, “A review of fiber rising and surface roughening effects in paper,” J. Pulp Pap. Sci. 20, 27-32 (1994).

Assender, H.

V. Bliznyuk, H. Assender, and K. Porfyrakis, “How surface topography relates to material's properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 297, 973-976 (2002).

Barrera, R. G.

R. Alexandra-Katz and R. G. Barrera, “Surface correlation effect on gloss,” J. Polym. Sci. Part B Polym. Phys. 36, 1321-1334 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barros, G. G.

I. Arino, U. Kleist, G. G. Barros, P. A. Johansson, and M. Rigdahl, “Surface texture characterization of injection-molded pigmented plastics,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 44, 1615-1626 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beckmann, P. S.

P. S. Beckmann and A. Spizzochino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Pergamon Press, 1963).

Beland, M. C.

H. Granberg and M. C. Beland, “Modelling the angle-dependent light scattering from sheets of pulp fibre fragments,” Nord. Pulp Paper Res. J. 19, 354-359 (2004).

M. C. Beland and J. Bennet, “Effect of local microroughness on the gloss uniformity of printed paper surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2719-2726 (2000).

M. C. Beland, “Multiple scattering of light calculated from the topography of printed paper surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2719-2726 (2000).

M. C. Beland, S. Lindberg, and P. A. Johansson, “Optical measurement and perception of gloss quality of printed matte-coated paper,” J. Pulp Pap. Sci. 26, 120-123 (2000).

M. C. Beland and L. Mattsson, “Optical print quality of coated papers,” J. Pulp Pap. Sci. 23, 493-498 (1997).

J. S. Aspler and M. C. Beland, “A review of fiber rising and surface roughening effects in paper,” J. Pulp Pap. Sci. 20, 27-32 (1994).

Bennet, J.

Blayo, A.

P. Vernhes, J. F. Bloch, A. Blayo, C. Mercier, and B. Pineaux, “Statistical analysis of paper surface microstructure: a multi scale approach,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 7431 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Vernhes, C.-S. Rolland du Roscoat, A. Blayo, B. Pineaux, and J. F. Bloch, “Synchrotron x-ray microtomography: a new tool to characterize the interaction between paper and toner,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 52, 6 (2008).

J. F. Bloch, S. Rolland du Roscoat, C. Mercier, P. Vernhes, B. Pineaux, A. Blayo, and P. Mangin, “Influence of paper structure on printability: characterization using x-ray synchrotron microtomography,” in NIP22: International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2006), pp. 449-453.

Bliznyuk, V.

V. Bliznyuk, H. Assender, and K. Porfyrakis, “How surface topography relates to material's properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 297, 973-976 (2002).

Bloch, J. F.

P. Vernhes, C.-S. Rolland du Roscoat, A. Blayo, B. Pineaux, and J. F. Bloch, “Synchrotron x-ray microtomography: a new tool to characterize the interaction between paper and toner,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 52, 6 (2008).

P. Vernhes, J. F. Bloch, A. Blayo, C. Mercier, and B. Pineaux, “Statistical analysis of paper surface microstructure: a multi scale approach,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 7431 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Bloch, S. Rolland du Roscoat, C. Mercier, P. Vernhes, B. Pineaux, A. Blayo, and P. Mangin, “Influence of paper structure on printability: characterization using x-ray synchrotron microtomography,” in NIP22: International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2006), pp. 449-453.

Blohm, E.

P. Aslund, P. A. Johansson, and E. Blohm, “Photometric method for dynamic measurements of paper roughening after a moistening printing nip,” Nord. Pulp Paper Res. J. 19, 460-465 (2004).

Buckius, R.

K. Tang and R. Buckius, “The geometrics optics approximation for reflection from two dimensional random rough surfaces,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 41, 2037-2047 (1998).

K. Tang, R. Dimenna, and R. Buckius, “Region of validity of the geometrics optics approximation for angular scattering from very rough surface,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 40, 49-59 (1996).

