Abstract

A gas sensor based on the gas-correlation technique has been developed using a multimode diode laser (MDL) in a dual-beam detection scheme. Measurement of CO2 mixed with CO as an interfering gas is successfully demonstrated using a 1570nm tunable MDL. Despite overlapping absorption spectra and occasional mode hops, the interfering signals can be effectively excluded by a statistical procedure including correlation analysis and outlier identification. The gas concentration is retrieved from several pair-correlated signals by a linear-regression scheme, yielding a reliable and accurate measurement. This demonstrates the utility of the unsophisticated MDLs as novel light sources for gas detection applications.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2007

R. Bartlome, M. Baer, and M. W. Sigrist, “High-temperature multipass cell for infrared spectroscopy of heated gases and vapors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 013110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Dyroff, P. Weibring, A. Fried, D. Richter, J. G. Walega, A. Zahn, W. Freude, and P. Werle, “Stark-enhanced diode-laser spectroscopy of formaldehyde using a modified Herriott-type multipass cell,” Appl. Phys. B 88, 117-123 (2007).

G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, F. K. Tittel, C. J. Hill, R. Q. Yang, and M. P. Fraser, “Dual interband cascade laser based trace-gas sensor for environmental monitoring,” Appl. Opt. 46, 8202-8210 (2007).

2006

C. Roller, A. Fried, J. Walega, P. Weibring, and F. Tittel, “Advances in hardware, system diagnostics software, and acquisition procedures for high performance airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 247-264 (2006).

A. Cheung, W. Johnstone, and D. Moodie, “Gas detection based on optical correlation spectroscopy using a single light source,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1107-1112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, K. M. Hinckley, and M. A. Woodmansee, “Development of a tunable diode laser sensor for measurements of gas turbine exhaust temperature,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 469-478 (2006).

2005

G. Somesfalean, M. Sjoholm, L. Persson, H. Gao, T. Svensson, and S. Svanberg, “Temporal correlation scheme for spectroscopic gas analysis using multimode diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 184102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

2004

P. Werle, P. Mazzinghi, F. D'Amato, M. De Rosa, K. Maurer, and F. Slemr, “Signal processing and calibration procedures for in situ diode-laser absorption spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 1685-1705 (2004).

A. Yacomotti, L. Furfaro, X. Hachair, F. Pedaci, M. Giudici, J. Tredicce, J. Javaloyes, S. Balle, E. Viktorov, and P. Mandel, “Dynamics of multimode semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 053816 (2004).

2003

J. Dakin, M. Gunning, P. Chambers, and Z. Xin, “Detection of gases by correlation spectroscopy,” Sens. Actuators B 90, 124-131 (2003).

2000

1998

P. Werle, “A review of recent advances in semiconductor laser based gas monitors,” Spectrochim. Acta A 54, 197-236 (1998).

1996

1995

J. P. Dakin, H. O. Edwards, and B. H. Weigl, “Progress with optical gas sensors using correlation spectroscopy,” Sens. Actuators B 29, 87-93 (1995).

1994

P. Werle, B. Scheumann, and J. Schandl, “Real-time signal-processing concepts for trace-gas analysis by diode-laser spectroscopy,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3093-3105 (1994).

1992

1991

1975

Auwera, J. Vander

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Baer, M.

R. Bartlome, M. Baer, and M. W. Sigrist, “High-temperature multipass cell for infrared spectroscopy of heated gases and vapors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 013110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bakhirkin, Y.

Balle, S.

A. Yacomotti, L. Furfaro, X. Hachair, F. Pedaci, M. Giudici, J. Tredicce, J. Javaloyes, S. Balle, E. Viktorov, and P. Mandel, “Dynamics of multimode semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 053816 (2004).

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Bartlome, R.

R. Bartlome, M. Baer, and M. W. Sigrist, “High-temperature multipass cell for infrared spectroscopy of heated gases and vapors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 013110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Carleer, M. R.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Chackerian, C.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Chambers, P.

J. Dakin, M. Gunning, P. Chambers, and Z. Xin, “Detection of gases by correlation spectroscopy,” Sens. Actuators B 90, 124-131 (2003).

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Cheung, A.

A. Cheung, W. Johnstone, and D. Moodie, “Gas detection based on optical correlation spectroscopy using a single light source,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1107-1112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Dakin, J.

