Abstract

In the context of the Large Binocular Telescope project, we present the results of force actuator calibrations performed on an adaptive secondary prototype called P45, a thin deformable glass with magnets glued onto its back. Electromagnetic actuators, controlled in a closed loop with a system of internal metrology based on capacitive sensors, continuously deform its shape to correct the distortions of the wavefront. Calibrations of the force actuators are needed because of the differences between driven forces and measured forces. We describe the calibration procedures and the results, obtained with errors of less than 1.5%.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. Roddier, Adaptive Optics in Astronomy (Cambridge University Press, 1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Divoux, O. Cugat, G. Reyne, J. Boussey-Said, and S. Basrour, “Deformable mirror using magnetic membranes: application to adaptive optics in astrophysics,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 34, 3564-3567 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Brousseau, E. F. Borra, H. Jean-Ruel, J. Parent, and A. Ritcey, “A magnetic liquid deformable mirror for high stroke and low order axially symmetrical aberrations,” Opt. Express 14, 11486-11493 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. E. J. Fernandez, L. Vabre, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, B. Povazay, and W. Drexler, “Adaptive optics with a magnetic deformable mirror: applications in the human eye,” Opt. Express 14, 8900-8917 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. Salinari, C. del Vecchio, and V. Biliotti, “A study of an adaptive secondary mirror,” in Active and Adaptive Optics, F.Merkle, ed., Vol. 48 of Proceedings of the International Commission for Optics 16--Satellite Conference, pp. 247-253 (ICO, 1993).
  6. A. Riccardi, G. Brusa, C. del Vecchio, R. Baisi, M. Andrighettoni, D. Gallieni, F. Zocchi, M. Lloyd-Hart, H. M. Martin, and F. Wildi, “The adaptive secondary mirror for the 6.5 conversion of the Multiple Mirror Telescope,” in Vol. 58 of 2002 European Southern Observatory Conference and Workshop Proceedings, E.Vernet, R.Ragazzoni, S.Esposito, and N.Hubin, eds., (ESO, 2002), pp. 55-64.
  7. G. Brusa, A. Riccardi, F. P. Wildi, M. Lloyd-Hart, H. M. Martin, R. Allen, D. L. Fisher, D. L. Miller, R. Biasi, D. Gallieni, and F. Zocchi, “MMT adaptive secondary: first AO closed-loop results,” Proc. SPIE 5169, 26-36 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Riccardi, G. Brusa, P. Salinari, D. Gallieni, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, and H. M. Martin, “Adaptive secondary mirrors for the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 721-732 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Riccardi, G. Brusa, M. Xompero, D. Zanotti, C. del Vecchio, P. Salinari, P. Ranfagni, D. Gallieni, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, S. Miller, and P. Mantegazza, “The adaptive secondary mirrors for the Large Binocular Telescope: a progress report,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 1564-1571 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Riccardi, M. Xompero, and L. Busoni, “Fitting error analysis for the VLT deformable secondary mirror,” Proc. SPIE . 6272, 627240 (2006).
  11. C. del Vecchio, “Aluminum reference plate, heat sink, and actuator design for an adaptive secondary mirror,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 839-849 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C: The Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge University Press, 1992).

2006 (3)

2004 (1)

A. Riccardi, G. Brusa, M. Xompero, D. Zanotti, C. del Vecchio, P. Salinari, P. Ranfagni, D. Gallieni, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, S. Miller, and P. Mantegazza, “The adaptive secondary mirrors for the Large Binocular Telescope: a progress report,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 1564-1571 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

G. Brusa, A. Riccardi, F. P. Wildi, M. Lloyd-Hart, H. M. Martin, R. Allen, D. L. Fisher, D. L. Miller, R. Biasi, D. Gallieni, and F. Zocchi, “MMT adaptive secondary: first AO closed-loop results,” Proc. SPIE 5169, 26-36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Riccardi, G. Brusa, P. Salinari, D. Gallieni, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, and H. M. Martin, “Adaptive secondary mirrors for the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 721-732 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

C. del Vecchio, “Aluminum reference plate, heat sink, and actuator design for an adaptive secondary mirror,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 839-849 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Divoux, O. Cugat, G. Reyne, J. Boussey-Said, and S. Basrour, “Deformable mirror using magnetic membranes: application to adaptive optics in astrophysics,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 34, 3564-3567 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Allen, R.

