Abstract

We have developed novel aperiodic multilayers, covered by capping layers resistant to environmental attack, that offer superior performance for extreme ultraviolet lithography. We have designed these coatings using an optimization procedure based on an algorithm able to acquire domain knowledge inside the space of possible solutions. An integrated intensity increase of up to 2.18 times that obtained using standard periodic multilayers has been estimated. The aperiodic structures have minimal absorption in the topmost layers, which makes them especially insensitive to both the choice of capping layer material and any subsequent capping layer degradation due to oxidation or contamination. This property allows for the use of the most resilient capping layer materials available, thereby leading to a significantly improved lifetime. We have produced prototype capped aperiodic coatings and have measured their performance.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. B. Mirkarimi, S. Bajt, and M. A. Wall, “Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer thin films on Zerodur substrates for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1618-1625, (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. E. Klebanoff, P. A. Grunow, S. Graham, W. M. Clift, A. H. Leung, and S. J. Haney, “Environmental data from the Engineering Test Stand,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 310-315(2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, N. Nguyen, J. Alameda, J. C. Robinson, M. Malinowski, E. Gullikson, A. Aquila, C. Tarrio, and S. Grantham, “Design and performance of capping layers for extreme-ultraviolet multilayer mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 42, 5750-5758 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Wurm and K. Kemp, “SEMATECH pushes extreme ultraviolet lithography forward,” http://spie.org/x8865.xml.
  5. S. Graham, C. Steinhaus, W. M. Clift, and L. Klebanoff, “Radio-frequency discharge cleaning of silicon-capped Mo/Si multilayer extreme ultraviolet optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2393-2400 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Graham, C. E. Steinhaus, W. M. Clift, L. E. Klebanoff, and S. Bajt, “Atomic hydrogen cleaning of EUV multilayer optics,” Proc. SPIE 5037, 236-248 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Wedowski, S. Bajt, J. A. Folta, E. M. Gullikson, U. Kleineberg, L. E. Klebanoff, M. E. Malinowski, and W. M. Clift, “Lifetime studies of Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3767, 217-224 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Oestreich, R. Klein, F. Scholze, J. Jonkers, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, P. Gorts, G. Ulm, M. Haidl, and F. Bijkerk, “Multilayer reflectance during exposure to EUV radiation,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 64-71 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Motai, H. Oizumi, S. Miyagaki, I. Nishiyama, A. Izumi, T. Ueno, Y. Miyazaki, and A. Namiki, “Atomic hydrogen cleaning of Ru-capped EUV multilayer mirror,” Proc. SPIE 6517 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Bajt, J. B. Alameda, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. B. Kaufmann, and E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo/Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1797-1804 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Singh and J. J. M. Braat, “Design of multilayer extreme ultraviolet mirrors for enhanced reflectivity,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2189-2197 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. I. Larruquert, “Sub-quarterwave multilayers with enhanced reflectance at 13.4 and 11.3 nm,” Opt. Commun. 206, 259-273 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Singh and J. J. M. Braat, “Capping layers for extreme-ultraviolet multilayer interference coatings,” Opt. Lett. , 26, 259-261 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Bajt, J. B. Alameda, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. B. Kaufmann, and E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo/Si multilayers soft x-ray and EUV,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 65-71 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Suman, F. Frassetto, P. Nicolosi, and M.-G. Pelizzo, “Design of aperiodic multilayer structures for attosecond pulses in the EUV,” Appl. Opt. 46, 8159-8169 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. Wonisch, U. Neuhäusler, N. M. Kabachnik, T. Uphues, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, F. Krausz, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, and U. Heinzmann, “Design, fabrication, and analysis of chirped multilayer mirrors for reflection of extreme-ultraviolet attosecond pulses,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4147-4156 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. Bajt, Z. R. Dai, E. J. Nelson, M. A. Wall, J. Alameda, N. Nguyen, S. Baker, J. C. Robinson, J. S. Taylor, W. M. Clift, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, and N. V. G. Edwards, “Oxidation resistance of Ru-capped EUV multilayers,” Proc. SPIE 5751, 118-127 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. E. Malinowski, C. Steinhaus, W. M. Clift, L. E. Klebanoff, S. Mrowka, and R. Soufli, “Controlling contamination in Mo/Si multilayer mirrors by Si surface capping modifications,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 442-453 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. L. Windt and W. K. Waskiewicz, “Multilayer facilities for EUV lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 3826-3832 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (2)