J. Dakin, M. Gunning, P. Chambers, and Z. Xin, “Detection of gases by correlation spectroscopy,” Sens. Actuators B 90, 124-131 (2003).

Dakin, J. P.

J. P. Dakin, H. O. Edwards, and B. H. Weigl, “Progress with optical gas sensors using correlation spectroscopy,” Sens. Actuators B 29, 87-93 (1995).

D'Amato, F.

P. Werle, P. Mazzinghi, F. D'Amato, M. De Rosa, K. Maurer, and F. Slemr, “Signal processing and calibration procedures for in situ diode-laser absorption spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 1685-1705 (2004).

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

De Rosa, M.

P. Werle, P. Mazzinghi, F. D'Amato, M. De Rosa, K. Maurer, and F. Slemr, “Signal processing and calibration procedures for in situ diode-laser absorption spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 1685-1705 (2004).

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Dyroff, C.

C. Dyroff, P. Weibring, A. Fried, D. Richter, J. G. Walega, A. Zahn, W. Freude, and P. Werle, “Stark-enhanced diode-laser spectroscopy of formaldehyde using a modified Herriott-type multipass cell,” Appl. Phys. B 88, 117-123 (2007).

Edner, H.

Edwards, H. O.

J. P. Dakin, H. O. Edwards, and B. H. Weigl, “Progress with optical gas sensors using correlation spectroscopy,” Sens. Actuators B 29, 87-93 (1995).

Flaud, J. M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Fraser, M. P.

Freude, W.

C. Dyroff, P. Weibring, A. Fried, D. Richter, J. G. Walega, A. Zahn, W. Freude, and P. Werle, “Stark-enhanced diode-laser spectroscopy of formaldehyde using a modified Herriott-type multipass cell,” Appl. Phys. B 88, 117-123 (2007).

Fried, A.

C. Dyroff, P. Weibring, A. Fried, D. Richter, J. G. Walega, A. Zahn, W. Freude, and P. Werle, “Stark-enhanced diode-laser spectroscopy of formaldehyde using a modified Herriott-type multipass cell,” Appl. Phys. B 88, 117-123 (2007).

C. Roller, A. Fried, J. Walega, P. Weibring, and F. Tittel, “Advances in hardware, system diagnostics software, and acquisition procedures for high performance airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 247-264 (2006).

Furfaro, L.

A. Yacomotti, L. Furfaro, X. Hachair, F. Pedaci, M. Giudici, J. Tredicce, J. Javaloyes, S. Balle, E. Viktorov, and P. Mandel, “Dynamics of multimode semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 053816 (2004).

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Gao, H.

G. Somesfalean, M. Sjoholm, L. Persson, H. Gao, T. Svensson, and S. Svanberg, “Temporal correlation scheme for spectroscopic gas analysis using multimode diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 184102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Giudici, M.

A. Yacomotti, L. Furfaro, X. Hachair, F. Pedaci, M. Giudici, J. Tredicce, J. Javaloyes, S. Balle, E. Viktorov, and P. Mandel, “Dynamics of multimode semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 053816 (2004).

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Gunning, M.

J. Dakin, M. Gunning, P. Chambers, and Z. Xin, “Detection of gases by correlation spectroscopy,” Sens. Actuators B 90, 124-131 (2003).

Hachair, X.

A. Yacomotti, L. Furfaro, X. Hachair, F. Pedaci, M. Giudici, J. Tredicce, J. Javaloyes, S. Balle, E. Viktorov, and P. Mandel, “Dynamics of multimode semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 053816 (2004).

Hanson, R. K.

X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, K. M. Hinckley, and M. A. Woodmansee, “Development of a tunable diode laser sensor for measurements of gas turbine exhaust temperature,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 469-478 (2006).

Hartmann, J. M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Hill, C. J.

Hinckley, K. M.

X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, K. M. Hinckley, and M. A. Woodmansee, “Development of a tunable diode laser sensor for measurements of gas turbine exhaust temperature,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 469-478 (2006).

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Javaloyes, J.

A. Yacomotti, L. Furfaro, X. Hachair, F. Pedaci, M. Giudici, J. Tredicce, J. Javaloyes, S. Balle, E. Viktorov, and P. Mandel, “Dynamics of multimode semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 053816 (2004).