G. Brusa, A. Riccardi, F. P. Wildi, M. Lloyd-Hart, H. M. Martin, R. Allen, D. L. Fisher, D. L. Miller, R. Biasi, D. Gallieni, and F. Zocchi, “MMT adaptive secondary: first AO closed-loop results,” Proc. SPIE 5169, 26-36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Andrighettoni, M.

A. Riccardi, G. Brusa, M. Xompero, D. Zanotti, C. del Vecchio, P. Salinari, P. Ranfagni, D. Gallieni, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, S. Miller, and P. Mantegazza, “The adaptive secondary mirrors for the Large Binocular Telescope: a progress report,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 1564-1571 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Riccardi, G. Brusa, P. Salinari, D. Gallieni, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, and H. M. Martin, “Adaptive secondary mirrors for the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 721-732 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Riccardi, G. Brusa, C. del Vecchio, R. Baisi, M. Andrighettoni, D. Gallieni, F. Zocchi, M. Lloyd-Hart, H. M. Martin, and F. Wildi, “The adaptive secondary mirror for the 6.5 conversion of the Multiple Mirror Telescope,” in Vol. 58 of 2002 European Southern Observatory Conference and Workshop Proceedings, E.Vernet, R.Ragazzoni, S.Esposito, and N.Hubin, eds., (ESO, 2002), pp. 55-64.

Baisi, R.

A. Riccardi, G. Brusa, C. del Vecchio, R. Baisi, M. Andrighettoni, D. Gallieni, F. Zocchi, M. Lloyd-Hart, H. M. Martin, and F. Wildi, “The adaptive secondary mirror for the 6.5 conversion of the Multiple Mirror Telescope,” in Vol. 58 of 2002 European Southern Observatory Conference and Workshop Proceedings, E.Vernet, R.Ragazzoni, S.Esposito, and N.Hubin, eds., (ESO, 2002), pp. 55-64.

Basrour, S.

C. Divoux, O. Cugat, G. Reyne, J. Boussey-Said, and S. Basrour, “Deformable mirror using magnetic membranes: application to adaptive optics in astrophysics,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 34, 3564-3567 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Biasi, R.

A. Riccardi, G. Brusa, M. Xompero, D. Zanotti, C. del Vecchio, P. Salinari, P. Ranfagni, D. Gallieni, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, S. Miller, and P. Mantegazza, “The adaptive secondary mirrors for the Large Binocular Telescope: a progress report,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 1564-1571 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Brusa, A. Riccardi, F. P. Wildi, M. Lloyd-Hart, H. M. Martin, R. Allen, D. L. Fisher, D. L. Miller, R. Biasi, D. Gallieni, and F. Zocchi, “MMT adaptive secondary: first AO closed-loop results,” Proc. SPIE 5169, 26-36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Riccardi, G. Brusa, P. Salinari, D. Gallieni, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, and H. M. Martin, “Adaptive secondary mirrors for the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 721-732 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Biliotti, V.

P. Salinari, C. del Vecchio, and V. Biliotti, “A study of an adaptive secondary mirror,” in Active and Adaptive Optics, F.Merkle, ed., Vol. 48 of Proceedings of the International Commission for Optics 16--Satellite Conference, pp. 247-253 (ICO, 1993).

Borra, E. F.

Boussey-Said, J.

C. Divoux, O. Cugat, G. Reyne, J. Boussey-Said, and S. Basrour, “Deformable mirror using magnetic membranes: application to adaptive optics in astrophysics,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 34, 3564-3567 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brousseau, D.

Brusa, G.

A. Riccardi, G. Brusa, M. Xompero, D. Zanotti, C. del Vecchio, P. Salinari, P. Ranfagni, D. Gallieni, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, S. Miller, and P. Mantegazza, “The adaptive secondary mirrors for the Large Binocular Telescope: a progress report,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 1564-1571 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Riccardi, G. Brusa, P. Salinari, D. Gallieni, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, and H. M. Martin, “Adaptive secondary mirrors for the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 721-732 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Brusa, A. Riccardi, F. P. Wildi, M. Lloyd-Hart, H. M. Martin, R. Allen, D. L. Fisher, D. L. Miller, R. Biasi, D. Gallieni, and F. Zocchi, “MMT adaptive secondary: first AO closed-loop results,” Proc. SPIE 5169, 26-36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Riccardi, G. Brusa, C. del Vecchio, R. Baisi, M. Andrighettoni, D. Gallieni, F. Zocchi, M. Lloyd-Hart, H. M. Martin, and F. Wildi, “The adaptive secondary mirror for the 6.5 conversion of the Multiple Mirror Telescope,” in Vol. 58 of 2002 European Southern Observatory Conference and Workshop Proceedings, E.Vernet, R.Ragazzoni, S.Esposito, and N.Hubin, eds., (ESO, 2002), pp. 55-64.