K. Motai, H. Oizumi, S. Miyagaki, I. Nishiyama, A. Izumi, T. Ueno, Y. Miyazaki, and A. Namiki, “Atomic hydrogen cleaning of Ru-capped EUV multilayer mirror,” Proc. SPIE 6517 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Suman, F. Frassetto, P. Nicolosi, and M.-G. Pelizzo, “Design of aperiodic multilayer structures for attosecond pulses in the EUV,” Appl. Opt. 46, 8159-8169 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

S. Bajt, Z. R. Dai, E. J. Nelson, M. A. Wall, J. Alameda, N. Nguyen, S. Baker, J. C. Robinson, J. S. Taylor, W. M. Clift, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, and N. V. G. Edwards, “Oxidation resistance of Ru-capped EUV multilayers,” Proc. SPIE 5751, 118-127 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

2002 (5)

S. Graham, C. Steinhaus, W. M. Clift, and L. Klebanoff, “Radio-frequency discharge cleaning of silicon-capped Mo/Si multilayer extreme ultraviolet optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2393-2400 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Bajt, J. B. Alameda, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. B. Kaufmann, and E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo/Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1797-1804 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Klebanoff, P. A. Grunow, S. Graham, W. M. Clift, A. H. Leung, and S. J. Haney, “Environmental data from the Engineering Test Stand,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 310-315(2002).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Larruquert, “Sub-quarterwave multilayers with enhanced reflectance at 13.4 and 11.3 nm,” Opt. Commun. 206, 259-273 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Malinowski, C. Steinhaus, W. M. Clift, L. E. Klebanoff, S. Mrowka, and R. Soufli, “Controlling contamination in Mo/Si multilayer mirrors by Si surface capping modifications,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 442-453 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

M. Singh and J. J. M. Braat, “Capping layers for extreme-ultraviolet multilayer interference coatings,” Opt. Lett. , 26, 259-261 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Bajt, J. B. Alameda, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. B. Kaufmann, and E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo/Si multilayers soft x-ray and EUV,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 65-71 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

P. B. Mirkarimi, S. Bajt, and M. A. Wall, “Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer thin films on Zerodur substrates for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1618-1625, (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Oestreich, R. Klein, F. Scholze, J. Jonkers, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, P. Gorts, G. Ulm, M. Haidl, and F. Bijkerk, “Multilayer reflectance during exposure to EUV radiation,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 64-71 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Singh and J. J. M. Braat, “Design of multilayer extreme ultraviolet mirrors for enhanced reflectivity,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2189-2197 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. Wedowski, S. Bajt, J. A. Folta, E. M. Gullikson, U. Kleineberg, L. E. Klebanoff, M. E. Malinowski, and W. M. Clift, “Lifetime studies of Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3767, 217-224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

D. L. Windt and W. K. Waskiewicz, “Multilayer facilities for EUV lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 3826-3832 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Alameda, J.

S. Bajt, Z. R. Dai, E. J. Nelson, M. A. Wall, J. Alameda, N. Nguyen, S. Baker, J. C. Robinson, J. S. Taylor, W. M. Clift, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, and N. V. G. Edwards, “Oxidation resistance of Ru-capped EUV multilayers,” Proc. SPIE 5751, 118-127 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, N. Nguyen, J. Alameda, J. C. Robinson, M. Malinowski, E. Gullikson, A. Aquila, C. Tarrio, and S. Grantham, “Design and performance of capping layers for extreme-ultraviolet multilayer mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 42, 5750-5758 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alameda, J. B.

S. Bajt, J. B. Alameda, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. B. Kaufmann, and E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo/Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1797-1804 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Bajt, J. B. Alameda, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. B. Kaufmann, and E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo/Si multilayers soft x-ray and EUV,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 65-71 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Aquila, A.