Buckius, R. O.

K. Tang and R. O. Buckius, “A statistical model of wave scattering from random rough surfaces,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 44, 4059-4073 (2001).

Chinga, G.

G. Chinga, “Detailed characterization of paper surface structure for gloss assessment,” J. Pulp Pap. Sci. 30, 222-227 (2004).

G. Chinga, T. Stoen, and O. W. Gregersen, “On the roughening effect of laboratory heatset offset printing on SC and LWC paper surfaces,” J. Pulp Pap. Sci. 30, 307-311 (2004).

G. Chinga and T. Helle, “Relationships between the coating surface structural variation and print quality,” J. Pulp Pap. Sci. 29, 179-184 (2003).

Denzer, C. W.

R. M. Leekley, C. W. Denzer, and R. F. Tyler, “Measurement of surface reflection from papers and prints,” Tappi J. 53, 615-621 (1970).

Dimenna, R.

K. Tang, R. Dimenna, and R. Buckius, “Region of validity of the geometrics optics approximation for angular scattering from very rough surface,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 40, 49-59 (1996).

du Roscoat, C.-S. Rolland

P. Vernhes, C.-S. Rolland du Roscoat, A. Blayo, B. Pineaux, and J. F. Bloch, “Synchrotron x-ray microtomography: a new tool to characterize the interaction between paper and toner,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 52, 6 (2008).

du Roscoat, S. Rolland

J. F. Bloch, S. Rolland du Roscoat, C. Mercier, P. Vernhes, B. Pineaux, A. Blayo, and P. Mangin, “Influence of paper structure on printability: characterization using x-ray synchrotron microtomography,” in NIP22: International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2006), pp. 449-453.

Edstrom, P.

P. Edstrom, “Mathematical modelling of light scattering in paper and print,” Ph.D. dissertation (Mid Sweden University, 2004).

Elton, N. J.

N. J. Elton, “A two-scale roughness model for the gloss of coated paper,” J. Opt. A 10, 085002 (2008).

Fagerstrom, J.

P. Hermansson, G. Forssell, and J. Fagerstrom, “A review of models for scattering from rough surfaces” (Swedish Defense Research Agency, 2003).

Fogden, A.

T. Pettersson and A. Fogden, “Leveling during toner fusing: effects on surface roughness and gloss of printed paper,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 50, 202-215 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Forssell, G.

P. Hermansson, G. Forssell, and J. Fagerstrom, “A review of models for scattering from rough surfaces” (Swedish Defense Research Agency, 2003).

Gate, L.

L. Gate, W. Windle, and M. Hine, “The relationship between gloss and surface microstructure of coatings,” Tappi J. 56, 61-65 (1973).

Gate, L. F.

L. F. Gate and D. J. Parsons, “The specular reflection of polarized light from coated paper,” in Transactions of the 10th Fundamental Research Symposium (Oxford University, 1993), pp. 263-284.

Granberg, H.

H. Granberg and M. C. Beland, “Modelling the angle-dependent light scattering from sheets of pulp fibre fragments,” Nord. Pulp Paper Res. J. 19, 354-359 (2004).

Gregersen, O. W.

G. Chinga, T. Stoen, and O. W. Gregersen, “On the roughening effect of laboratory heatset offset printing on SC and LWC paper surfaces,” J. Pulp Pap. Sci. 30, 307-311 (2004).

Harrison, V. G. W.

V. G. W. Harrison, “Gloss measurement of papers: application of the Barkas analysis,” Br. J. Appl. Phys 1, 46-53 (1950).

Hartmuth, S.

S. Hartmuth, S. Mario, and S. Stefan, “Comparison of 3D surface reconstruction data from certified depth standards obtained by SEM and an infinite focus measurement machine (IFM),” Microchim. Acta 155, 279-284 (2006).

Helle, T.

