Abstract

Retinal images of approximately 1° of visual field were recorded with a homemade scanning laser ophthalmoscope. The benefit of using a nonlinear registration technique to improve the summation process when averaging frames, rather than a standard approach based on correlation, was assessed. Results suggest that nonlinear methods can surpass linear transformations, allowing improved contrast and more uniform image quality. The importance of this is also demonstrated with specific polarization measurements to determine the degree of polarization across an imaged retinal area. In such a context, where this parameter of polarization is extracted from a combination of registered images, the benefit of the nonlinear method is further increased.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2008 (2)

D. C. Gray, R. Wolfe, and B. P. Gee, D. Scoles, Y. Geng, B. D. Masella, A. Dubra, S. Luque, D. R. Williams, and W. H. Merigan, “In vivo imaging of the fine structure of rhodamine-labeled macaque retinal ganglion cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 49, 467-473 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Song, Y. Zhao, X. Qi, Y. T. Chui, and S. A. Burns, “Stokes vector analysis of adaptive optics images of the retina,” Opt. Lett. 33, 137-139 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (7)

J. M. Bueno, J. J. Hunter, C. J. Cookson, M. L. Kisilak, and M. C. W. Campbell, “Improved scanning laser fundus imaging using polarimetry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1337-1348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Duncan, Y. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. H. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, “High resolution imaging of foveal cones in patients with inherited retinal degenerations using adaptive optics.” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 48, 3283-3291 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Roorda, Y. Zhang, and J. L. Duncan, “High-resolution in vivo imaging of the RPE mosaic in eyes with retinal disease.” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 48, 2297-2303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Hunter, C. J. Cookson, M. L. Kisilak, J. M. Bueno, and M. C. W. Campbell, “Characterizing image quality in a scanning laser ophthalmoscope with differing pinholes and induced scattered light” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1284-1295(2007).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Wanek, M. Mori, and M. Shahidi, “Effect of aberrations and scatter on image resolution assessed by adaptive optics retinal section imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1296-1304(2007).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Arathorn, Q. Yang, C. R. Vogel, Y. Zhang, P. Tiruveedhula, and A. Roorda, “Retinally stabilized cone-targeted stimulus delivery,” Opt. Express 15, 13731-13744(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Nourrit, B. Vohnsen, and P. Artal, “Non-linear correction of eye movements for scanning laser ophthalmoscope imagery,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. , 48, E-Abstract 2765(2007).

2006 (3)

2005 (7)

V. Nourrit, B. Vohnsen, and P. Artal, “Blind deconvolution for high-resolution confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” J. Opt. A 7, 585-592 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Romero-Borja, K. Venkateswaran, T. J. Hebert, A. Roorda, “Optical slicing of human retinal tissue in vivo with the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope” Appl. Opt. 44, 4032-4040 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Bueno and B. Vohnsen, “Polarimetric high-resolution confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Vision Res. 45, 3526-3534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Vohnsen, I. Iglesias, and P. Artal, “Directional light scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2606-2612(2005).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Stevenson and A. Roorda, “Correcting for miniature eye movements in high resolution scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Proc. SPIE 5688A, 145-151 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Goshtasby, 2D and 3D Image Registration for Medical, Remote Sensing, and Industrial Applications (Wiley, 2005).

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, M. Oshako, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, “Imaging polarimetry in central serous chorioretinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 140, 1014-1019(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

2003 (5)

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, J. C. Magill, M. A. White, A. E. Elsner, and R. H. Webb, “Compact scanning laser ophthalmoscope with high-speed retinal tracker” Appl. Opt. 42, 4621-4632 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Vohnsen, I. Iglesias, and P. Artal, “Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope with adaptive optical wavefront correction,” Proc. SPIE 4964, 24-32 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Choong, F. Rakebrandt, R. V. North, and J. E. Morgan, “Acutance, an objective measure of retinal nerve fibre image clarity,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 87, 322-326 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Bueno, E. Berrio, and P. Artal, “Aberro-polariscope for the human eye,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1209-1211 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, M. B. Mellem-Kairala, and R. B. Simmons, “Improved contrast of subretinal structures using polarization analysis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4061-4068 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

2001 (2)

K. A. Goatman, A. Manivannan, J. H. Hipwell, P. F. Sharp, N. Lois, and J. V. Forrester, “Automatic registration and averaging of ophthalmic autofluorescence images,” in Conference Proceedings in Medical Image Understanding and Analysis (MIUA) (BMVA, 2001), pp. 157-160.