S. Bajt, Z. R. Dai, E. J. Nelson, M. A. Wall, J. Alameda, N. Nguyen, S. Baker, J. C. Robinson, J. S. Taylor, W. M. Clift, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, and N. V. G. Edwards, “Oxidation resistance of Ru-capped EUV multilayers,” Proc. SPIE 5751, 118-127 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, N. Nguyen, J. Alameda, J. C. Robinson, M. Malinowski, E. Gullikson, A. Aquila, C. Tarrio, and S. Grantham, “Design and performance of capping layers for extreme-ultraviolet multilayer mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 42, 5750-5758 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bajt, S.

S. Bajt, Z. R. Dai, E. J. Nelson, M. A. Wall, J. Alameda, N. Nguyen, S. Baker, J. C. Robinson, J. S. Taylor, W. M. Clift, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, and N. V. G. Edwards, “Oxidation resistance of Ru-capped EUV multilayers,” Proc. SPIE 5751, 118-127 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Graham, C. E. Steinhaus, W. M. Clift, L. E. Klebanoff, and S. Bajt, “Atomic hydrogen cleaning of EUV multilayer optics,” Proc. SPIE 5037, 236-248 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, N. Nguyen, J. Alameda, J. C. Robinson, M. Malinowski, E. Gullikson, A. Aquila, C. Tarrio, and S. Grantham, “Design and performance of capping layers for extreme-ultraviolet multilayer mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 42, 5750-5758 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bajt, J. B. Alameda, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. B. Kaufmann, and E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo/Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1797-1804 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Bajt, J. B. Alameda, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. B. Kaufmann, and E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo/Si multilayers soft x-ray and EUV,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 65-71 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Wedowski, S. Bajt, J. A. Folta, E. M. Gullikson, U. Kleineberg, L. E. Klebanoff, M. E. Malinowski, and W. M. Clift, “Lifetime studies of Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3767, 217-224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bajt, S. A.

P. B. Mirkarimi, S. Bajt, and M. A. Wall, “Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer thin films on Zerodur substrates for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1618-1625, (2000).
[CrossRef]

Baker, S.

S. Bajt, Z. R. Dai, E. J. Nelson, M. A. Wall, J. Alameda, N. Nguyen, S. Baker, J. C. Robinson, J. S. Taylor, W. M. Clift, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, and N. V. G. Edwards, “Oxidation resistance of Ru-capped EUV multilayers,” Proc. SPIE 5751, 118-127 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barbee, T. W.

S. Bajt, J. B. Alameda, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. B. Kaufmann, and E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo/Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1797-1804 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Bajt, J. B. Alameda, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. B. Kaufmann, and E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo/Si multilayers soft x-ray and EUV,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 65-71 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bijkerk, F.

S. Oestreich, R. Klein, F. Scholze, J. Jonkers, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, P. Gorts, G. Ulm, M. Haidl, and F. Bijkerk, “Multilayer reflectance during exposure to EUV radiation,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 64-71 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Braat, J. J. M.

Chapman, H. N.

Clift, W. M.

S. Bajt, Z. R. Dai, E. J. Nelson, M. A. Wall, J. Alameda, N. Nguyen, S. Baker, J. C. Robinson, J. S. Taylor, W. M. Clift, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, and N. V. G. Edwards, “Oxidation resistance of Ru-capped EUV multilayers,” Proc. SPIE 5751, 118-127 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Graham, C. E. Steinhaus, W. M. Clift, L. E. Klebanoff, and S. Bajt, “Atomic hydrogen cleaning of EUV multilayer optics,” Proc. SPIE 5037, 236-248 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Bajt, J. B. Alameda, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. B. Kaufmann, and E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo/Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1797-1804 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Klebanoff, P. A. Grunow, S. Graham, W. M. Clift, A. H. Leung, and S. J. Haney, “Environmental data from the Engineering Test Stand,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 310-315(2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Graham, C. Steinhaus, W. M. Clift, and L. Klebanoff, “Radio-frequency discharge cleaning of silicon-capped Mo/Si multilayer extreme ultraviolet optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2393-2400 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Malinowski, C. Steinhaus, W. M. Clift, L. E. Klebanoff, S. Mrowka, and R. Soufli, “Controlling contamination in Mo/Si multilayer mirrors by Si surface capping modifications,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 442-453 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Bajt, J. B. Alameda, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. B. Kaufmann, and E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo/Si multilayers soft x-ray and EUV,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 65-71 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Wedowski, S. Bajt, J. A. Folta, E. M. Gullikson, U. Kleineberg, L. E. Klebanoff, M. E. Malinowski, and W. M. Clift, “Lifetime studies of Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3767, 217-224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Z. R.