Busoni, L.

A. Riccardi, M. Xompero, and L. Busoni, “Fitting error analysis for the VLT deformable secondary mirror,” Proc. SPIE . 6272, 627240 (2006).

Cugat, O.

C. Divoux, O. Cugat, G. Reyne, J. Boussey-Said, and S. Basrour, “Deformable mirror using magnetic membranes: application to adaptive optics in astrophysics,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 34, 3564-3567 (1998).
[CrossRef]

del Vecchio, C.

A. Riccardi, G. Brusa, M. Xompero, D. Zanotti, C. del Vecchio, P. Salinari, P. Ranfagni, D. Gallieni, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, S. Miller, and P. Mantegazza, “The adaptive secondary mirrors for the Large Binocular Telescope: a progress report,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 1564-1571 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. del Vecchio, “Aluminum reference plate, heat sink, and actuator design for an adaptive secondary mirror,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 839-849 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Riccardi, G. Brusa, C. del Vecchio, R. Baisi, M. Andrighettoni, D. Gallieni, F. Zocchi, M. Lloyd-Hart, H. M. Martin, and F. Wildi, “The adaptive secondary mirror for the 6.5 conversion of the Multiple Mirror Telescope,” in Vol. 58 of 2002 European Southern Observatory Conference and Workshop Proceedings, E.Vernet, R.Ragazzoni, S.Esposito, and N.Hubin, eds., (ESO, 2002), pp. 55-64.

P. Salinari, C. del Vecchio, and V. Biliotti, “A study of an adaptive secondary mirror,” in Active and Adaptive Optics, F.Merkle, ed., Vol. 48 of Proceedings of the International Commission for Optics 16--Satellite Conference, pp. 247-253 (ICO, 1993).

Divoux, C.

C. Divoux, O. Cugat, G. Reyne, J. Boussey-Said, and S. Basrour, “Deformable mirror using magnetic membranes: application to adaptive optics in astrophysics,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 34, 3564-3567 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Drexler, W.

Fernandez, E. J.

Fisher, D. L.

G. Brusa, A. Riccardi, F. P. Wildi, M. Lloyd-Hart, H. M. Martin, R. Allen, D. L. Fisher, D. L. Miller, R. Biasi, D. Gallieni, and F. Zocchi, “MMT adaptive secondary: first AO closed-loop results,” Proc. SPIE 5169, 26-36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Flannery, B. P.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C: The Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge University Press, 1992).

Gallieni, D.

A. Riccardi, G. Brusa, M. Xompero, D. Zanotti, C. del Vecchio, P. Salinari, P. Ranfagni, D. Gallieni, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, S. Miller, and P. Mantegazza, “The adaptive secondary mirrors for the Large Binocular Telescope: a progress report,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 1564-1571 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Riccardi, G. Brusa, P. Salinari, D. Gallieni, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, and H. M. Martin, “Adaptive secondary mirrors for the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 721-732 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Brusa, A. Riccardi, F. P. Wildi, M. Lloyd-Hart, H. M. Martin, R. Allen, D. L. Fisher, D. L. Miller, R. Biasi, D. Gallieni, and F. Zocchi, “MMT adaptive secondary: first AO closed-loop results,” Proc. SPIE 5169, 26-36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Riccardi, G. Brusa, C. del Vecchio, R. Baisi, M. Andrighettoni, D. Gallieni, F. Zocchi, M. Lloyd-Hart, H. M. Martin, and F. Wildi, “The adaptive secondary mirror for the 6.5 conversion of the Multiple Mirror Telescope,” in Vol. 58 of 2002 European Southern Observatory Conference and Workshop Proceedings, E.Vernet, R.Ragazzoni, S.Esposito, and N.Hubin, eds., (ESO, 2002), pp. 55-64.

Hermann, B.

Jean-Ruel, H.

Lloyd-Hart, M.