J. M. Bueno and J. W. Jaronski, “Spatially resolved polarization properties for in vitro corneas,” Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 21384-392 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

D. Lloret, J. Serrat, A. M. Lopez, A. Soler, and J. J. Villaneuva, “Retinal image registration using creases as anatomical landmarks,” 15th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR'00) (IEEE Computer Society, 2000), vol. 3, pp. 3207-3210.

George K. Matsopoulos, Konstantinos K. Delibasis, and Nicolaos A. Mouravliansky, “Medical image registration and fusion techniques: a review,” in Advanced Signal Processing Handbook: Theory and Implementation for Radar, Sonar, and Medical Imaging Real Time Systems, S. Stergiopoulos, ed. (CRC Press, 2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Woods, “Spatial transformation models” in Handbook of Medical Imaging: Processing and Analysis, I. Bankman, ed. (Academic, 2000), pp. 465-490.

1999 (1)

G. K. Matsopoulos, N. A. Mouravliansky, K. K. Delibasis, and K. S. Nikita, “Automatic registration of retinal images with global optimization techniques,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 3, 47-60 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1995 (3)

R. A. Chipman, “Polarimetry,” in Handbook of Optics, 2nd ed., M.Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1995), Vol. 2, chap. 22.

A. Ambirajan and D. C. Look, “Optimum angles for a polarimeter: part I,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1651-1655 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Deubel and B. Bridgeman, “Fourth Purkinje image signals reveal eye-lens deviations and retinal image distortions during saccades,” Vision Res. 35, 529-538 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

W. E. Hart and M. H. Goldbaum, “Registering retinal images using automatically selected control point pairs,” IEEE International Conference Image Processing, 1994. Proceedings. ICIP-94 (IEEE, 1994), vol. 3, pp. 576-580.
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

1990 (1)

1988 (1)

A. A. Goshtasby, “Image registration by local approximation methods,” Image Vision Comput. 6 ( 255-261 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

E. Peli, R. Augliere, and G. Timberlake, “Feature-based registration of retinal images,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. MI-6, 272-278 (1987).

1986 (1)

A. A. Goshtasby, “Piecewise linear mapping functions for image registration,” Pattern Recognition 19, 459-66 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ambirajan, A.

A. Ambirajan and D. C. Look, “Optimum angles for a polarimeter: part I,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1651-1655 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Arathorn, D. W.

Artal, P.

V. Nourrit, B. Vohnsen, and P. Artal, “Non-linear correction of eye movements for scanning laser ophthalmoscope imagery,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. , 48, E-Abstract 2765(2007).

B. Vohnsen, I. Iglesias, and P. Artal, “Directional light scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2606-2612(2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Nourrit, B. Vohnsen, and P. Artal, “Blind deconvolution for high-resolution confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” J. Opt. A 7, 585-592 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bueno, E. Berrio, M. Ozolinsh, and P. Artal, “Degree of polarization as an objective method of estimating scattering,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 1316-1321 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Vohnsen, I. Iglesias, and P. Artal, “Directional imaging of the retinal cone mosaic,” Opt. Lett. 29, 968-970 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Bueno, E. Berrio, and P. Artal, “Aberro-polariscope for the human eye,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1209-1211 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Vohnsen, I. Iglesias, and P. Artal, “Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope with adaptive optical wavefront correction,” Proc. SPIE 4964, 24-32 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Augliere, R.

E. Peli, R. Augliere, and G. Timberlake, “Feature-based registration of retinal images,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. MI-6, 272-278 (1987).

Berrio, E.

Bigelow, C. E.

Branham, K. H.

J. L. Duncan, Y. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. H. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, “High resolution imaging of foveal cones in patients with inherited retinal degenerations using adaptive optics.” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 48, 3283-3291 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bridgeman, B.

H. Deubel and B. Bridgeman, “Fourth Purkinje image signals reveal eye-lens deviations and retinal image distortions during saccades,” Vision Res. 35, 529-538 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, L. G.

L. G. Brown, “A survey of image registration techniques,” ACM Comput. Surv. 24, 325-376 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bueno, J. M.

Burns, S. A.

Campbell, M. C. W.

Can, A.

A. Can, C. V. Stewart, B. Roysam, and H. L. Tannenbaum, “A feature based, robust, hierarchical algorithm for registering pairs of images of the curved human retina,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 24, 347-364 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Carroll, J.

J. I. Wolfing, M. Chung, J. Carroll, A. Roorda, and D. R. Williams, “High-resolution retinal imaging of cone-rod dystrophy” Ophthalmol. Annu. 113 , 1014-1019 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheney, M. C.

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, M. Oshako, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, “Imaging polarimetry in central serous chorioretinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 140, 1014-1019(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chipman, R. A.