S. Bajt, Z. R. Dai, E. J. Nelson, M. A. Wall, J. Alameda, N. Nguyen, S. Baker, J. C. Robinson, J. S. Taylor, W. M. Clift, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, and N. V. G. Edwards, “Oxidation resistance of Ru-capped EUV multilayers,” Proc. SPIE 5751, 118-127 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Drescher, M.

Edwards, N. V. G.

S. Bajt, Z. R. Dai, E. J. Nelson, M. A. Wall, J. Alameda, N. Nguyen, S. Baker, J. C. Robinson, J. S. Taylor, W. M. Clift, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, and N. V. G. Edwards, “Oxidation resistance of Ru-capped EUV multilayers,” Proc. SPIE 5751, 118-127 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Folta, J. A.

S. Bajt, J. B. Alameda, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. B. Kaufmann, and E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo/Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1797-1804 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Bajt, J. B. Alameda, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. B. Kaufmann, and E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo/Si multilayers soft x-ray and EUV,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 65-71 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Wedowski, S. Bajt, J. A. Folta, E. M. Gullikson, U. Kleineberg, L. E. Klebanoff, M. E. Malinowski, and W. M. Clift, “Lifetime studies of Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3767, 217-224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Frassetto, F.

Gorts, P.

S. Oestreich, R. Klein, F. Scholze, J. Jonkers, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, P. Gorts, G. Ulm, M. Haidl, and F. Bijkerk, “Multilayer reflectance during exposure to EUV radiation,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 64-71 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Graham, S.

S. Graham, C. E. Steinhaus, W. M. Clift, L. E. Klebanoff, and S. Bajt, “Atomic hydrogen cleaning of EUV multilayer optics,” Proc. SPIE 5037, 236-248 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Klebanoff, P. A. Grunow, S. Graham, W. M. Clift, A. H. Leung, and S. J. Haney, “Environmental data from the Engineering Test Stand,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 310-315(2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Graham, C. Steinhaus, W. M. Clift, and L. Klebanoff, “Radio-frequency discharge cleaning of silicon-capped Mo/Si multilayer extreme ultraviolet optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2393-2400 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Grantham, S.

Grunow, P. A.

L. E. Klebanoff, P. A. Grunow, S. Graham, W. M. Clift, A. H. Leung, and S. J. Haney, “Environmental data from the Engineering Test Stand,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 310-315(2002).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E.

Gullikson, E. M.

S. Bajt, Z. R. Dai, E. J. Nelson, M. A. Wall, J. Alameda, N. Nguyen, S. Baker, J. C. Robinson, J. S. Taylor, W. M. Clift, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, and N. V. G. Edwards, “Oxidation resistance of Ru-capped EUV multilayers,” Proc. SPIE 5751, 118-127 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Wedowski, S. Bajt, J. A. Folta, E. M. Gullikson, U. Kleineberg, L. E. Klebanoff, M. E. Malinowski, and W. M. Clift, “Lifetime studies of Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3767, 217-224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Haidl, M.

S. Oestreich, R. Klein, F. Scholze, J. Jonkers, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, P. Gorts, G. Ulm, M. Haidl, and F. Bijkerk, “Multilayer reflectance during exposure to EUV radiation,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 64-71 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Haney, S. J.

L. E. Klebanoff, P. A. Grunow, S. Graham, W. M. Clift, A. H. Leung, and S. J. Haney, “Environmental data from the Engineering Test Stand,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 310-315(2002).
[CrossRef]

Heinzmann, U.

Izumi, A.

K. Motai, H. Oizumi, S. Miyagaki, I. Nishiyama, A. Izumi, T. Ueno, Y. Miyazaki, and A. Namiki, “Atomic hydrogen cleaning of Ru-capped EUV multilayer mirror,” Proc. SPIE 6517 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jonkers, J.

