Abstract

We demonstrate a two-color planar laser-induced fluorescence technique for obtaining two-dimensional temperature images in water. For this method, a pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 532nm excites a solution of temperature-sensitive rhodamine 560 and temperature-insensitive sulforhodamine 640. The resulting emissions are optically separated through filters and detected via a charged-couple device (CCD) camera system. A ratio of the two images yields temperature images independent of incident irradiance. An uncertainty in temperature of ±1.4°C is established at the 95% confidence interval.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Sakakibara, K. Hishida, and M. Maeda, “Measurements of thermally stratified pipe flow using image processing techniques,” Exp. Fluids 16, 82-96 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Sakakibara, K. Hishida, and M. Maeda, “Vortex structure and heat transfer in the stagnation region of an impinging plane jet (simultaneous measurements of velocity and temperature fields by digital image velocimetry and laser-induced fluorescence),” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 40, 3163-3176 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Coolen, R. Kieft, C. Rindt, and A. van Steenhoven, “Applications of 2D LIF temperature measurements in water using a Nd:YAG laser,” Exp. Fluids 27, 420-426 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Sakakibara and R. Adrian, “Whole field measurements of temperature in water using two-color laser-induced fluorescence,” Exp. Fluids 26, 7-15 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Gallina, “Development of a two-color laser-induced fluorescence based temperature imaging device with micro-scale resolution,” M.S. thesis (Texas A&M University, 2002).
  6. G. Guilbault, Practical Fluorescence: Theory, Methods and Techniques (Dekker, 1973).
  7. J. Coppeta and C. Rogers, “Dual emission laser-induced fluorescence for direct planar scalar behavior measurements,” Exp. Fluids 25, 1-15 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Robinson, “Heat flow in a blast-furnace hearth using planar laser-induced fluorescence thermometry applied to a water-model vessel,” M.S. thesis (Purdue University, 2006).
  9. D. Roldan, F. Yan, C. Zhou, M. Tripathi, N. Laurendeau, and R. Lucht, “Evaluation of species concentrations in a water model of a blast furnace hearth,” ASME International Mechanical Engineering Conference and Exposition, Orlando, FL, 2005, pp. 82-96.
  10. M. Tripathi, “Evaluation of flow patterns in a blast furnace hearth using laser-based diagnostics applied to a water-model vessel,” M.S. thesis (Purdue University, 2004).

1999 (2)

M. Coolen, R. Kieft, C. Rindt, and A. van Steenhoven, “Applications of 2D LIF temperature measurements in water using a Nd:YAG laser,” Exp. Fluids 27, 420-426 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Sakakibara and R. Adrian, “Whole field measurements of temperature in water using two-color laser-induced fluorescence,” Exp. Fluids 26, 7-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. Coppeta and C. Rogers, “Dual emission laser-induced fluorescence for direct planar scalar behavior measurements,” Exp. Fluids 25, 1-15 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. Sakakibara, K. Hishida, and M. Maeda, “Vortex structure and heat transfer in the stagnation region of an impinging plane jet (simultaneous measurements of velocity and temperature fields by digital image velocimetry and laser-induced fluorescence),” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 40, 3163-3176 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

J. Sakakibara, K. Hishida, and M. Maeda, “Measurements of thermally stratified pipe flow using image processing techniques,” Exp. Fluids 16, 82-96 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Adrian, R.

J. Sakakibara and R. Adrian, “Whole field measurements of temperature in water using two-color laser-induced fluorescence,” Exp. Fluids 26, 7-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Coolen, M.

M. Coolen, R. Kieft, C. Rindt, and A. van Steenhoven, “Applications of 2D LIF temperature measurements in water using a Nd:YAG laser,” Exp. Fluids 27, 420-426 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Coppeta, J.

J. Coppeta and C. Rogers, “Dual emission laser-induced fluorescence for direct planar scalar behavior measurements,” Exp. Fluids 25, 1-15 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gallina, M.

M. Gallina, “Development of a two-color laser-induced fluorescence based temperature imaging device with micro-scale resolution,” M.S. thesis (Texas A&M University, 2002).

Guilbault, G.

G. Guilbault, Practical Fluorescence: Theory, Methods and Techniques (Dekker, 1973).

Hishida, K.