G. Brusa, A. Riccardi, F. P. Wildi, M. Lloyd-Hart, H. M. Martin, R. Allen, D. L. Fisher, D. L. Miller, R. Biasi, D. Gallieni, and F. Zocchi, “MMT adaptive secondary: first AO closed-loop results,” Proc. SPIE 5169, 26-36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Riccardi, G. Brusa, C. del Vecchio, R. Baisi, M. Andrighettoni, D. Gallieni, F. Zocchi, M. Lloyd-Hart, H. M. Martin, and F. Wildi, “The adaptive secondary mirror for the 6.5 conversion of the Multiple Mirror Telescope,” in Vol. 58 of 2002 European Southern Observatory Conference and Workshop Proceedings, E.Vernet, R.Ragazzoni, S.Esposito, and N.Hubin, eds., (ESO, 2002), pp. 55-64.

Mantegazza, P.

A. Riccardi, G. Brusa, M. Xompero, D. Zanotti, C. del Vecchio, P. Salinari, P. Ranfagni, D. Gallieni, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, S. Miller, and P. Mantegazza, “The adaptive secondary mirrors for the Large Binocular Telescope: a progress report,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 1564-1571 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Martin, H. M.

G. Brusa, A. Riccardi, F. P. Wildi, M. Lloyd-Hart, H. M. Martin, R. Allen, D. L. Fisher, D. L. Miller, R. Biasi, D. Gallieni, and F. Zocchi, “MMT adaptive secondary: first AO closed-loop results,” Proc. SPIE 5169, 26-36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Riccardi, G. Brusa, P. Salinari, D. Gallieni, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, and H. M. Martin, “Adaptive secondary mirrors for the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 721-732 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Riccardi, G. Brusa, C. del Vecchio, R. Baisi, M. Andrighettoni, D. Gallieni, F. Zocchi, M. Lloyd-Hart, H. M. Martin, and F. Wildi, “The adaptive secondary mirror for the 6.5 conversion of the Multiple Mirror Telescope,” in Vol. 58 of 2002 European Southern Observatory Conference and Workshop Proceedings, E.Vernet, R.Ragazzoni, S.Esposito, and N.Hubin, eds., (ESO, 2002), pp. 55-64.

Miller, D. L.

G. Brusa, A. Riccardi, F. P. Wildi, M. Lloyd-Hart, H. M. Martin, R. Allen, D. L. Fisher, D. L. Miller, R. Biasi, D. Gallieni, and F. Zocchi, “MMT adaptive secondary: first AO closed-loop results,” Proc. SPIE 5169, 26-36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Miller, S.

A. Riccardi, G. Brusa, M. Xompero, D. Zanotti, C. del Vecchio, P. Salinari, P. Ranfagni, D. Gallieni, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, S. Miller, and P. Mantegazza, “The adaptive secondary mirrors for the Large Binocular Telescope: a progress report,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 1564-1571 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Parent, J.

Povazay, B.

Press, W. H.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C: The Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge University Press, 1992).

Ranfagni, P.

A. Riccardi, G. Brusa, M. Xompero, D. Zanotti, C. del Vecchio, P. Salinari, P. Ranfagni, D. Gallieni, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, S. Miller, and P. Mantegazza, “The adaptive secondary mirrors for the Large Binocular Telescope: a progress report,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 1564-1571 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Reyne, G.

C. Divoux, O. Cugat, G. Reyne, J. Boussey-Said, and S. Basrour, “Deformable mirror using magnetic membranes: application to adaptive optics in astrophysics,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 34, 3564-3567 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Riccardi, A.

A. Riccardi, M. Xompero, and L. Busoni, “Fitting error analysis for the VLT deformable secondary mirror,” Proc. SPIE . 6272, 627240 (2006).

A. Riccardi, G. Brusa, M. Xompero, D. Zanotti, C. del Vecchio, P. Salinari, P. Ranfagni, D. Gallieni, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, S. Miller, and P. Mantegazza, “The adaptive secondary mirrors for the Large Binocular Telescope: a progress report,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 1564-1571 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Riccardi, G. Brusa, P. Salinari, D. Gallieni, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, and H. M. Martin, “Adaptive secondary mirrors for the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 721-732 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Brusa, A. Riccardi, F. P. Wildi, M. Lloyd-Hart, H. M. Martin, R. Allen, D. L. Fisher, D. L. Miller, R. Biasi, D. Gallieni, and F. Zocchi, “MMT adaptive secondary: first AO closed-loop results,” Proc. SPIE 5169, 26-36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Riccardi, G. Brusa, C. del Vecchio, R. Baisi, M. Andrighettoni, D. Gallieni, F. Zocchi, M. Lloyd-Hart, H. M. Martin, and F. Wildi, “The adaptive secondary mirror for the 6.5 conversion of the Multiple Mirror Telescope,” in Vol. 58 of 2002 European Southern Observatory Conference and Workshop Proceedings, E.Vernet, R.Ragazzoni, S.Esposito, and N.Hubin, eds., (ESO, 2002), pp. 55-64.