S. Oestreich, R. Klein, F. Scholze, J. Jonkers, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, P. Gorts, G. Ulm, M. Haidl, and F. Bijkerk, “Multilayer reflectance during exposure to EUV radiation,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 64-71 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kabachnik, N. M.

Kaufmann, B. B.

S. Bajt, J. B. Alameda, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. B. Kaufmann, and E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo/Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1797-1804 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Bajt, J. B. Alameda, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. B. Kaufmann, and E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo/Si multilayers soft x-ray and EUV,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 65-71 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kemp, K.

S. Wurm and K. Kemp, “SEMATECH pushes extreme ultraviolet lithography forward,” http://spie.org/x8865.xml.

Klebanoff, L.

S. Graham, C. Steinhaus, W. M. Clift, and L. Klebanoff, “Radio-frequency discharge cleaning of silicon-capped Mo/Si multilayer extreme ultraviolet optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2393-2400 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Klebanoff, L. E.

S. Graham, C. E. Steinhaus, W. M. Clift, L. E. Klebanoff, and S. Bajt, “Atomic hydrogen cleaning of EUV multilayer optics,” Proc. SPIE 5037, 236-248 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Klebanoff, P. A. Grunow, S. Graham, W. M. Clift, A. H. Leung, and S. J. Haney, “Environmental data from the Engineering Test Stand,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 310-315(2002).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Malinowski, C. Steinhaus, W. M. Clift, L. E. Klebanoff, S. Mrowka, and R. Soufli, “Controlling contamination in Mo/Si multilayer mirrors by Si surface capping modifications,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 442-453 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Wedowski, S. Bajt, J. A. Folta, E. M. Gullikson, U. Kleineberg, L. E. Klebanoff, M. E. Malinowski, and W. M. Clift, “Lifetime studies of Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3767, 217-224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Klein, R.

S. Oestreich, R. Klein, F. Scholze, J. Jonkers, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, P. Gorts, G. Ulm, M. Haidl, and F. Bijkerk, “Multilayer reflectance during exposure to EUV radiation,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 64-71 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kleineberg, U.

A. Wonisch, U. Neuhäusler, N. M. Kabachnik, T. Uphues, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, F. Krausz, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, and U. Heinzmann, “Design, fabrication, and analysis of chirped multilayer mirrors for reflection of extreme-ultraviolet attosecond pulses,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4147-4156 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wedowski, S. Bajt, J. A. Folta, E. M. Gullikson, U. Kleineberg, L. E. Klebanoff, M. E. Malinowski, and W. M. Clift, “Lifetime studies of Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3767, 217-224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

Larruquert, J. I.

J. I. Larruquert, “Sub-quarterwave multilayers with enhanced reflectance at 13.4 and 11.3 nm,” Opt. Commun. 206, 259-273 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leung, A. H.

L. E. Klebanoff, P. A. Grunow, S. Graham, W. M. Clift, A. H. Leung, and S. J. Haney, “Environmental data from the Engineering Test Stand,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 310-315(2002).
[CrossRef]

Louis, E.

S. Oestreich, R. Klein, F. Scholze, J. Jonkers, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, P. Gorts, G. Ulm, M. Haidl, and F. Bijkerk, “Multilayer reflectance during exposure to EUV radiation,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 64-71 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Malinowski, M.

Malinowski, M. E.

M. E. Malinowski, C. Steinhaus, W. M. Clift, L. E. Klebanoff, S. Mrowka, and R. Soufli, “Controlling contamination in Mo/Si multilayer mirrors by Si surface capping modifications,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 442-453 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Wedowski, S. Bajt, J. A. Folta, E. M. Gullikson, U. Kleineberg, L. E. Klebanoff, M. E. Malinowski, and W. M. Clift, “Lifetime studies of Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3767, 217-224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mirkarimi, P. B.

P. B. Mirkarimi, S. Bajt, and M. A. Wall, “Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer thin films on Zerodur substrates for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1618-1625, (2000).
[CrossRef]

Miyagaki, S.

K. Motai, H. Oizumi, S. Miyagaki, I. Nishiyama, A. Izumi, T. Ueno, Y. Miyazaki, and A. Namiki, “Atomic hydrogen cleaning of Ru-capped EUV multilayer mirror,” Proc. SPIE 6517 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miyazaki, Y.