J. Sakakibara, K. Hishida, and M. Maeda, “Vortex structure and heat transfer in the stagnation region of an impinging plane jet (simultaneous measurements of velocity and temperature fields by digital image velocimetry and laser-induced fluorescence),” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 40, 3163-3176 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Sakakibara, K. Hishida, and M. Maeda, “Measurements of thermally stratified pipe flow using image processing techniques,” Exp. Fluids 16, 82-96 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kieft, R.

M. Coolen, R. Kieft, C. Rindt, and A. van Steenhoven, “Applications of 2D LIF temperature measurements in water using a Nd:YAG laser,” Exp. Fluids 27, 420-426 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Laurendeau, N.

D. Roldan, F. Yan, C. Zhou, M. Tripathi, N. Laurendeau, and R. Lucht, “Evaluation of species concentrations in a water model of a blast furnace hearth,” ASME International Mechanical Engineering Conference and Exposition, Orlando, FL, 2005, pp. 82-96.

Lucht, R.

D. Roldan, F. Yan, C. Zhou, M. Tripathi, N. Laurendeau, and R. Lucht, “Evaluation of species concentrations in a water model of a blast furnace hearth,” ASME International Mechanical Engineering Conference and Exposition, Orlando, FL, 2005, pp. 82-96.

Maeda, M.

J. Sakakibara, K. Hishida, and M. Maeda, “Vortex structure and heat transfer in the stagnation region of an impinging plane jet (simultaneous measurements of velocity and temperature fields by digital image velocimetry and laser-induced fluorescence),” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 40, 3163-3176 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Sakakibara, K. Hishida, and M. Maeda, “Measurements of thermally stratified pipe flow using image processing techniques,” Exp. Fluids 16, 82-96 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rindt, C.

M. Coolen, R. Kieft, C. Rindt, and A. van Steenhoven, “Applications of 2D LIF temperature measurements in water using a Nd:YAG laser,” Exp. Fluids 27, 420-426 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, G.

G. Robinson, “Heat flow in a blast-furnace hearth using planar laser-induced fluorescence thermometry applied to a water-model vessel,” M.S. thesis (Purdue University, 2006).

Rogers, C.

J. Coppeta and C. Rogers, “Dual emission laser-induced fluorescence for direct planar scalar behavior measurements,” Exp. Fluids 25, 1-15 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Roldan, D.

D. Roldan, F. Yan, C. Zhou, M. Tripathi, N. Laurendeau, and R. Lucht, “Evaluation of species concentrations in a water model of a blast furnace hearth,” ASME International Mechanical Engineering Conference and Exposition, Orlando, FL, 2005, pp. 82-96.

Sakakibara, J.

J. Sakakibara and R. Adrian, “Whole field measurements of temperature in water using two-color laser-induced fluorescence,” Exp. Fluids 26, 7-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Sakakibara, K. Hishida, and M. Maeda, “Vortex structure and heat transfer in the stagnation region of an impinging plane jet (simultaneous measurements of velocity and temperature fields by digital image velocimetry and laser-induced fluorescence),” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 40, 3163-3176 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Sakakibara, K. Hishida, and M. Maeda, “Measurements of thermally stratified pipe flow using image processing techniques,” Exp. Fluids 16, 82-96 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tripathi, M.

M. Tripathi, “Evaluation of flow patterns in a blast furnace hearth using laser-based diagnostics applied to a water-model vessel,” M.S. thesis (Purdue University, 2004).

D. Roldan, F. Yan, C. Zhou, M. Tripathi, N. Laurendeau, and R. Lucht, “Evaluation of species concentrations in a water model of a blast furnace hearth,” ASME International Mechanical Engineering Conference and Exposition, Orlando, FL, 2005, pp. 82-96.

van Steenhoven, A.

M. Coolen, R. Kieft, C. Rindt, and A. van Steenhoven, “Applications of 2D LIF temperature measurements in water using a Nd:YAG laser,” Exp. Fluids 27, 420-426 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yan, F.

D. Roldan, F. Yan, C. Zhou, M. Tripathi, N. Laurendeau, and R. Lucht, “Evaluation of species concentrations in a water model of a blast furnace hearth,” ASME International Mechanical Engineering Conference and Exposition, Orlando, FL, 2005, pp. 82-96.

Zhou, C.