G. Chinga and T. Helle, “Relationships between the coating surface structural variation and print quality,” J. Pulp Pap. Sci. 29, 179-184 (2003).

Heo, H.

J. S. Arney, H. Heo, and R. G. Anderson, “A micro-goniophotometer and the measurement of print gloss,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 48, 458-463 (2004).

Hermansson, P.

P. Hermansson, G. Forssell, and J. Fagerstrom, “A review of models for scattering from rough surfaces” (Swedish Defense Research Agency, 2003).

Hine, M.

L. Gate, W. Windle, and M. Hine, “The relationship between gloss and surface microstructure of coatings,” Tappi J. 56, 61-65 (1973).

Johansson, P.

M. A. Macgregor and P. Johansson, “Submillimetre gloss variations in coated paper. Part 1: The gloss imaging equipment and analytical techniques,” Tappi J. 73, 161-168 (1990).

Johansson, P. A.

I. Arino, U. Kleist, G. G. Barros, P. A. Johansson, and M. Rigdahl, “Surface texture characterization of injection-molded pigmented plastics,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 44, 1615-1626 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Aslund, P. A. Johansson, and E. Blohm, “Photometric method for dynamic measurements of paper roughening after a moistening printing nip,” Nord. Pulp Paper Res. J. 19, 460-465 (2004).

M. C. Beland, S. Lindberg, and P. A. Johansson, “Optical measurement and perception of gloss quality of printed matte-coated paper,” J. Pulp Pap. Sci. 26, 120-123 (2000).

Kleist, U.

I. Arino, U. Kleist, L. Mattsson, and M. Rigdahl, “On the relation between surface texture and gloss of injection-molded pigmented plastics,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 45, 1343-1356 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Arino, U. Kleist, G. G. Barros, P. A. Johansson, and M. Rigdahl, “Surface texture characterization of injection-molded pigmented plastics,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 44, 1615-1626 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Larsen, A.

I. Simonsen, A. Larsen, E. Andreassen, E. Ommundsen, and K. Nord-Varhaug, “Estimation of gloss from rough surface parameters,” Phys. Status Solidi A 242, 2995-3000(2005).

Lee, D. I.

D. I. Lee, “A fundamental study on gloss,” in TAPPI 1974 Coating Conference Proceedings (TAPPI, 1974), pp. 97-103.

Leekley, R. M.

R. M. Leekley, C. W. Denzer, and R. F. Tyler, “Measurement of surface reflection from papers and prints,” Tappi J. 53, 615-621 (1970).

Lettieri, T. R.

Lindberg, S.

M. C. Beland, S. Lindberg, and P. A. Johansson, “Optical measurement and perception of gloss quality of printed matte-coated paper,” J. Pulp Pap. Sci. 26, 120-123 (2000).

Lindstrand, M.

M. Lindstrand, “Gloss characterization by angularly and spacially resolved reflectometry in the light of visual evaluation,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 49, 61-70 (2002).

M. Lindstrand, “Gloss: measurement, characterization and visualization in the light of visual evaluation,” Ph.D. dissertation (Linkopings Universitet, 2002).

Lixin, G.

G. Lixin and W. Zhensen, “Application of FFT to light scattering from one-dimensional fractal rough surface,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 35, 317-322 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Macgregor, M. A.

M. A. Macgregor and P. Johansson, “Submillimetre gloss variations in coated paper. Part 1: The gloss imaging equipment and analytical techniques,” Tappi J. 73, 161-168 (1990).

Mangin, P.

J. F. Bloch, S. Rolland du Roscoat, C. Mercier, P. Vernhes, B. Pineaux, A. Blayo, and P. Mangin, “Influence of paper structure on printability: characterization using x-ray synchrotron microtomography,” in NIP22: International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2006), pp. 449-453.

Mario, S.

S. Hartmuth, S. Mario, and S. Stefan, “Comparison of 3D surface reconstruction data from certified depth standards obtained by SEM and an infinite focus measurement machine (IFM),” Microchim. Acta 155, 279-284 (2006).