R. A. Chipman, “Polarimetry,” in Handbook of Optics, 2nd ed., M.Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1995), Vol. 2, chap. 22.

Choong, Y. F.

Y. F. Choong, F. Rakebrandt, R. V. North, and J. E. Morgan, “Acutance, an objective measure of retinal nerve fibre image clarity,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 87, 322-326 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chui, Y. T.

Chung, M.

J. I. Wolfing, M. Chung, J. Carroll, A. Roorda, and D. R. Williams, “High-resolution retinal imaging of cone-rod dystrophy” Ophthalmol. Annu. 113 , 1014-1019 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cookson, C. J.

de Chazal, P.

N. Ryan, C. Heneghan, and P. de Chazal, “Registration of digital retinal images using landmark correspondence by expectation maximization,” Image Vision Comput. 22, 883-898(2004).
[CrossRef]

Delibasis, K. K.

G. K. Matsopoulos, N. A. Mouravliansky, K. K. Delibasis, and K. S. Nikita, “Automatic registration of retinal images with global optimization techniques,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 3, 47-60 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Delibasis, Konstantinos K.

George K. Matsopoulos, Konstantinos K. Delibasis, and Nicolaos A. Mouravliansky, “Medical image registration and fusion techniques: a review,” in Advanced Signal Processing Handbook: Theory and Implementation for Radar, Sonar, and Medical Imaging Real Time Systems, S. Stergiopoulos, ed. (CRC Press, 2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deubel, H.

H. Deubel and B. Bridgeman, “Fourth Purkinje image signals reveal eye-lens deviations and retinal image distortions during saccades,” Vision Res. 35, 529-538 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donnelly, W. J.

Dreher, A. W.

Dubra, A.

D. C. Gray, R. Wolfe, and B. P. Gee, D. Scoles, Y. Geng, B. D. Masella, A. Dubra, S. Luque, D. R. Williams, and W. H. Merigan, “In vivo imaging of the fine structure of rhodamine-labeled macaque retinal ganglion cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 49, 467-473 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Duncan, J. L.

J. L. Duncan, Y. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. H. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, “High resolution imaging of foveal cones in patients with inherited retinal degenerations using adaptive optics.” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 48, 3283-3291 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Roorda, Y. Zhang, and J. L. Duncan, “High-resolution in vivo imaging of the RPE mosaic in eyes with retinal disease.” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 48, 2297-2303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Elsner, A. E.

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, M. Oshako, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, “Imaging polarimetry in central serous chorioretinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 140, 1014-1019(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, J. C. Magill, M. A. White, A. E. Elsner, and R. H. Webb, “Compact scanning laser ophthalmoscope with high-speed retinal tracker” Appl. Opt. 42, 4621-4632 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, M. B. Mellem-Kairala, and R. B. Simmons, “Improved contrast of subretinal structures using polarization analysis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4061-4068 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, R. D.

Fitzke, F. W.

Forrester, J. V.

K. A. Goatman, A. Manivannan, J. H. Hipwell, P. F. Sharp, N. Lois, and J. V. Forrester, “Automatic registration and averaging of ophthalmic autofluorescence images,” in Conference Proceedings in Medical Image Understanding and Analysis (MIUA) (BMVA, 2001), pp. 157-160.

Gandhi, J.

J. L. Duncan, Y. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. H. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, “High resolution imaging of foveal cones in patients with inherited retinal degenerations using adaptive optics.” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 48, 3283-3291 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gee, B. P.

D. C. Gray, R. Wolfe, and B. P. Gee, D. Scoles, Y. Geng, B. D. Masella, A. Dubra, S. Luque, D. R. Williams, and W. H. Merigan, “In vivo imaging of the fine structure of rhodamine-labeled macaque retinal ganglion cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 49, 467-473 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Geng, Y.

D. C. Gray, R. Wolfe, and B. P. Gee, D. Scoles, Y. Geng, B. D. Masella, A. Dubra, S. Luque, D. R. Williams, and W. H. Merigan, “In vivo imaging of the fine structure of rhodamine-labeled macaque retinal ganglion cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 49, 467-473 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Goatman, K. A.

K. A. Goatman, A. Manivannan, J. H. Hipwell, P. F. Sharp, N. Lois, and J. V. Forrester, “Automatic registration and averaging of ophthalmic autofluorescence images,” in Conference Proceedings in Medical Image Understanding and Analysis (MIUA) (BMVA, 2001), pp. 157-160.

Goldbaum, M. H.

W. E. Hart and M. H. Goldbaum, “Registering retinal images using automatically selected control point pairs,” IEEE International Conference Image Processing, 1994. Proceedings. ICIP-94 (IEEE, 1994), vol. 3, pp. 576-580.
[CrossRef]

Goshtasby, A. A.