Jeffries, J. B.

X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, K. M. Hinckley, and M. A. Woodmansee, “Development of a tunable diode laser sensor for measurements of gas turbine exhaust temperature,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 469-478 (2006).

Johnstone, W.

A. Cheung, W. Johnstone, and D. Moodie, “Gas detection based on optical correlation spectroscopy using a single light source,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1107-1112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Liu, X.

X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, K. M. Hinckley, and M. A. Woodmansee, “Development of a tunable diode laser sensor for measurements of gas turbine exhaust temperature,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 469-478 (2006).

Maki, A. G.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Mandel, P.

A. Yacomotti, L. Furfaro, X. Hachair, F. Pedaci, M. Giudici, J. Tredicce, J. Javaloyes, S. Balle, E. Viktorov, and P. Mandel, “Dynamics of multimode semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 053816 (2004).

Mandin, J. Y.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Maurer, K.

P. Werle, P. Mazzinghi, F. D'Amato, M. De Rosa, K. Maurer, and F. Slemr, “Signal processing and calibration procedures for in situ diode-laser absorption spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 1685-1705 (2004).

Mazzinghi, P.

P. Werle, P. Mazzinghi, F. D'Amato, M. De Rosa, K. Maurer, and F. Slemr, “Signal processing and calibration procedures for in situ diode-laser absorption spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 1685-1705 (2004).

Moodie, D.

A. Cheung, W. Johnstone, and D. Moodie, “Gas detection based on optical correlation spectroscopy using a single light source,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1107-1112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Orphal, J.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Pedaci, F.

A. Yacomotti, L. Furfaro, X. Hachair, F. Pedaci, M. Giudici, J. Tredicce, J. Javaloyes, S. Balle, E. Viktorov, and P. Mandel, “Dynamics of multimode semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 053816 (2004).

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Persson, L.

G. Somesfalean, M. Sjoholm, L. Persson, H. Gao, T. Svensson, and S. Svanberg, “Temporal correlation scheme for spectroscopic gas analysis using multimode diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 184102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Richter, D.

C. Dyroff, P. Weibring, A. Fried, D. Richter, J. G. Walega, A. Zahn, W. Freude, and P. Werle, “Stark-enhanced diode-laser spectroscopy of formaldehyde using a modified Herriott-type multipass cell,” Appl. Phys. B 88, 117-123 (2007).

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Roller, C.

C. Roller, A. Fried, J. Walega, P. Weibring, and F. Tittel, “Advances in hardware, system diagnostics software, and acquisition procedures for high performance airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 247-264 (2006).

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Sandsten, J.

Schandl, J.

P. Werle, B. Scheumann, and J. Schandl, “Real-time signal-processing concepts for trace-gas analysis by diode-laser spectroscopy,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3093-3105 (1994).

Scheumann, B.

P. Werle, B. Scheumann, and J. Schandl, “Real-time signal-processing concepts for trace-gas analysis by diode-laser spectroscopy,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3093-3105 (1994).

Sigrist, M. W.

R. Bartlome, M. Baer, and M. W. Sigrist, “High-temperature multipass cell for infrared spectroscopy of heated gases and vapors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 013110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Silver, J. A.

Sjoholm, M.

G. Somesfalean, M. Sjoholm, L. Persson, H. Gao, T. Svensson, and S. Svanberg, “Temporal correlation scheme for spectroscopic gas analysis using multimode diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 184102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Slemr, F.

P. Werle, P. Mazzinghi, F. D'Amato, M. De Rosa, K. Maurer, and F. Slemr, “Signal processing and calibration procedures for in situ diode-laser absorption spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 1685-1705 (2004).

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

So, S.

Somesfalean, G.

G. Somesfalean, M. Sjoholm, L. Persson, H. Gao, T. Svensson, and S. Svanberg, “Temporal correlation scheme for spectroscopic gas analysis using multimode diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 184102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Supplee, J. M.

Svanberg, S.

G. Somesfalean, M. Sjoholm, L. Persson, H. Gao, T. Svensson, and S. Svanberg, “Temporal correlation scheme for spectroscopic gas analysis using multimode diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 184102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Sandsten, P. Weibring, H. Edner, and S. Svanberg, “Real-time gas-correlation imaging employing thermal background radiation,” Opt. Express 6, 92-103 (2000).