K. Motai, H. Oizumi, S. Miyagaki, I. Nishiyama, A. Izumi, T. Ueno, Y. Miyazaki, and A. Namiki, “Atomic hydrogen cleaning of Ru-capped EUV multilayer mirror,” Proc. SPIE 6517 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Motai, K.

K. Motai, H. Oizumi, S. Miyagaki, I. Nishiyama, A. Izumi, T. Ueno, Y. Miyazaki, and A. Namiki, “Atomic hydrogen cleaning of Ru-capped EUV multilayer mirror,” Proc. SPIE 6517 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mrowka, S.

M. E. Malinowski, C. Steinhaus, W. M. Clift, L. E. Klebanoff, S. Mrowka, and R. Soufli, “Controlling contamination in Mo/Si multilayer mirrors by Si surface capping modifications,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 442-453 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Namiki, A.

K. Motai, H. Oizumi, S. Miyagaki, I. Nishiyama, A. Izumi, T. Ueno, Y. Miyazaki, and A. Namiki, “Atomic hydrogen cleaning of Ru-capped EUV multilayer mirror,” Proc. SPIE 6517 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, E. J.

S. Bajt, Z. R. Dai, E. J. Nelson, M. A. Wall, J. Alameda, N. Nguyen, S. Baker, J. C. Robinson, J. S. Taylor, W. M. Clift, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, and N. V. G. Edwards, “Oxidation resistance of Ru-capped EUV multilayers,” Proc. SPIE 5751, 118-127 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Neuhäusler, U.

Nguyen, N.

S. Bajt, Z. R. Dai, E. J. Nelson, M. A. Wall, J. Alameda, N. Nguyen, S. Baker, J. C. Robinson, J. S. Taylor, W. M. Clift, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, and N. V. G. Edwards, “Oxidation resistance of Ru-capped EUV multilayers,” Proc. SPIE 5751, 118-127 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, N. Nguyen, J. Alameda, J. C. Robinson, M. Malinowski, E. Gullikson, A. Aquila, C. Tarrio, and S. Grantham, “Design and performance of capping layers for extreme-ultraviolet multilayer mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 42, 5750-5758 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nicolosi, P.

Nishiyama, I.

K. Motai, H. Oizumi, S. Miyagaki, I. Nishiyama, A. Izumi, T. Ueno, Y. Miyazaki, and A. Namiki, “Atomic hydrogen cleaning of Ru-capped EUV multilayer mirror,” Proc. SPIE 6517 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oestreich, S.

S. Oestreich, R. Klein, F. Scholze, J. Jonkers, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, P. Gorts, G. Ulm, M. Haidl, and F. Bijkerk, “Multilayer reflectance during exposure to EUV radiation,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 64-71 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Oizumi, H.

K. Motai, H. Oizumi, S. Miyagaki, I. Nishiyama, A. Izumi, T. Ueno, Y. Miyazaki, and A. Namiki, “Atomic hydrogen cleaning of Ru-capped EUV multilayer mirror,” Proc. SPIE 6517 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pelizzo, M.-G.

Robinson, J. C.

S. Bajt, Z. R. Dai, E. J. Nelson, M. A. Wall, J. Alameda, N. Nguyen, S. Baker, J. C. Robinson, J. S. Taylor, W. M. Clift, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, and N. V. G. Edwards, “Oxidation resistance of Ru-capped EUV multilayers,” Proc. SPIE 5751, 118-127 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, N. Nguyen, J. Alameda, J. C. Robinson, M. Malinowski, E. Gullikson, A. Aquila, C. Tarrio, and S. Grantham, “Design and performance of capping layers for extreme-ultraviolet multilayer mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 42, 5750-5758 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scholze, F.

S. Oestreich, R. Klein, F. Scholze, J. Jonkers, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, P. Gorts, G. Ulm, M. Haidl, and F. Bijkerk, “Multilayer reflectance during exposure to EUV radiation,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 64-71 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Singh, M.

Soufli, R.