A. A. Goshtasby, 2D and 3D Image Registration for Medical, Remote Sensing, and Industrial Applications (Wiley, 2005).

A. A. Goshtasby, “Image registration by local approximation methods,” Image Vision Comput. 6 ( 255-261 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Goshtasby, “Piecewise linear mapping functions for image registration,” Pattern Recognition 19, 459-66 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Gray, D. C.

D. C. Gray, R. Wolfe, and B. P. Gee, D. Scoles, Y. Geng, B. D. Masella, A. Dubra, S. Luque, D. R. Williams, and W. H. Merigan, “In vivo imaging of the fine structure of rhodamine-labeled macaque retinal ganglion cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 49, 467-473 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hammer, D. X.

Hart, W. E.

W. E. Hart and M. H. Goldbaum, “Registering retinal images using automatically selected control point pairs,” IEEE International Conference Image Processing, 1994. Proceedings. ICIP-94 (IEEE, 1994), vol. 3, pp. 576-580.
[CrossRef]

Hebert, T. J.

Heneghan, C.

N. Ryan, C. Heneghan, and P. de Chazal, “Registration of digital retinal images using landmark correspondence by expectation maximization,” Image Vision Comput. 22, 883-898(2004).
[CrossRef]

Hipwell, J. H.

K. A. Goatman, A. Manivannan, J. H. Hipwell, P. F. Sharp, N. Lois, and J. V. Forrester, “Automatic registration and averaging of ophthalmic autofluorescence images,” in Conference Proceedings in Medical Image Understanding and Analysis (MIUA) (BMVA, 2001), pp. 157-160.

Hunter, J. J.

Iftimia, N. V.

Iglesias, I.

Iwasaki, T.

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, M. Oshako, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, “Imaging polarimetry in central serous chorioretinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 140, 1014-1019(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jaronski, J. W.

J. M. Bueno and J. W. Jaronski, “Spatially resolved polarization properties for in vitro corneas,” Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 21384-392 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kisilak, M. L.

Lloret, D.

D. Lloret, J. Serrat, A. M. Lopez, A. Soler, and J. J. Villaneuva, “Retinal image registration using creases as anatomical landmarks,” 15th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR'00) (IEEE Computer Society, 2000), vol. 3, pp. 3207-3210.

Lois, N.

K. A. Goatman, A. Manivannan, J. H. Hipwell, P. F. Sharp, N. Lois, and J. V. Forrester, “Automatic registration and averaging of ophthalmic autofluorescence images,” in Conference Proceedings in Medical Image Understanding and Analysis (MIUA) (BMVA, 2001), pp. 157-160.

Look, D. C.

A. Ambirajan and D. C. Look, “Optimum angles for a polarimeter: part I,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1651-1655 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, A. M.

D. Lloret, J. Serrat, A. M. Lopez, A. Soler, and J. J. Villaneuva, “Retinal image registration using creases as anatomical landmarks,” 15th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR'00) (IEEE Computer Society, 2000), vol. 3, pp. 3207-3210.

Luque, S.

D. C. Gray, R. Wolfe, and B. P. Gee, D. Scoles, Y. Geng, B. D. Masella, A. Dubra, S. Luque, D. R. Williams, and W. H. Merigan, “In vivo imaging of the fine structure of rhodamine-labeled macaque retinal ganglion cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 49, 467-473 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Magill, J. C.

Manivannan, A.

K. A. Goatman, A. Manivannan, J. H. Hipwell, P. F. Sharp, N. Lois, and J. V. Forrester, “Automatic registration and averaging of ophthalmic autofluorescence images,” in Conference Proceedings in Medical Image Understanding and Analysis (MIUA) (BMVA, 2001), pp. 157-160.

Masella, B. D.

D. C. Gray, R. Wolfe, and B. P. Gee, D. Scoles, Y. Geng, B. D. Masella, A. Dubra, S. Luque, D. R. Williams, and W. H. Merigan, “In vivo imaging of the fine structure of rhodamine-labeled macaque retinal ganglion cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 49, 467-473 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Matsopoulos, G. K.

G. K. Matsopoulos, N. A. Mouravliansky, K. K. Delibasis, and K. S. Nikita, “Automatic registration of retinal images with global optimization techniques,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 3, 47-60 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Matsopoulos, George K.

George K. Matsopoulos, Konstantinos K. Delibasis, and Nicolaos A. Mouravliansky, “Medical image registration and fusion techniques: a review,” in Advanced Signal Processing Handbook: Theory and Implementation for Radar, Sonar, and Medical Imaging Real Time Systems, S. Stergiopoulos, ed. (CRC Press, 2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mellem-Kairala, M. B.

