Abstract

A new cavity for pyrgeometer characterizations has been built at the Infrared Radiometry Section of the World Radiation Center (WRC-IRS) at PMOD/WRC. The calculated effective emissivity of 0.99993±0.00033 was obtained from Monte Carlo simulations taking into account the geometry and the measured temperature distributions of the cavity. The cavity is operated in a temperature range of 30°C to +30°C and is initially flushed with nitrogen to reduce the relative humidity in the cavity. The estimated uncertainties of retrieved pyrgeometer parameters k1, k2, and k3 are ±0.024, ±0.0008, and ±0.03, respectively. The relative uncertainty of pyrgeometer sensitivity C is 0.8%. The comparison with the cavity used since 1995 at PMOD/WRC gave average differences of 0.005, 0.00026, and 0.08 for k1, k2, and k3, respectively. The pyrgeometer sensitivity retrieved with the new cavity is on average 1.0% higher than with the original cavity.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. Albrecht and S. K. Cox, “Procedures for improving pyrgeometer performance,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 188-197 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, and Ch. Betz, “Characterization of pyrgeometers and the accuracy of atmospheric long-wave radiation measurements,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1598-1605 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. W. Fairall, P. O. G. Persson, E. F. Bradley, R. E. Payne, and S. P. Anderson, “A new look at calibration and use of Eppley precision infrared radiometers. Part I: Theory and application,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 1229-1242 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. E. Payne and S. P. Anderson, “A new look at calibration and use of Eppley precision infrared radiometers. Part II: Calibration and use of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution improved metrology precision infrared radiometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 16, 741 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. I. Reda, J. R. Hickey, T. Stoffel, and D. Meyers, “Pyrgeometer calibration at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL),” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 64, 1623-1629 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Commission for Instruments and Methods of Observations (CIMO)Abridged final report with resolutions and recommendations Geneva, 7-14 December, WMO-No. 1019 (2006).
  7. J. Gröbner and A. Los, “Laboratory calibration of pyrgeometers with known spectral responsivities,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7419-7425 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. V. Prokhorov and L. M. Hanssen, “Effective emissivity of cylindrical cavity with inclined bottom: I. Isothermal cavity,” Metrologia 41, 421-431 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. http://www.julabo.com/
  10. http://www.lordfulfillment.com/upload/DS3016.pdf
  11. R. U. Datla, K. Stock, A. C. Parr, C. C. Hoyt, P. J. Miller, and P. V. Foukal, “Characterization of an absolute cryogenic radiometer as a standard detector for radiant-power measurements,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7219-7225 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, and A. W. Strawa, “The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687-696 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Betz, “Entwicklung eines Eichstrahlers für Pyrgeometer,” Diplomarbeit (Institut für Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen (IVD), 1992).

2007 (1)

2004 (1)

A. V. Prokhorov and L. M. Hanssen, “Effective emissivity of cylindrical cavity with inclined bottom: I. Isothermal cavity,” Metrologia 41, 421-431 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

I. Reda, J. R. Hickey, T. Stoffel, and D. Meyers, “Pyrgeometer calibration at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL),” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 64, 1623-1629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

R. E. Payne and S. P. Anderson, “A new look at calibration and use of Eppley precision infrared radiometers. Part II: Calibration and use of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution improved metrology precision infrared radiometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 16, 741 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

C. W. Fairall, P. O. G. Persson, E. F. Bradley, R. E. Payne, and S. P. Anderson, “A new look at calibration and use of Eppley precision infrared radiometers. Part I: Theory and application,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 1229-1242 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, and A. W. Strawa, “The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687-696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1992 (1)

1977 (1)

B. Albrecht and S. K. Cox, “Procedures for improving pyrgeometer performance,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 188-197 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Albrecht, B.

B. Albrecht and S. K. Cox, “Procedures for improving pyrgeometer performance,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 188-197 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, S. P.

R. E. Payne and S. P. Anderson, “A new look at calibration and use of Eppley precision infrared radiometers. Part II: Calibration and use of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution improved metrology precision infrared radiometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 16, 741 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Fairall, P. O. G. Persson, E. F. Bradley, R. E. Payne, and S. P. Anderson, “A new look at calibration and use of Eppley precision infrared radiometers. Part I: Theory and application,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 1229-1242 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Augustine, J.