D. Roldan, F. Yan, C. Zhou, M. Tripathi, N. Laurendeau, and R. Lucht, “Evaluation of species concentrations in a water model of a blast furnace hearth,” ASME International Mechanical Engineering Conference and Exposition, Orlando, FL, 2005, pp. 82-96.

Exp. Fluids (4)

M. Coolen, R. Kieft, C. Rindt, and A. van Steenhoven, “Applications of 2D LIF temperature measurements in water using a Nd:YAG laser,” Exp. Fluids 27, 420-426 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Sakakibara and R. Adrian, “Whole field measurements of temperature in water using two-color laser-induced fluorescence,” Exp. Fluids 26, 7-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Coppeta and C. Rogers, “Dual emission laser-induced fluorescence for direct planar scalar behavior measurements,” Exp. Fluids 25, 1-15 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Sakakibara, K. Hishida, and M. Maeda, “Measurements of thermally stratified pipe flow using image processing techniques,” Exp. Fluids 16, 82-96 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. (1)

J. Sakakibara, K. Hishida, and M. Maeda, “Vortex structure and heat transfer in the stagnation region of an impinging plane jet (simultaneous measurements of velocity and temperature fields by digital image velocimetry and laser-induced fluorescence),” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 40, 3163-3176 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

G. Robinson, “Heat flow in a blast-furnace hearth using planar laser-induced fluorescence thermometry applied to a water-model vessel,” M.S. thesis (Purdue University, 2006).

D. Roldan, F. Yan, C. Zhou, M. Tripathi, N. Laurendeau, and R. Lucht, “Evaluation of species concentrations in a water model of a blast furnace hearth,” ASME International Mechanical Engineering Conference and Exposition, Orlando, FL, 2005, pp. 82-96.

M. Tripathi, “Evaluation of flow patterns in a blast furnace hearth using laser-based diagnostics applied to a water-model vessel,” M.S. thesis (Purdue University, 2004).

M. Gallina, “Development of a two-color laser-induced fluorescence based temperature imaging device with micro-scale resolution,” M.S. thesis (Texas A&M University, 2002).

G. Guilbault, Practical Fluorescence: Theory, Methods and Techniques (Dekker, 1973).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical schematic for two-color PLIF measurements in aqueous environment. HS, harmonic separator; PER, periscope; A1, aperture; CL1, cylindrical lens; SL1, spherical lens; M1, mirror; HNF, holographic notch filter; F1 and F2, bandpass filters.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Emission curves for rhodamine 560 and sulforhodamine 640 upon 532 nm excitation, but without a holographic notch filter to block 532 nm irradiation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

LIF signals detected in the sulforhodamine 640 channel and crosstalk signals detected in the rhodamine 560 channel as functions of temperature for sulforhodamine 640 ( C = 4 × 10 5 mg / ml ).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

LIF signals detected in the rhoadamine 560 channel and crosstalk signals detected in the sulforhoadamine 640 channel as functions of temperature for rhodamine 560 ( C = 1 × 10 3 mg / ml ).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Sulforhodamine 640 ( C = 4 × 10 5 mg / ml ) and rhodamine 560 ( C = 1 × 10 3 mg / ml ) signals normalized with respect to LIF signals at 20 ° C .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Ratio of LIF signals for temperature-sensitive rhodamine 560 and temperature-insensitive sulforhodamine 640 as a function of temperature. All ratios have been normalized by the value at 20 ° C .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Investigation region of the plane diametrical cut through the center of the water-model vessel which contains the fluid outlet. Heated fluid is introduced through an annular region at the top and exits out the side.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Sequence of temperature profiles for the water-model vessel at 800 ml / min ( 2.5 10   min ).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Sequence of temperature profiles for the water-model vessel at 800 ml / min ( 12 20 min ).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Sequence of temperature profiles for the water-model vessel at 800 ml / min ( 24 40 min ).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Sequence of temperature profiles for the water-model vessel at 800 ml / min ( 44 60 min ).

Equations (4)

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I f = β c ϕ I 0 ( 1 e ε b C ) ,
I f = β c ϕ I 0 ε b C .
I A I A = β C A ϕ A ε A C A β C B ϕ B ε B C B .
S = ( 1.025 × 10 2 ± 3.0 × 10 4 ) T + 0.7951 ± 9.1 × 10 3 ,

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