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, M. B. Mellem-Kairala, and R. B. Simmons, “Improved contrast of subretinal structures using polarization analysis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4061-4068 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Merigan, W. H.

D. C. Gray, R. Wolfe, and B. P. Gee, D. Scoles, Y. Geng, B. D. Masella, A. Dubra, S. Luque, D. R. Williams, and W. H. Merigan, “In vivo imaging of the fine structure of rhodamine-labeled macaque retinal ganglion cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 49, 467-473 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miura, M.

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, M. Oshako, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, “Imaging polarimetry in central serous chorioretinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 140, 1014-1019(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgan, J. E.

Y. F. Choong, F. Rakebrandt, R. V. North, and J. E. Morgan, “Acutance, an objective measure of retinal nerve fibre image clarity,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 87, 322-326 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mori, M.

Mouravliansky, N. A.

G. K. Matsopoulos, N. A. Mouravliansky, K. K. Delibasis, and K. S. Nikita, “Automatic registration of retinal images with global optimization techniques,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 3, 47-60 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mouravliansky, Nicolaos A.

George K. Matsopoulos, Konstantinos K. Delibasis, and Nicolaos A. Mouravliansky, “Medical image registration and fusion techniques: a review,” in Advanced Signal Processing Handbook: Theory and Implementation for Radar, Sonar, and Medical Imaging Real Time Systems, S. Stergiopoulos, ed. (CRC Press, 2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mulligan, J. B.

J. B. Mulligan, “Recovery of motion parameters from distortion in scanned images,” presented at NASA Image Registration Workshop (IRW97), NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 20-21 November 1997.

Nakanishi, C.

J. L. Duncan, Y. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. H. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, “High resolution imaging of foveal cones in patients with inherited retinal degenerations using adaptive optics.” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 48, 3283-3291 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nikita, K. S.

G. K. Matsopoulos, N. A. Mouravliansky, K. K. Delibasis, and K. S. Nikita, “Automatic registration of retinal images with global optimization techniques,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 3, 47-60 (1999).
[CrossRef]

North, R. V.

Y. F. Choong, F. Rakebrandt, R. V. North, and J. E. Morgan, “Acutance, an objective measure of retinal nerve fibre image clarity,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 87, 322-326 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nourrit, V.

V. Nourrit, B. Vohnsen, and P. Artal, “Non-linear correction of eye movements for scanning laser ophthalmoscope imagery,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. , 48, E-Abstract 2765(2007).

V. Nourrit, B. Vohnsen, and P. Artal, “Blind deconvolution for high-resolution confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” J. Opt. A 7, 585-592 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Oshako, M.

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, M. Oshako, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, “Imaging polarimetry in central serous chorioretinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 140, 1014-1019(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Othman, M.

J. L. Duncan, Y. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. H. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, “High resolution imaging of foveal cones in patients with inherited retinal degenerations using adaptive optics.” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 48, 3283-3291 (2007).
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Parker, A.

Peli, E.

E. Peli, “Contrast in complex images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 2032-40 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Peli, R. Augliere, and G. Timberlake, “Feature-based registration of retinal images,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. MI-6, 272-278 (1987).

Qi, X.

Quenner, H.

Rakebrandt, F.

Y. F. Choong, F. Rakebrandt, R. V. North, and J. E. Morgan, “Acutance, an objective measure of retinal nerve fibre image clarity,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 87, 322-326 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reiter, K.

Romero-Borja, F.

Roorda, A.

J. L. Duncan, Y. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. H. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, “High resolution imaging of foveal cones in patients with inherited retinal degenerations using adaptive optics.” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 48, 3283-3291 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Roorda, Y. Zhang, and J. L. Duncan, “High-resolution in vivo imaging of the RPE mosaic in eyes with retinal disease.” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 48, 2297-2303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Arathorn, Q. Yang, C. R. Vogel, Y. Zhang, P. Tiruveedhula, and A. Roorda, “Retinally stabilized cone-targeted stimulus delivery,” Opt. Express 15, 13731-13744(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. Wolfing, M. Chung, J. Carroll, A. Roorda, and D. R. Williams, “High-resolution retinal imaging of cone-rod dystrophy” Ophthalmol. Annu. 113 , 1014-1019 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Vogel, D. W. Arathorn, A. Roorda, and A. Parker, “Retinal motion estimation in adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy.” Opt. Express 14, 487-497 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Stevenson and A. Roorda, “Correcting for miniature eye movements in high resolution scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Proc. SPIE 5688A, 145-151 (2005).
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F. Romero-Borja, K. Venkateswaran, T. J. Hebert, A. Roorda, “Optical slicing of human retinal tissue in vivo with the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope” Appl. Opt. 44, 4032-4040 (2005).
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A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. J. Donnelly III, H. Quenner, T. J. Hebert, and M. C. W. Campbell, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express 10, 405-412 (2002).
[PubMed]

Roysam, B.