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, and A. W. Strawa, “The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687-696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bender, S.

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, and A. W. Strawa, “The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687-696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Betz, C.

C. Betz, “Entwicklung eines Eichstrahlers für Pyrgeometer,” Diplomarbeit (Institut für Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen (IVD), 1992).

Betz, Ch.

Bradley, E. F.

C. W. Fairall, P. O. G. Persson, E. F. Bradley, R. E. Payne, and S. P. Anderson, “A new look at calibration and use of Eppley precision infrared radiometers. Part I: Theory and application,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 1229-1242 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cox, S. K.

B. Albrecht and S. K. Cox, “Procedures for improving pyrgeometer performance,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 188-197 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Datla, R. U.

Dehne, K.

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, and A. W. Strawa, “The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687-696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

DeLuisi, J.

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, and A. W. Strawa, “The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687-696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dutton, E. G.

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, and A. W. Strawa, “The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687-696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fairall, C. W.

C. W. Fairall, P. O. G. Persson, E. F. Bradley, R. E. Payne, and S. P. Anderson, “A new look at calibration and use of Eppley precision infrared radiometers. Part I: Theory and application,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 1229-1242 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Foot, J. S.

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, and A. W. Strawa, “The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687-696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Forgan, B.

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, and A. W. Strawa, “The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687-696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Foukal, P. V.

Fröhlich, C.

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, and A. W. Strawa, “The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687-696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, and Ch. Betz, “Characterization of pyrgeometers and the accuracy of atmospheric long-wave radiation measurements,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1598-1605 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gröbner, J.

Hanssen, L. M.

A. V. Prokhorov and L. M. Hanssen, “Effective emissivity of cylindrical cavity with inclined bottom: I. Isothermal cavity,” Metrologia 41, 421-431 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hickey, J.

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, and A. W. Strawa, “The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687-696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hickey, J. R.

I. Reda, J. R. Hickey, T. Stoffel, and D. Meyers, “Pyrgeometer calibration at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL),” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 64, 1623-1629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hoyt, C. C.

Los, A.

Love, S. P.

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, and A. W. Strawa, “The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687-696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McArthur, B.

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, and A. W. Strawa, “The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687-696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Meyers, D.

I. Reda, J. R. Hickey, T. Stoffel, and D. Meyers, “Pyrgeometer calibration at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL),” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 64, 1623-1629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Miller, P. J.

Nelson, D.

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, and A. W. Strawa, “The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687-696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, P.

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, and A. W. Strawa, “The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687-696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ohmura, A.

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, and A. W. Strawa, “The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687-696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Parr, A. C.

Payne, R. E.

R. E. Payne and S. P. Anderson, “A new look at calibration and use of Eppley precision infrared radiometers. Part II: Calibration and use of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution improved metrology precision infrared radiometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 16, 741 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Fairall, P. O. G. Persson, E. F. Bradley, R. E. Payne, and S. P. Anderson, “A new look at calibration and use of Eppley precision infrared radiometers. Part I: Theory and application,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 1229-1242 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Persson, P. O. G.

C. W. Fairall, P. O. G. Persson, E. F. Bradley, R. E. Payne, and S. P. Anderson, “A new look at calibration and use of Eppley precision infrared radiometers. Part I: Theory and application,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 1229-1242 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Philipona, R.

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, and A. W. Strawa, “The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687-696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, and Ch. Betz, “Characterization of pyrgeometers and the accuracy of atmospheric long-wave radiation measurements,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1598-1605 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prokhorov, A. V.

A. V. Prokhorov and L. M. Hanssen, “Effective emissivity of cylindrical cavity with inclined bottom: I. Isothermal cavity,” Metrologia 41, 421-431 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Reda, I.

I. Reda, J. R. Hickey, T. Stoffel, and D. Meyers, “Pyrgeometer calibration at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL),” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 64, 1623-1629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Seymour, J. H.

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, and A. W. Strawa, “The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687-696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shiobara, M.

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, and A. W. Strawa, “The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687-696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stock, K.

Stoffel, T.