J. Sandsten, H. Edner, and S. Svanberg, “Gas imaging by infrared gas-correlation spectrometry,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1945-1947 (1996).

Svensson, T.

G. Somesfalean, M. Sjoholm, L. Persson, H. Gao, T. Svensson, and S. Svanberg, “Temporal correlation scheme for spectroscopic gas analysis using multimode diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 184102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tennyson, J.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Tittel, F.

C. Roller, A. Fried, J. Walega, P. Weibring, and F. Tittel, “Advances in hardware, system diagnostics software, and acquisition procedures for high performance airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 247-264 (2006).

Tittel, F. K.

Tolchenov, R. N.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Tredicce, J.

A. Yacomotti, L. Furfaro, X. Hachair, F. Pedaci, M. Giudici, J. Tredicce, J. Javaloyes, S. Balle, E. Viktorov, and P. Mandel, “Dynamics of multimode semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 053816 (2004).

Varanasi, P.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Viktorov, E.

A. Yacomotti, L. Furfaro, X. Hachair, F. Pedaci, M. Giudici, J. Tredicce, J. Javaloyes, S. Balle, E. Viktorov, and P. Mandel, “Dynamics of multimode semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 053816 (2004).

Wagner, G.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Walega, J.

C. Roller, A. Fried, J. Walega, P. Weibring, and F. Tittel, “Advances in hardware, system diagnostics software, and acquisition procedures for high performance airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 247-264 (2006).

Walega, J. G.

C. Dyroff, P. Weibring, A. Fried, D. Richter, J. G. Walega, A. Zahn, W. Freude, and P. Werle, “Stark-enhanced diode-laser spectroscopy of formaldehyde using a modified Herriott-type multipass cell,” Appl. Phys. B 88, 117-123 (2007).

Ward, T. V.

Weibring, P.

C. Dyroff, P. Weibring, A. Fried, D. Richter, J. G. Walega, A. Zahn, W. Freude, and P. Werle, “Stark-enhanced diode-laser spectroscopy of formaldehyde using a modified Herriott-type multipass cell,” Appl. Phys. B 88, 117-123 (2007).

C. Roller, A. Fried, J. Walega, P. Weibring, and F. Tittel, “Advances in hardware, system diagnostics software, and acquisition procedures for high performance airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 247-264 (2006).

J. Sandsten, P. Weibring, H. Edner, and S. Svanberg, “Real-time gas-correlation imaging employing thermal background radiation,” Opt. Express 6, 92-103 (2000).

Weigl, B. H.

J. P. Dakin, H. O. Edwards, and B. H. Weigl, “Progress with optical gas sensors using correlation spectroscopy,” Sens. Actuators B 29, 87-93 (1995).

Werle, P.

C. Dyroff, P. Weibring, A. Fried, D. Richter, J. G. Walega, A. Zahn, W. Freude, and P. Werle, “Stark-enhanced diode-laser spectroscopy of formaldehyde using a modified Herriott-type multipass cell,” Appl. Phys. B 88, 117-123 (2007).

P. Werle, P. Mazzinghi, F. D'Amato, M. De Rosa, K. Maurer, and F. Slemr, “Signal processing and calibration procedures for in situ diode-laser absorption spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 1685-1705 (2004).

P. Werle, “A review of recent advances in semiconductor laser based gas monitors,” Spectrochim. Acta A 54, 197-236 (1998).

P. Werle, B. Scheumann, and J. Schandl, “Real-time signal-processing concepts for trace-gas analysis by diode-laser spectroscopy,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3093-3105 (1994).

Whittaker, E. A.

Wieman, C. E.

C. E. Wieman, “Using diode lasers for atomic physics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 1-20 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Woodmansee, M. A.

X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, K. M. Hinckley, and M. A. Woodmansee, “Development of a tunable diode laser sensor for measurements of gas turbine exhaust temperature,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 469-478 (2006).

Wysocki, G.

Xin, Z.

J. Dakin, M. Gunning, P. Chambers, and Z. Xin, “Detection of gases by correlation spectroscopy,” Sens. Actuators B 90, 124-131 (2003).

Yacomotti, A.