Ritcey, A.

Roddier, F.

F. Roddier, Adaptive Optics in Astronomy (Cambridge University Press, 1999).
[CrossRef]

Salinari, P.

A. Riccardi, G. Brusa, M. Xompero, D. Zanotti, C. del Vecchio, P. Salinari, P. Ranfagni, D. Gallieni, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, S. Miller, and P. Mantegazza, “The adaptive secondary mirrors for the Large Binocular Telescope: a progress report,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 1564-1571 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Riccardi, G. Brusa, P. Salinari, D. Gallieni, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, and H. M. Martin, “Adaptive secondary mirrors for the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 721-732 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Salinari, C. del Vecchio, and V. Biliotti, “A study of an adaptive secondary mirror,” in Active and Adaptive Optics, F.Merkle, ed., Vol. 48 of Proceedings of the International Commission for Optics 16--Satellite Conference, pp. 247-253 (ICO, 1993).

Teukolsky, S. A.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C: The Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge University Press, 1992).

Unterhuber, A.

Vabre, L.

Vetterling, W. T.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C: The Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge University Press, 1992).

Wildi, F.

A. Riccardi, G. Brusa, C. del Vecchio, R. Baisi, M. Andrighettoni, D. Gallieni, F. Zocchi, M. Lloyd-Hart, H. M. Martin, and F. Wildi, “The adaptive secondary mirror for the 6.5 conversion of the Multiple Mirror Telescope,” in Vol. 58 of 2002 European Southern Observatory Conference and Workshop Proceedings, E.Vernet, R.Ragazzoni, S.Esposito, and N.Hubin, eds., (ESO, 2002), pp. 55-64.

Wildi, F. P.

G. Brusa, A. Riccardi, F. P. Wildi, M. Lloyd-Hart, H. M. Martin, R. Allen, D. L. Fisher, D. L. Miller, R. Biasi, D. Gallieni, and F. Zocchi, “MMT adaptive secondary: first AO closed-loop results,” Proc. SPIE 5169, 26-36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xompero, M.

A. Riccardi, M. Xompero, and L. Busoni, “Fitting error analysis for the VLT deformable secondary mirror,” Proc. SPIE . 6272, 627240 (2006).

A. Riccardi, G. Brusa, M. Xompero, D. Zanotti, C. del Vecchio, P. Salinari, P. Ranfagni, D. Gallieni, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, S. Miller, and P. Mantegazza, “The adaptive secondary mirrors for the Large Binocular Telescope: a progress report,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 1564-1571 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zanotti, D.

A. Riccardi, G. Brusa, M. Xompero, D. Zanotti, C. del Vecchio, P. Salinari, P. Ranfagni, D. Gallieni, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, S. Miller, and P. Mantegazza, “The adaptive secondary mirrors for the Large Binocular Telescope: a progress report,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 1564-1571 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zocchi, F.

G. Brusa, A. Riccardi, F. P. Wildi, M. Lloyd-Hart, H. M. Martin, R. Allen, D. L. Fisher, D. L. Miller, R. Biasi, D. Gallieni, and F. Zocchi, “MMT adaptive secondary: first AO closed-loop results,” Proc. SPIE 5169, 26-36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Riccardi, G. Brusa, C. del Vecchio, R. Baisi, M. Andrighettoni, D. Gallieni, F. Zocchi, M. Lloyd-Hart, H. M. Martin, and F. Wildi, “The adaptive secondary mirror for the 6.5 conversion of the Multiple Mirror Telescope,” in Vol. 58 of 2002 European Southern Observatory Conference and Workshop Proceedings, E.Vernet, R.Ragazzoni, S.Esposito, and N.Hubin, eds., (ESO, 2002), pp. 55-64.