I. Reda, J. R. Hickey, T. Stoffel, and D. Meyers, “Pyrgeometer calibration at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL),” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 64, 1623-1629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Strawa, A. W.

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, and A. W. Strawa, “The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687-696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Valero, F. P. J.

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, and A. W. Strawa, “The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687-696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Appl. Meteorol. (1)

B. Albrecht and S. K. Cox, “Procedures for improving pyrgeometer performance,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 188-197 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. (1)

R. E. Payne and S. P. Anderson, “A new look at calibration and use of Eppley precision infrared radiometers. Part II: Calibration and use of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution improved metrology precision infrared radiometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 16, 741 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (2)

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, and A. W. Strawa, “The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687-696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Fairall, P. O. G. Persson, E. F. Bradley, R. E. Payne, and S. P. Anderson, “A new look at calibration and use of Eppley precision infrared radiometers. Part I: Theory and application,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 1229-1242 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. (1)

I. Reda, J. R. Hickey, T. Stoffel, and D. Meyers, “Pyrgeometer calibration at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL),” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 64, 1623-1629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia (1)

A. V. Prokhorov and L. M. Hanssen, “Effective emissivity of cylindrical cavity with inclined bottom: I. Isothermal cavity,” Metrologia 41, 421-431 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

http://www.julabo.com/

http://www.lordfulfillment.com/upload/DS3016.pdf

Commission for Instruments and Methods of Observations (CIMO)Abridged final report with resolutions and recommendations Geneva, 7-14 December, WMO-No. 1019 (2006).

C. Betz, “Entwicklung eines Eichstrahlers für Pyrgeometer,” Diplomarbeit (Institut für Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen (IVD), 1992).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Technical layout of the tilted bottom cavity BB2007. The positions of the seven thermistors are indicated by the numbers T1 to T7. (1) and (9) Polystyrol sheet; (2) temperature regulated plate to control the pyrgeometer temperature; (3) three stainless steel supports hold the cavity; (4) exchangeable interface plate made of PA Ertalon, which is custom-made for each pyrgeometer type; (5) humidity sensor HIH-3602; (6) precooled nitrogen line IN; (7) aeroglaze Z302-coated black inner surface of the cavity; (8) wooden enclosure; (10) polystyrol pellets; (11) nitrogen line OUT; (12) copper tube wound around the cavity oil to regulate the cavity temperature [flow direction OUT (top)]; (13) copper tube [flow direction IN (bottom)].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Temperature gradients observed between the coated inner surface of the cavity (measured with a Fluke 2180A thermometer) and the cavity thermistors with respect to the difference in temperature between the cavity and the laboratory. The measurements are shown as circles, and the dashed line is the best linear fit, with an offset of 0.01 and a gradient of 0.0015 .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Temperature measurements of the seven thermistors of BB2007, shown as temperature differences relative to the effective cavity temperature (average of all thermistors). The grid lines on the x axis are plotted every 0.1 K . Full scale is ± 0.2 K . Ambient temperature is about + 15 ° C .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measurement cycle of an Eppley PIR pyrgeometer in cavity BB2007. The upper figure shows the temperatures in degree Celsius of the cavity (dashed line) and of the pyrgeometer body (thick line) and dome (dotted line) temperatures versus time. The bottom figure shows the thermopile signal in mV. The stable temperature plateaus used for the retrieval of the pyrgeometer coefficients are shown as thick black blocks in the lower figure.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Residuals in W m 2 of the regression of the measurements shown in Fig. 4 using Eq. (1).

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Results of Monte Carlo Simulations Yielding Effective Emissivity ϵ e , Cavity Exitance E, and Radiation Temperature T R a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Uncertainty Estimate of Pyrgeometer Sensitivity C a

Tables Icon

Table 3 Pyrgeometer Characterizations wth BB1995 and BB2007 a

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E = U C ( 1 + k 1 σ T b 3 ) + k 2 σ T b 4 k 3 σ ( T d 4 T b 4 ) ,
E = ϵ e ( T Ref ) σ T Ref 4 = σ T R 4 ,
T Ref = 1 7 i = 1 7 T i .
C = U ( 1 + k 1 σ T b 3 ) E k 2 σ T b 4 + k 3 σ ( T d 4 T b 4 ) .

Metrics