A. Can, C. V. Stewart, B. Roysam, and H. L. Tannenbaum, “A feature based, robust, hierarchical algorithm for registering pairs of images of the curved human retina,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 24, 347-364 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ryan, N.

N. Ryan, C. Heneghan, and P. de Chazal, “Registration of digital retinal images using landmark correspondence by expectation maximization,” Image Vision Comput. 22, 883-898(2004).
[CrossRef]

Scoles, D.

D. C. Gray, R. Wolfe, and B. P. Gee, D. Scoles, Y. Geng, B. D. Masella, A. Dubra, S. Luque, D. R. Williams, and W. H. Merigan, “In vivo imaging of the fine structure of rhodamine-labeled macaque retinal ganglion cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 49, 467-473 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Serrat, J.

D. Lloret, J. Serrat, A. M. Lopez, A. Soler, and J. J. Villaneuva, “Retinal image registration using creases as anatomical landmarks,” 15th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR'00) (IEEE Computer Society, 2000), vol. 3, pp. 3207-3210.

Shahidi, M.

Sharp, P. F.

K. A. Goatman, A. Manivannan, J. H. Hipwell, P. F. Sharp, N. Lois, and J. V. Forrester, “Automatic registration and averaging of ophthalmic autofluorescence images,” in Conference Proceedings in Medical Image Understanding and Analysis (MIUA) (BMVA, 2001), pp. 157-160.

Simmons, R. B.

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, M. B. Mellem-Kairala, and R. B. Simmons, “Improved contrast of subretinal structures using polarization analysis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4061-4068 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Soler, A.

D. Lloret, J. Serrat, A. M. Lopez, A. Soler, and J. J. Villaneuva, “Retinal image registration using creases as anatomical landmarks,” 15th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR'00) (IEEE Computer Society, 2000), vol. 3, pp. 3207-3210.

Song, H.

Stevenson, S. B.

S. B. Stevenson and A. Roorda, “Correcting for miniature eye movements in high resolution scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Proc. SPIE 5688A, 145-151 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, C. V.

A. Can, C. V. Stewart, B. Roysam, and H. L. Tannenbaum, “A feature based, robust, hierarchical algorithm for registering pairs of images of the curved human retina,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 24, 347-364 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Swaroop, A.

J. L. Duncan, Y. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. H. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, “High resolution imaging of foveal cones in patients with inherited retinal degenerations using adaptive optics.” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 48, 3283-3291 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tannenbaum, H. L.

A. Can, C. V. Stewart, B. Roysam, and H. L. Tannenbaum, “A feature based, robust, hierarchical algorithm for registering pairs of images of the curved human retina,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 24, 347-364 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Timberlake, G.

E. Peli, R. Augliere, and G. Timberlake, “Feature-based registration of retinal images,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. MI-6, 272-278 (1987).

Tiruveedhula, P.

Ustun, T. E.

Usui, M.

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, M. Oshako, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, “Imaging polarimetry in central serous chorioretinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 140, 1014-1019(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Venkateswaran, K.

Villaneuva, J. J.

D. Lloret, J. Serrat, A. M. Lopez, A. Soler, and J. J. Villaneuva, “Retinal image registration using creases as anatomical landmarks,” 15th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR'00) (IEEE Computer Society, 2000), vol. 3, pp. 3207-3210.

Vogel, C. R.

Vohnsen, B.

V. Nourrit, B. Vohnsen, and P. Artal, “Non-linear correction of eye movements for scanning laser ophthalmoscope imagery,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. , 48, E-Abstract 2765(2007).

B. Vohnsen, I. Iglesias, and P. Artal, “Directional light scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2606-2612(2005).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bueno and B. Vohnsen, “Polarimetric high-resolution confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Vision Res. 45, 3526-3534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Nourrit, B. Vohnsen, and P. Artal, “Blind deconvolution for high-resolution confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” J. Opt. A 7, 585-592 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Vohnsen, I. Iglesias, and P. Artal, “Directional imaging of the retinal cone mosaic,” Opt. Lett. 29, 968-970 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Vohnsen, I. Iglesias, and P. Artal, “Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope with adaptive optical wavefront correction,” Proc. SPIE 4964, 24-32 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wade, A. R.