Marx, E.

Mattsson, L.

I. Arino, U. Kleist, L. Mattsson, and M. Rigdahl, “On the relation between surface texture and gloss of injection-molded pigmented plastics,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 45, 1343-1356 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Beland and L. Mattsson, “Optical print quality of coated papers,” J. Pulp Pap. Sci. 23, 493-498 (1997).

Mercier, C.

P. Vernhes, J. F. Bloch, A. Blayo, C. Mercier, and B. Pineaux, “Statistical analysis of paper surface microstructure: a multi scale approach,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 7431 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Bloch, S. Rolland du Roscoat, C. Mercier, P. Vernhes, B. Pineaux, A. Blayo, and P. Mangin, “Influence of paper structure on printability: characterization using x-ray synchrotron microtomography,” in NIP22: International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2006), pp. 449-453.

Michel, J.

J. S. Arney, J. Michel, and K. Pollmeier, “Technique for analysis of surface topography of photographic prints by spatial analysis of first surface reflectance,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 46, 350-358 (2002).

Nord-Varhaug, K.

I. Simonsen, A. Larsen, E. Andreassen, E. Ommundsen, and K. Nord-Varhaug, “Estimation of gloss from rough surface parameters,” Phys. Status Solidi A 242, 2995-3000(2005).

Ommundsen, E.

I. Simonsen, A. Larsen, E. Andreassen, E. Ommundsen, and K. Nord-Varhaug, “Estimation of gloss from rough surface parameters,” Phys. Status Solidi A 242, 2995-3000(2005).

Oswald, T.

J. S. Arney, L. Ye, J. Wible, and T. Oswald, “Analysis of paper gloss,” J. Pulp Pap. Sci. 32, 19-23 (2006).

Parsons, D. J.

L. F. Gate and D. J. Parsons, “The specular reflection of polarized light from coated paper,” in Transactions of the 10th Fundamental Research Symposium (Oxford University, 1993), pp. 263-284.

Pettersson, T.

T. Pettersson and A. Fogden, “Leveling during toner fusing: effects on surface roughness and gloss of printed paper,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 50, 202-215 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pineaux, B.

P. Vernhes, C.-S. Rolland du Roscoat, A. Blayo, B. Pineaux, and J. F. Bloch, “Synchrotron x-ray microtomography: a new tool to characterize the interaction between paper and toner,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 52, 6 (2008).

P. Vernhes, J. F. Bloch, A. Blayo, C. Mercier, and B. Pineaux, “Statistical analysis of paper surface microstructure: a multi scale approach,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 7431 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Bloch, S. Rolland du Roscoat, C. Mercier, P. Vernhes, B. Pineaux, A. Blayo, and P. Mangin, “Influence of paper structure on printability: characterization using x-ray synchrotron microtomography,” in NIP22: International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2006), pp. 449-453.

Pollmeier, K.

J. S. Arney, J. Michel, and K. Pollmeier, “Technique for analysis of surface topography of photographic prints by spatial analysis of first surface reflectance,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 46, 350-358 (2002).

Porfyrakis, K.

V. Bliznyuk, H. Assender, and K. Porfyrakis, “How surface topography relates to material's properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 297, 973-976 (2002).

Rigdahl, M.

I. Arino, U. Kleist, L. Mattsson, and M. Rigdahl, “On the relation between surface texture and gloss of injection-molded pigmented plastics,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 45, 1343-1356 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Arino, U. Kleist, G. G. Barros, P. A. Johansson, and M. Rigdahl, “Surface texture characterization of injection-molded pigmented plastics,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 44, 1615-1626 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Simonsen, I.

I. Simonsen, A. Larsen, E. Andreassen, E. Ommundsen, and K. Nord-Varhaug, “Estimation of gloss from rough surface parameters,” Phys. Status Solidi A 242, 2995-3000(2005).