IEEE Trans. Magn. (1)

C. Divoux, O. Cugat, G. Reyne, J. Boussey-Said, and S. Basrour, “Deformable mirror using magnetic membranes: application to adaptive optics in astrophysics,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 34, 3564-3567 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Proc. SPIE (5)

G. Brusa, A. Riccardi, F. P. Wildi, M. Lloyd-Hart, H. M. Martin, R. Allen, D. L. Fisher, D. L. Miller, R. Biasi, D. Gallieni, and F. Zocchi, “MMT adaptive secondary: first AO closed-loop results,” Proc. SPIE 5169, 26-36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Riccardi, G. Brusa, P. Salinari, D. Gallieni, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, and H. M. Martin, “Adaptive secondary mirrors for the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 721-732 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Riccardi, G. Brusa, M. Xompero, D. Zanotti, C. del Vecchio, P. Salinari, P. Ranfagni, D. Gallieni, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, S. Miller, and P. Mantegazza, “The adaptive secondary mirrors for the Large Binocular Telescope: a progress report,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 1564-1571 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Riccardi, M. Xompero, and L. Busoni, “Fitting error analysis for the VLT deformable secondary mirror,” Proc. SPIE . 6272, 627240 (2006).

C. del Vecchio, “Aluminum reference plate, heat sink, and actuator design for an adaptive secondary mirror,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 839-849 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C: The Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge University Press, 1992).

P. Salinari, C. del Vecchio, and V. Biliotti, “A study of an adaptive secondary mirror,” in Active and Adaptive Optics, F.Merkle, ed., Vol. 48 of Proceedings of the International Commission for Optics 16--Satellite Conference, pp. 247-253 (ICO, 1993).

A. Riccardi, G. Brusa, C. del Vecchio, R. Baisi, M. Andrighettoni, D. Gallieni, F. Zocchi, M. Lloyd-Hart, H. M. Martin, and F. Wildi, “The adaptive secondary mirror for the 6.5 conversion of the Multiple Mirror Telescope,” in Vol. 58 of 2002 European Southern Observatory Conference and Workshop Proceedings, E.Vernet, R.Ragazzoni, S.Esposito, and N.Hubin, eds., (ESO, 2002), pp. 55-64.

F. Roddier, Adaptive Optics in Astronomy (Cambridge University Press, 1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Back surface of a thin deformable shell, the magnets glued onto its back, the reference plate, the actuators, and a cold plate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Display of the actuators and the x, y axes. The gravity vector is along the z axis.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Tool used to produce the weight variation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Usage of the tool for the weight variation; the tool can be introduced from the back of the mirror previously removed from the structure.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Graphics of the force calibrations.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Force calibrations on a display that illustrates the positions of the actuators.

Equations (4)

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- i f 1 i = P + B - i f N i = P + B , - i x i f 1 i = M y - i x i f N i = M y , - i y i f 1 i = - M x - i y i f N i = - M x .
f N i = α i c N i .
- ( c 1 1 c 1 2 c 1 45 c N 1 c N 2 c N 45 x 1 c 1 1 x 2 c 1 2 x 45 c 1 45 x 1 c N 1 x 2 c N 2 x 45 c N 45 y 1 c 1 1 y 2 c 1 2 y 45 c 1 45 y 1 c N 1 y 2 c N 2 y 45 c N 45 ) · ( α 1 α 45 ) = ( P + B P + B M y M y - M x - M x ) .
- ( c 1 1 c 1 45 1 0 0 0 0 c N 1 c N 45 1 0 0 0 0 x 1 c 1 1 x 45 c 1 45 0 1 0 0 0 x 1 c N 1 x 45 c N 45 0 1 0 0 0 y 1 c 1 1 y 45 c 1 45 0 0 - 1 0 0 y 1 c N 1 y 45 c N 45 0 0 - 1 0 0 d 1 1 d 1 45 1 0 0 0 0 d N 1 d N 45 1 0 0 0 0 x 1 d 1 1 x 45 d 1 45 0 0 0 1 0 x 1 d N 1 x 45 d N 45 0 0 0 1 0 y 1 d 1 1 y 45 d 1 45 0 0 0 0 - 1 y 1 d N 1 y 45 d N 45 0 0 0 0 - 1 ) · ( α 1 α 45 B M y M x N y N x ) = ( P P 0 0 0 0 P + Q P + Q 0 0 0 0 ) .

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