Wanek, J. M.

Webb, R. H.

Weber, A.

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, M. Oshako, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, “Imaging polarimetry in central serous chorioretinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 140, 1014-1019(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weinreb, R. N.

White, M. A.

Williams, D. R.

D. C. Gray, R. Wolfe, and B. P. Gee, D. Scoles, Y. Geng, B. D. Masella, A. Dubra, S. Luque, D. R. Williams, and W. H. Merigan, “In vivo imaging of the fine structure of rhodamine-labeled macaque retinal ganglion cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 49, 467-473 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Wolfing, M. Chung, J. Carroll, A. Roorda, and D. R. Williams, “High-resolution retinal imaging of cone-rod dystrophy” Ophthalmol. Annu. 113 , 1014-1019 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wolfe, R.

D. C. Gray, R. Wolfe, and B. P. Gee, D. Scoles, Y. Geng, B. D. Masella, A. Dubra, S. Luque, D. R. Williams, and W. H. Merigan, “In vivo imaging of the fine structure of rhodamine-labeled macaque retinal ganglion cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 49, 467-473 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wolfing, J. I.

J. I. Wolfing, M. Chung, J. Carroll, A. Roorda, and D. R. Williams, “High-resolution retinal imaging of cone-rod dystrophy” Ophthalmol. Annu. 113 , 1014-1019 (2006).
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R. P. Woods, “Spatial transformation models” in Handbook of Medical Imaging: Processing and Analysis, I. Bankman, ed. (Academic, 2000), pp. 465-490.

Yang, Q.

Zhang, Y.

D. W. Arathorn, Q. Yang, C. R. Vogel, Y. Zhang, P. Tiruveedhula, and A. Roorda, “Retinally stabilized cone-targeted stimulus delivery,” Opt. Express 15, 13731-13744(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Duncan, Y. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. H. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, “High resolution imaging of foveal cones in patients with inherited retinal degenerations using adaptive optics.” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 48, 3283-3291 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Roorda, Y. Zhang, and J. L. Duncan, “High-resolution in vivo imaging of the RPE mosaic in eyes with retinal disease.” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 48, 2297-2303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

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L. G. Brown, “A survey of image registration techniques,” ACM Comput. Surv. 24, 325-376 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, M. Oshako, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, “Imaging polarimetry in central serous chorioretinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 140, 1014-1019(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

Y. F. Choong, F. Rakebrandt, R. V. North, and J. E. Morgan, “Acutance, an objective measure of retinal nerve fibre image clarity,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 87, 322-326 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

E. Peli, R. Augliere, and G. Timberlake, “Feature-based registration of retinal images,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. MI-6, 272-278 (1987).

IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. (1)

G. K. Matsopoulos, N. A. Mouravliansky, K. K. Delibasis, and K. S. Nikita, “Automatic registration of retinal images with global optimization techniques,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 3, 47-60 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (1)

A. Can, C. V. Stewart, B. Roysam, and H. L. Tannenbaum, “A feature based, robust, hierarchical algorithm for registering pairs of images of the curved human retina,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 24, 347-364 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Image Vision Comput. (1)

A. A. Goshtasby, “Image registration by local approximation methods,” Image Vision Comput. 6 ( 255-261 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Image Vision Comput. (1)

N. Ryan, C. Heneghan, and P. de Chazal, “Registration of digital retinal images using landmark correspondence by expectation maximization,” Image Vision Comput. 22, 883-898(2004).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (5)

J. L. Duncan, Y. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. H. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, “High resolution imaging of foveal cones in patients with inherited retinal degenerations using adaptive optics.” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 48, 3283-3291 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Roorda, Y. Zhang, and J. L. Duncan, “High-resolution in vivo imaging of the RPE mosaic in eyes with retinal disease.” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 48, 2297-2303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Gray, R. Wolfe, and B. P. Gee, D. Scoles, Y. Geng, B. D. Masella, A. Dubra, S. Luque, D. R. Williams, and W. H. Merigan, “In vivo imaging of the fine structure of rhodamine-labeled macaque retinal ganglion cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 49, 467-473 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Nourrit, B. Vohnsen, and P. Artal, “Non-linear correction of eye movements for scanning laser ophthalmoscope imagery,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. , 48, E-Abstract 2765(2007).