M. E. Malinowski, C. Steinhaus, W. M. Clift, L. E. Klebanoff, S. Mrowka, and R. Soufli, “Controlling contamination in Mo/Si multilayer mirrors by Si surface capping modifications,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 442-453 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Spiller, E. A.

S. Bajt, J. B. Alameda, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. B. Kaufmann, and E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo/Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1797-1804 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Bajt, J. B. Alameda, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. B. Kaufmann, and E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo/Si multilayers soft x-ray and EUV,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 65-71 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Steinhaus, C.

M. E. Malinowski, C. Steinhaus, W. M. Clift, L. E. Klebanoff, S. Mrowka, and R. Soufli, “Controlling contamination in Mo/Si multilayer mirrors by Si surface capping modifications,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 442-453 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Graham, C. Steinhaus, W. M. Clift, and L. Klebanoff, “Radio-frequency discharge cleaning of silicon-capped Mo/Si multilayer extreme ultraviolet optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2393-2400 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Steinhaus, C. E.

S. Graham, C. E. Steinhaus, W. M. Clift, L. E. Klebanoff, and S. Bajt, “Atomic hydrogen cleaning of EUV multilayer optics,” Proc. SPIE 5037, 236-248 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Suman, M.

Tarrio, C.

Taylor, J. S.

S. Bajt, Z. R. Dai, E. J. Nelson, M. A. Wall, J. Alameda, N. Nguyen, S. Baker, J. C. Robinson, J. S. Taylor, W. M. Clift, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, and N. V. G. Edwards, “Oxidation resistance of Ru-capped EUV multilayers,” Proc. SPIE 5751, 118-127 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ueno, T.

K. Motai, H. Oizumi, S. Miyagaki, I. Nishiyama, A. Izumi, T. Ueno, Y. Miyazaki, and A. Namiki, “Atomic hydrogen cleaning of Ru-capped EUV multilayer mirror,” Proc. SPIE 6517 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Uiberacker, M.

Ulm, G.

S. Oestreich, R. Klein, F. Scholze, J. Jonkers, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, P. Gorts, G. Ulm, M. Haidl, and F. Bijkerk, “Multilayer reflectance during exposure to EUV radiation,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 64-71 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Uphues, T.

Wall, M. A.

S. Bajt, Z. R. Dai, E. J. Nelson, M. A. Wall, J. Alameda, N. Nguyen, S. Baker, J. C. Robinson, J. S. Taylor, W. M. Clift, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, and N. V. G. Edwards, “Oxidation resistance of Ru-capped EUV multilayers,” Proc. SPIE 5751, 118-127 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Mirkarimi, S. Bajt, and M. A. Wall, “Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer thin films on Zerodur substrates for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1618-1625, (2000).
[CrossRef]

Waskiewicz, W. K.

D. L. Windt and W. K. Waskiewicz, “Multilayer facilities for EUV lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 3826-3832 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wedowski, M.

M. Wedowski, S. Bajt, J. A. Folta, E. M. Gullikson, U. Kleineberg, L. E. Klebanoff, M. E. Malinowski, and W. M. Clift, “Lifetime studies of Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3767, 217-224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Windt, D. L.

D. L. Windt and W. K. Waskiewicz, “Multilayer facilities for EUV lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 3826-3832 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wonisch, A.

Wurm, S.

S. Wurm and K. Kemp, “SEMATECH pushes extreme ultraviolet lithography forward,” http://spie.org/x8865.xml.

Yakovlev, V.

Yakshin, A.

S. Oestreich, R. Klein, F. Scholze, J. Jonkers, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, P. Gorts, G. Ulm, M. Haidl, and F. Bijkerk, “Multilayer reflectance during exposure to EUV radiation,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 64-71 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (2)

S. Graham, C. Steinhaus, W. M. Clift, and L. Klebanoff, “Radio-frequency discharge cleaning of silicon-capped Mo/Si multilayer extreme ultraviolet optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2393-2400 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Windt and W. K. Waskiewicz, “Multilayer facilities for EUV lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 3826-3832 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. I. Larruquert, “Sub-quarterwave multilayers with enhanced reflectance at 13.4 and 11.3 nm,” Opt. Commun. 206, 259-273 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

S. Bajt, J. B. Alameda, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. B. Kaufmann, and E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo/Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1797-1804 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (8)

