Abstract

The nonlinearity characteristics of a commercially available deuterated L-alanine-doped triglycine sulfate (DLATGS) pyroelectric detector were experimentally investigated at high levels of illumination using the National Physical Laboratory detector linearity characterization facility. The detector was shown to exhibit a superlinear response at high levels of illumination. Moreover, the linearity factor was shown to depend on the area of the spot on the detector active area being illuminated, i.e., the incident irradiance. Possible reasons for the observed behavior are proposed and discussed. The temperature coefficient of the response of the DLATGS pyroelectric detector was measured and found to be higher than +2.5%°C1. This large and positive temperature coefficient of response is the most likely cause of the superlinear behavior of the DLATGS pyroelectric detector.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Theocharous, J. Ishii, and N. P. Fox, “Absolute linearity measurements on HgCdTe detectors in the infrared,” Appl. Opt. 43, 4182-4188 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. E. Theocharous, “Absolute linearity measurements on PbS detectors in the infrared,” Appl. Opt. 45, 2381-2386 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. Theocharous, “Absolute linearity measurements on a PbSe detector in the infrared,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 50, 63-69(2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. Theocharous and J. R. Birch, “Detectors for mid- and far-infrared spectrometry: selection and use,” in Handbook of Vibrational Spectroscopy, J. M. Chalmers and P. R. Griffiths, eds. (Wiley, 2002), pp 349-367.
  5. R. L. Richardson, H. Yang, and P. R. Griffiths, “Evaluation of a correction for photometric errors in FT-IR spectrometry introduced by the nonlinear detector response,” Appl. Spectrosc. 52, 565-571 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. L. Richardson, H. Yang, and P. R. Griffiths, “Effects of detector nonlinearity on spectra measured on three commercial FT-IR spectrometers,” Appl. Spectrosc. 52, 572-578 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. The photodetector is actually illuminated by approximately 50% of the output source because of the attenuation introduced by the beam splitter.
  8. K. D. Mielenz and K. L. Eckerle, “Spectrophotometer linearity testing using the double aperture method,” Appl. Opt. 11, 2294-2303 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. E. Theocharous, “Reply to comments on 'Absolute linearity measurements on a PbS detector in the infrared',” Appl. Opt. 46, 6495-6497 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. The identification of certain commercial equipment in this paper does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the NPL nor does it imply that the equipment identified is the best available for the purpose.
  11. J. Lehman, E. Theocharous, G. Eppeldauer, and C. Pannel, “Gold-black coatings for freestanding pyroelectric detectors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 916-922 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. Theocharous, “Absolute linearity characterization of lock-in amplifiers,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1090-1096 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. E. Theocharous, F. J. J. Clarke, L. J. Rogers, and N. P. Fox, “Latest measurement techniques at NPL for the characterization of infrared detectors and materials,” Proc. SPIE 5209, 228-239 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. When the linearity factor of a photodetection system is higher than unity, then the photodetection system is said to exhibit a superlinear response behavior.
  15. The DC equivalent irradiance is the irradiance incident on the detector active area when the mechanical chopper is removed from the optical beam.
  16. E. Theocharous, “The establishment of the NPL infrared relative spectral responsivity scale using cavity pyroelectric detectors,” Metrologia 43, S115-S119 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. The temperature coefficient of response of a thin-film photoconductive PbS detector was measured for radiation of 1.6 and 2.2 μm wavelength to be −4.04% °C−1 and −3.86% °C−1, respectively, for a detector temperature of 0 °C (see ).
  18. E. Theocharous and O. J. Theocharous, “Practical limit of the accuracy of radiometric measurements using HgCdTe detectors,” Appl. Opt. 45, 7753-7759 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. B. Burton, Selex Sensors and Airborne Systems Infra Red Ltd., Southampton, UK (personal communication, 2007).

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

E. Theocharous, “Reply to comments on 'Absolute linearity measurements on a PbS detector in the infrared',” Appl. Opt. 46, 6495-6497 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Theocharous, “Absolute linearity measurements on a PbSe detector in the infrared,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 50, 63-69(2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

J. Lehman, E. Theocharous, G. Eppeldauer, and C. Pannel, “Gold-black coatings for freestanding pyroelectric detectors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 916-922 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Theocharous, F. J. J. Clarke, L. J. Rogers, and N. P. Fox, “Latest measurement techniques at NPL for the characterization of infrared detectors and materials,” Proc. SPIE 5209, 228-239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

1972 (1)

Birch, J. R.

E. Theocharous and J. R. Birch, “Detectors for mid- and far-infrared spectrometry: selection and use,” in Handbook of Vibrational Spectroscopy, J. M. Chalmers and P. R. Griffiths, eds. (Wiley, 2002), pp 349-367.

Burton, B.

B. Burton, Selex Sensors and Airborne Systems Infra Red Ltd., Southampton, UK (personal communication, 2007).

Clarke, F. J. J.

E. Theocharous, F. J. J. Clarke, L. J. Rogers, and N. P. Fox, “Latest measurement techniques at NPL for the characterization of infrared detectors and materials,” Proc. SPIE 5209, 228-239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eckerle, K. L.

Eppeldauer, G.

J. Lehman, E. Theocharous, G. Eppeldauer, and C. Pannel, “Gold-black coatings for freestanding pyroelectric detectors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 916-922 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fox, N. P.