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, M. B. Mellem-Kairala, and R. B. Simmons, “Improved contrast of subretinal structures using polarization analysis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4061-4068 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (1)

V. Nourrit, B. Vohnsen, and P. Artal, “Blind deconvolution for high-resolution confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” J. Opt. A 7, 585-592 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (6)

Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. (1)

J. M. Bueno and J. W. Jaronski, “Spatially resolved polarization properties for in vitro corneas,” Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 21384-392 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmol. Annu. (1)

J. I. Wolfing, M. Chung, J. Carroll, A. Roorda, and D. R. Williams, “High-resolution retinal imaging of cone-rod dystrophy” Ophthalmol. Annu. 113 , 1014-1019 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

A. Ambirajan and D. C. Look, “Optimum angles for a polarimeter: part I,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1651-1655 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Pattern Recognition (1)

A. A. Goshtasby, “Piecewise linear mapping functions for image registration,” Pattern Recognition 19, 459-66 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

S. B. Stevenson and A. Roorda, “Correcting for miniature eye movements in high resolution scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Proc. SPIE 5688A, 145-151 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Vohnsen, I. Iglesias, and P. Artal, “Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope with adaptive optical wavefront correction,” Proc. SPIE 4964, 24-32 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res. (2)

J. M. Bueno and B. Vohnsen, “Polarimetric high-resolution confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Vision Res. 45, 3526-3534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Deubel and B. Bridgeman, “Fourth Purkinje image signals reveal eye-lens deviations and retinal image distortions during saccades,” Vision Res. 35, 529-538 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (8)

A. A. Goshtasby, 2D and 3D Image Registration for Medical, Remote Sensing, and Industrial Applications (Wiley, 2005).

J. B. Mulligan, “Recovery of motion parameters from distortion in scanned images,” presented at NASA Image Registration Workshop (IRW97), NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 20-21 November 1997.

W. E. Hart and M. H. Goldbaum, “Registering retinal images using automatically selected control point pairs,” IEEE International Conference Image Processing, 1994. Proceedings. ICIP-94 (IEEE, 1994), vol. 3, pp. 576-580.
[CrossRef]

D. Lloret, J. Serrat, A. M. Lopez, A. Soler, and J. J. Villaneuva, “Retinal image registration using creases as anatomical landmarks,” 15th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR'00) (IEEE Computer Society, 2000), vol. 3, pp. 3207-3210.

R. P. Woods, “Spatial transformation models” in Handbook of Medical Imaging: Processing and Analysis, I. Bankman, ed. (Academic, 2000), pp. 465-490.

R. A. Chipman, “Polarimetry,” in Handbook of Optics, 2nd ed., M.Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1995), Vol. 2, chap. 22.

K. A. Goatman, A. Manivannan, J. H. Hipwell, P. F. Sharp, N. Lois, and J. V. Forrester, “Automatic registration and averaging of ophthalmic autofluorescence images,” in Conference Proceedings in Medical Image Understanding and Analysis (MIUA) (BMVA, 2001), pp. 157-160.

George K. Matsopoulos, Konstantinos K. Delibasis, and Nicolaos A. Mouravliansky, “Medical image registration and fusion techniques: a review,” in Advanced Signal Processing Handbook: Theory and Implementation for Radar, Sonar, and Medical Imaging Real Time Systems, S. Stergiopoulos, ed. (CRC Press, 2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the procedure followed to compute the elements of the Stokes vector and the degree of polarization in SLO images.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Example of the distribution of the CPs in a retinal image which subtends 1 ° (left). The crossed spots represent the positions of the different CPs selected. The large size of the spot is for illustration only. In practice, the position of the landmark is recorded with pixel precision. An SLO image, where no clear features are to be used as CPs in the encircled area, is depicted in the right-hand panel. This can significantly affect the result of the registration.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) 5-frame registered image, using the function F3.2 and (a) 7 CPs or (b) 16 CPs.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Direct sum of five frames; (b) registration with F0; (c) registration with F1 and nine CPs. Transformations F2–F5 did not provide any improvement in this case.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Direct sum of 5 frames. Registration with functions (b) F0 and (c) F1 with 16 CPs. The areas delimited by the plain or dashed white rectangles are represented at a higher magnification in Fig. 6.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a), (c) Details of Fig. 5b; (b), (d) details of Fig. 5c.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Registered image (a) using 5 frames and function F0 or (b) using F5 and 16 CPs.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Polarimetric images obtained with standard frame correlation (bottom row) and the nonlinear registration method (upper row). Images subtend approximately 0.8 ° , and they are shown in the same order as those in [21].

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Spatially resolved Stokes vector elements ( S 0 , S 1 , S 2 , and S 3 ) computed from images in Fig. 8.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Spatially resolved degree of polarization computed from the polarimetric SLO images shown in Fig. 9: (a) from bottom row, (b) from upper row.

Equations (1)

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DOP = ( S 1 2 + S 2 2 + S 3 2 ) S 0 1 / 2 .

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