Song, J.

Spizzochino, A.

P. S. Beckmann and A. Spizzochino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Pergamon Press, 1963).

Stefan, S.

S. Hartmuth, S. Mario, and S. Stefan, “Comparison of 3D surface reconstruction data from certified depth standards obtained by SEM and an infinite focus measurement machine (IFM),” Microchim. Acta 155, 279-284 (2006).

Stoen, T.

G. Chinga, T. Stoen, and O. W. Gregersen, “On the roughening effect of laboratory heatset offset printing on SC and LWC paper surfaces,” J. Pulp Pap. Sci. 30, 307-311 (2004).

Tang, K.

K. Tang and R. O. Buckius, “A statistical model of wave scattering from random rough surfaces,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 44, 4059-4073 (2001).

K. Tang and R. Buckius, “The geometrics optics approximation for reflection from two dimensional random rough surfaces,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 41, 2037-2047 (1998).

K. Tang, R. Dimenna, and R. Buckius, “Region of validity of the geometrics optics approximation for angular scattering from very rough surface,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 40, 49-59 (1996).

Torrance, K. E.

K. E. Torrance, “Monochromatic directional distribution of reflected thermal radiation from roughened dielectric surfaces,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Minnesota, 1964).

Tyler, R. F.

R. M. Leekley, C. W. Denzer, and R. F. Tyler, “Measurement of surface reflection from papers and prints,” Tappi J. 53, 615-621 (1970).

Vernhes, P.

P. Vernhes, C.-S. Rolland du Roscoat, A. Blayo, B. Pineaux, and J. F. Bloch, “Synchrotron x-ray microtomography: a new tool to characterize the interaction between paper and toner,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 52, 6 (2008).

P. Vernhes, J. F. Bloch, A. Blayo, C. Mercier, and B. Pineaux, “Statistical analysis of paper surface microstructure: a multi scale approach,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 7431 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Bloch, S. Rolland du Roscoat, C. Mercier, P. Vernhes, B. Pineaux, A. Blayo, and P. Mangin, “Influence of paper structure on printability: characterization using x-ray synchrotron microtomography,” in NIP22: International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2006), pp. 449-453.

Vorburger, T. V.

Wible, J.

J. S. Arney, L. Ye, J. Wible, and T. Oswald, “Analysis of paper gloss,” J. Pulp Pap. Sci. 32, 19-23 (2006).

Windle, W.

L. Gate, W. Windle, and M. Hine, “The relationship between gloss and surface microstructure of coatings,” Tappi J. 56, 61-65 (1973).

Ye, L.

J. S. Arney, L. Ye, J. Wible, and T. Oswald, “Analysis of paper gloss,” J. Pulp Pap. Sci. 32, 19-23 (2006).

Zhensen, W.

G. Lixin and W. Zhensen, “Application of FFT to light scattering from one-dimensional fractal rough surface,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 35, 317-322 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

P. Vernhes, J. F. Bloch, A. Blayo, C. Mercier, and B. Pineaux, “Statistical analysis of paper surface microstructure: a multi scale approach,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 7431 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Br. J. Appl. Phys (1)

V. G. W. Harrison, “Gloss measurement of papers: application of the Barkas analysis,” Br. J. Appl. Phys 1, 46-53 (1950).

Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer (3)

K. Tang and R. O. Buckius, “A statistical model of wave scattering from random rough surfaces,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 44, 4059-4073 (2001).

K. Tang, R. Dimenna, and R. Buckius, “Region of validity of the geometrics optics approximation for angular scattering from very rough surface,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 40, 49-59 (1996).

K. Tang and R. Buckius, “The geometrics optics approximation for reflection from two dimensional random rough surfaces,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 41, 2037-2047 (1998).

J. Imaging Sci. Technol. (5)

P. Vernhes, C.-S. Rolland du Roscoat, A. Blayo, B. Pineaux, and J. F. Bloch, “Synchrotron x-ray microtomography: a new tool to characterize the interaction between paper and toner,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 52, 6 (2008).