S. Bajt, J. B. Alameda, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. B. Kaufmann, and E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo/Si multilayers soft x-ray and EUV,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 65-71 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Bajt, Z. R. Dai, E. J. Nelson, M. A. Wall, J. Alameda, N. Nguyen, S. Baker, J. C. Robinson, J. S. Taylor, W. M. Clift, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, and N. V. G. Edwards, “Oxidation resistance of Ru-capped EUV multilayers,” Proc. SPIE 5751, 118-127 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Malinowski, C. Steinhaus, W. M. Clift, L. E. Klebanoff, S. Mrowka, and R. Soufli, “Controlling contamination in Mo/Si multilayer mirrors by Si surface capping modifications,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 442-453 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Graham, C. E. Steinhaus, W. M. Clift, L. E. Klebanoff, and S. Bajt, “Atomic hydrogen cleaning of EUV multilayer optics,” Proc. SPIE 5037, 236-248 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Wedowski, S. Bajt, J. A. Folta, E. M. Gullikson, U. Kleineberg, L. E. Klebanoff, M. E. Malinowski, and W. M. Clift, “Lifetime studies of Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3767, 217-224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Oestreich, R. Klein, F. Scholze, J. Jonkers, E. Louis, A. Yakshin, P. Gorts, G. Ulm, M. Haidl, and F. Bijkerk, “Multilayer reflectance during exposure to EUV radiation,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 64-71 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Motai, H. Oizumi, S. Miyagaki, I. Nishiyama, A. Izumi, T. Ueno, Y. Miyazaki, and A. Namiki, “Atomic hydrogen cleaning of Ru-capped EUV multilayer mirror,” Proc. SPIE 6517 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Klebanoff, P. A. Grunow, S. Graham, W. M. Clift, A. H. Leung, and S. J. Haney, “Environmental data from the Engineering Test Stand,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 310-315(2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

S. Wurm and K. Kemp, “SEMATECH pushes extreme ultraviolet lithography forward,” http://spie.org/x8865.xml.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

ML1 structure layer thicknesses: in gray, a-Si; and in black, Mo. The abscissa represents the increasing period number starting from the most internal to the external layer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

ML1 and ML4 structures reflectivity curves: solid curve, ML1; and dashed curve, ML4. In the dotted curve the Sn spectrum relative intensity is reported.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Intensity after 10 reflections of the Sn spectrum for the aperiodic ML1 and periodic ML4 structures and (b) the same results for the aperiodic ML2 and periodic ML5 structures. In each figure the dash–dotted line is the performance of the periodic structure and the solid line is the performance of the aperiodic structure. I is the spectrum of the source normalized to the peak emission, which is plotted in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Standing-wave pattern into the structures (a) ML4 and (b) ML1.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Reflectivity peak as a function of the capping layer oxidation; the solid line is the ML1 case and the dashed line is the ML4 case.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Histogram of the thickness deposition error tests for ML1 and ML6 structures.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experimental reflectivity curves of the ML structures overcoated by (a)  Ru/Mo , (b)  Pt/Mo , and (c)  a-Si/Mo capping layers. The solid lines are aperiodic MLs and the dashed lines are periodic MLs.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The x-ray reflectance (XRR) measured from 0 ° to 6 ° (grazing) using Cu K α ( 1.54 Å ) radiation. The structures considered are (a) periodic and (b) aperiodic overcoated by a Ru/Mo capping layer. In both cases the gray lines are the measured data and the black lines are the fitting result.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Experimental reflectivity curves are presented: (a) standard periodic ML and (b) aperiodic chaotic ML. In each case the solid line is a ML with a capping layer of Ru/Mo , the dash–dotted line is a ML with a capping layer of Pt/Mo , and the dashed line is a ML with a capping layer of a-Si/Mo .

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Structural Parameters of ML1, ML2, ML3, ML4, ML5, ML6, and ML7

Tables Icon

Table 2 Second-Order Statistical Analysis

Tables Icon

Table 3 Optical Performances of Experimental Samples

Equations (1)

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MF = 100 · R ( λ ) 10 · I ( λ ) d λ I ( λ ) d λ ,

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