E. Theocharous, J. Ishii, and N. P. Fox, “Absolute linearity measurements on HgCdTe detectors in the infrared,” Appl. Opt. 43, 4182-4188 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Theocharous, F. J. J. Clarke, L. J. Rogers, and N. P. Fox, “Latest measurement techniques at NPL for the characterization of infrared detectors and materials,” Proc. SPIE 5209, 228-239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Griffiths, P. R.

Ishii, J.

Lehman, J.

J. Lehman, E. Theocharous, G. Eppeldauer, and C. Pannel, “Gold-black coatings for freestanding pyroelectric detectors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 916-922 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mielenz, K. D.

Pannel, C.

J. Lehman, E. Theocharous, G. Eppeldauer, and C. Pannel, “Gold-black coatings for freestanding pyroelectric detectors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 916-922 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, R. L.

Rogers, L. J.

E. Theocharous, F. J. J. Clarke, L. J. Rogers, and N. P. Fox, “Latest measurement techniques at NPL for the characterization of infrared detectors and materials,” Proc. SPIE 5209, 228-239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Theocharous, E.

E. Theocharous, “Absolute linearity characterization of lock-in amplifiers,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1090-1096 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Theocharous, “Reply to comments on 'Absolute linearity measurements on a PbS detector in the infrared',” Appl. Opt. 46, 6495-6497 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Theocharous, “Absolute linearity measurements on a PbSe detector in the infrared,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 50, 63-69(2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Theocharous and O. J. Theocharous, “Practical limit of the accuracy of radiometric measurements using HgCdTe detectors,” Appl. Opt. 45, 7753-7759 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Theocharous, “The establishment of the NPL infrared relative spectral responsivity scale using cavity pyroelectric detectors,” Metrologia 43, S115-S119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Theocharous, “Absolute linearity measurements on PbS detectors in the infrared,” Appl. Opt. 45, 2381-2386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Theocharous, J. Ishii, and N. P. Fox, “Absolute linearity measurements on HgCdTe detectors in the infrared,” Appl. Opt. 43, 4182-4188 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lehman, E. Theocharous, G. Eppeldauer, and C. Pannel, “Gold-black coatings for freestanding pyroelectric detectors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 916-922 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Theocharous, F. J. J. Clarke, L. J. Rogers, and N. P. Fox, “Latest measurement techniques at NPL for the characterization of infrared detectors and materials,” Proc. SPIE 5209, 228-239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Theocharous and J. R. Birch, “Detectors for mid- and far-infrared spectrometry: selection and use,” in Handbook of Vibrational Spectroscopy, J. M. Chalmers and P. R. Griffiths, eds. (Wiley, 2002), pp 349-367.

Theocharous, O. J.

Yang, H.

Appl. Opt. (6)

Appl. Spectrosc. (2)

Infrared Phys. Technol. (1)

E. Theocharous, “Absolute linearity measurements on a PbSe detector in the infrared,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 50, 63-69(2007).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. Lehman, E. Theocharous, G. Eppeldauer, and C. Pannel, “Gold-black coatings for freestanding pyroelectric detectors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 916-922 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia (1)

E. Theocharous, “The establishment of the NPL infrared relative spectral responsivity scale using cavity pyroelectric detectors,” Metrologia 43, S115-S119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

E. Theocharous, F. J. J. Clarke, L. J. Rogers, and N. P. Fox, “Latest measurement techniques at NPL for the characterization of infrared detectors and materials,” Proc. SPIE 5209, 228-239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

When the linearity factor of a photodetection system is higher than unity, then the photodetection system is said to exhibit a superlinear response behavior.

The DC equivalent irradiance is the irradiance incident on the detector active area when the mechanical chopper is removed from the optical beam.

The temperature coefficient of response of a thin-film photoconductive PbS detector was measured for radiation of 1.6 and 2.2 μm wavelength to be −4.04% °C−1 and −3.86% °C−1, respectively, for a detector temperature of 0 °C (see ).

B. Burton, Selex Sensors and Airborne Systems Infra Red Ltd., Southampton, UK (personal communication, 2007).

E. Theocharous and J. R. Birch, “Detectors for mid- and far-infrared spectrometry: selection and use,” in Handbook of Vibrational Spectroscopy, J. M. Chalmers and P. R. Griffiths, eds. (Wiley, 2002), pp 349-367.

The photodetector is actually illuminated by approximately 50% of the output source because of the attenuation introduced by the beam splitter.

The identification of certain commercial equipment in this paper does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the NPL nor does it imply that the equipment identified is the best available for the purpose.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the layout of the NPL linearity measurement facility.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Linearity factor of the DLATGS pyroelectric detector as a function of the lock-in amplifier output voltage for different diameter spots illuminating the active area of the detector. Each point shown in this and subsequent figures represents the mean of eight measurements, while the standard deviation of the same measurements is shown as error bars.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Linearity factor of the DLATGS pyroelectric detector as a function of incident irradiance for spots of different diameters illuminating the active area of the detector.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized responsivity of the DLATGS pyroelectric detector at different casing temperatures with quadratic fit.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spatial uniformity of response of the DLATGS pyroelectric detector using an 0.18 mm diameter probe spot.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Slope of the plot generated when the central depression was not illuminated is 34% higher than the slope of the plot when the depression was illuminated.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Relative spectral responsivity of the DLATGS pyroelectric detector, normalized at 1 μm .

Equations (1)

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L ( V A + B ) = V A + B ( V A + V B ) ,

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