J. S. Arney, H. Heo, and R. G. Anderson, “A micro-goniophotometer and the measurement of print gloss,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 48, 458-463 (2004).

J. S. Arney, J. Michel, and K. Pollmeier, “Technique for analysis of surface topography of photographic prints by spatial analysis of first surface reflectance,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 46, 350-358 (2002).

T. Pettersson and A. Fogden, “Leveling during toner fusing: effects on surface roughness and gloss of printed paper,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 50, 202-215 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Lindstrand, “Gloss characterization by angularly and spacially resolved reflectometry in the light of visual evaluation,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 49, 61-70 (2002).

J. Opt. A (1)

N. J. Elton, “A two-scale roughness model for the gloss of coated paper,” J. Opt. A 10, 085002 (2008).

J. Polym. Sci. Part B Polym. Phys. (1)

R. Alexandra-Katz and R. G. Barrera, “Surface correlation effect on gloss,” J. Polym. Sci. Part B Polym. Phys. 36, 1321-1334 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Pulp Pap. Sci. (7)

G. Chinga, T. Stoen, and O. W. Gregersen, “On the roughening effect of laboratory heatset offset printing on SC and LWC paper surfaces,” J. Pulp Pap. Sci. 30, 307-311 (2004).

G. Chinga, “Detailed characterization of paper surface structure for gloss assessment,” J. Pulp Pap. Sci. 30, 222-227 (2004).

G. Chinga and T. Helle, “Relationships between the coating surface structural variation and print quality,” J. Pulp Pap. Sci. 29, 179-184 (2003).

M. C. Beland, S. Lindberg, and P. A. Johansson, “Optical measurement and perception of gloss quality of printed matte-coated paper,” J. Pulp Pap. Sci. 26, 120-123 (2000).

M. C. Beland and L. Mattsson, “Optical print quality of coated papers,” J. Pulp Pap. Sci. 23, 493-498 (1997).

J. S. Arney, L. Ye, J. Wible, and T. Oswald, “Analysis of paper gloss,” J. Pulp Pap. Sci. 32, 19-23 (2006).

J. S. Aspler and M. C. Beland, “A review of fiber rising and surface roughening effects in paper,” J. Pulp Pap. Sci. 20, 27-32 (1994).

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

V. Bliznyuk, H. Assender, and K. Porfyrakis, “How surface topography relates to material's properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 297, 973-976 (2002).

Microchim. Acta (1)

S. Hartmuth, S. Mario, and S. Stefan, “Comparison of 3D surface reconstruction data from certified depth standards obtained by SEM and an infinite focus measurement machine (IFM),” Microchim. Acta 155, 279-284 (2006).

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

G. Lixin and W. Zhensen, “Application of FFT to light scattering from one-dimensional fractal rough surface,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 35, 317-322 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nord. Pulp Paper Res. J. (2)

H. Granberg and M. C. Beland, “Modelling the angle-dependent light scattering from sheets of pulp fibre fragments,” Nord. Pulp Paper Res. J. 19, 354-359 (2004).

P. Aslund, P. A. Johansson, and E. Blohm, “Photometric method for dynamic measurements of paper roughening after a moistening printing nip,” Nord. Pulp Paper Res. J. 19, 460-465 (2004).

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

I. Simonsen, A. Larsen, E. Andreassen, E. Ommundsen, and K. Nord-Varhaug, “Estimation of gloss from rough surface parameters,” Phys. Status Solidi A 242, 2995-3000(2005).

Polym. Eng. Sci. (2)

I. Arino, U. Kleist, G. G. Barros, P. A. Johansson, and M. Rigdahl, “Surface texture characterization of injection-molded pigmented plastics,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 44, 1615-1626 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Arino, U. Kleist, L. Mattsson, and M. Rigdahl, “On the relation between surface texture and gloss of injection-molded pigmented plastics,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 45, 1343-1356 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tappi J. (3)

R. M. Leekley, C. W. Denzer, and R. F. Tyler, “Measurement of surface reflection from papers and prints,” Tappi J. 53, 615-621 (1970).

L. Gate, W. Windle, and M. Hine, “The relationship between gloss and surface microstructure of coatings,” Tappi J. 56, 61-65 (1973).

M. A. Macgregor and P. Johansson, “Submillimetre gloss variations in coated paper. Part 1: The gloss imaging equipment and analytical techniques,” Tappi J. 73, 161-168 (1990).

Other (11)

K. E. Torrance, “Monochromatic directional distribution of reflected thermal radiation from roughened dielectric surfaces,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Minnesota, 1964).

D. I. Lee, “A fundamental study on gloss,” in TAPPI 1974 Coating Conference Proceedings (TAPPI, 1974), pp. 97-103.

P. S. Beckmann and A. Spizzochino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Pergamon Press, 1963).

ISO 25178-6, “Geometrical product specifications (GPS)--surface texture: areal. Part 6. Classification of methods for measuring surface texture,” (ISO, 2008).

J. F. Bloch, S. Rolland du Roscoat, C. Mercier, P. Vernhes, B. Pineaux, A. Blayo, and P. Mangin, “Influence of paper structure on printability: characterization using x-ray synchrotron microtomography,” in NIP22: International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2006), pp. 449-453.

L. F. Gate and D. J. Parsons, “The specular reflection of polarized light from coated paper,” in Transactions of the 10th Fundamental Research Symposium (Oxford University, 1993), pp. 263-284.

P. Hermansson, G. Forssell, and J. Fagerstrom, “A review of models for scattering from rough surfaces” (Swedish Defense Research Agency, 2003).

M. Lindstrand, “Gloss: measurement, characterization and visualization in the light of visual evaluation,” Ph.D. dissertation (Linkopings Universitet, 2002).

P. Edstrom, “Mathematical modelling of light scattering in paper and print,” Ph.D. dissertation (Mid Sweden University, 2004).

“Standard terminology of apparence,” A. E284 (American Society of Testing and Materials, 1999).

R.Hunter, ed., The Measurement of Appearance (Wiley, 1987).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Rough surface scattering geometry [44].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

S q variation versus magnification on five paper samples.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison between experimental and simulated scattering indicatrix for three papers ( × 100 magnification).

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Physical Paper Properties

Tables Icon

Table 2 Value of the Maximum Scattering Indicatrix for Experimental and Simulated Results for Five Paper Samples

Tables Icon

Table 3 Gloss Dispersion of the Simulated Results

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ρ ( θ , λ ) = 1 2 * [ ( cos θ n ( λ ) 2 sin 2 ( θ ) cos θ + n ( λ ) 2 sin 2 ( θ ) ) 2 + ( n ( λ ) 2 cos θ n ( λ ) 2 sin 2 ( θ ) n ( λ ) 2 cos θ + n ( λ ) 2 sin 2 ( θ ) ) 2 ] ,
I = exp ( 8 π 2 cos 2 R α λ 2 ) ,
I I 0 = ρ ( θ , λ ) exp ( ( 4 π σ cos θ λ ) 2 ) ,
S q = 1 M N j = 1 N i = 1 M z 2 ( x i , x j ) ,
ACVF ( τ x , τ y ) = 1 ( L x τ x ) ( L y τ y ) 0 ( L x τ x ) 0 ( L y τ y ) z ( x , y ) z ( x + τ x , y + τ y ) d x d y ,
AACF = ACVF ( τ x , τ y ) ACVF ( 0 , 0 ) .
V o = x i + y j + z k ,
x = sin ( ϕ 0 ) cos ( θ 0 ) ,
y = sin ( ϕ 0 ) sin ( θ 0 ) ,
z = cos ( θ 0 ) .

Metrics