A. Yacomotti, L. Furfaro, X. Hachair, F. Pedaci, M. Giudici, J. Tredicce, J. Javaloyes, S. Balle, E. Viktorov, and P. Mandel, “Dynamics of multimode semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 053816 (2004).

Yang, R. Q.

Zahn, A.

C. Dyroff, P. Weibring, A. Fried, D. Richter, J. G. Walega, A. Zahn, W. Freude, and P. Werle, “Stark-enhanced diode-laser spectroscopy of formaldehyde using a modified Herriott-type multipass cell,” Appl. Phys. B 88, 117-123 (2007).

Zwick, H. H.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

C. Dyroff, P. Weibring, A. Fried, D. Richter, J. G. Walega, A. Zahn, W. Freude, and P. Werle, “Stark-enhanced diode-laser spectroscopy of formaldehyde using a modified Herriott-type multipass cell,” Appl. Phys. B 88, 117-123 (2007).

C. Roller, A. Fried, J. Walega, P. Weibring, and F. Tittel, “Advances in hardware, system diagnostics software, and acquisition procedures for high performance airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 247-264 (2006).

X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, K. M. Hinckley, and M. A. Woodmansee, “Development of a tunable diode laser sensor for measurements of gas turbine exhaust temperature,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 469-478 (2006).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

G. Somesfalean, M. Sjoholm, L. Persson, H. Gao, T. Svensson, and S. Svanberg, “Temporal correlation scheme for spectroscopic gas analysis using multimode diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 184102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Meas. Sci. Technol.

A. Cheung, W. Johnstone, and D. Moodie, “Gas detection based on optical correlation spectroscopy using a single light source,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1107-1112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

P. Werle, B. Scheumann, and J. Schandl, “Real-time signal-processing concepts for trace-gas analysis by diode-laser spectroscopy,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3093-3105 (1994).

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

A. Yacomotti, L. Furfaro, X. Hachair, F. Pedaci, M. Giudici, J. Tredicce, J. Javaloyes, S. Balle, E. Viktorov, and P. Mandel, “Dynamics of multimode semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 053816 (2004).

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

C. E. Wieman, “Using diode lasers for atomic physics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 1-20 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Bartlome, M. Baer, and M. W. Sigrist, “High-temperature multipass cell for infrared spectroscopy of heated gases and vapors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 013110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B

J. Dakin, M. Gunning, P. Chambers, and Z. Xin, “Detection of gases by correlation spectroscopy,” Sens. Actuators B 90, 124-131 (2003).

J. P. Dakin, H. O. Edwards, and B. H. Weigl, “Progress with optical gas sensors using correlation spectroscopy,” Sens. Actuators B 29, 87-93 (1995).

Spectrochim. Acta A

P. Werle, “A review of recent advances in semiconductor laser based gas monitors,” Spectrochim. Acta A 54, 197-236 (1998).

P. Werle, P. Mazzinghi, F. D'Amato, M. De Rosa, K. Maurer, and F. Slemr, “Signal processing and calibration procedures for in situ diode-laser absorption spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 1685-1705 (2004).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for the COSPEC measurements using a MDL: T, temperature control; I, current control; DL, diode laser; BS, beam splitter; M, mirror; SC, sample cell; RC, reference cell; DEF, detector; DAQ, data acquisition; FG, function generator; PCI, peripheral component interface; PC, personal computer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) HITRAN-calculated absorption line intensity of CO 2 and CO around 1570 nm ; (b) multimode spectra of the MDL at 30 ° C (solid line) and 35 ° C (dashed line) at a constant current of 28 mA ; (c) multimode spectra of the MDL at 25 mA (solid line) and at 35 mA (dashed line) at a constant temperature of 30 ° C . Note that the radiation spectra of the MDL and the absorption spectrum of CO 2 greatly overlap. The spectrum change of the MDL is more dependent on the gain-curve variation than on the mode shift.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Sample set of simultaneously recorded WMS signals of the sample (solid line) and the reference (dashed line) cells in a ramp scan. The fitting window with a size of 50 channels represents the portion of the spectrum used in the fitting procedure. Two disturbance signals arising from interfering gas and mode hops are also marked.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Plots of data inside the two fitting windows in Fig. 3. The overlaid solid lines are the SVD-fit results. The fitted background baselines (dashed line) are also shown.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Sample signals plotted versus the corresponding reference signals. The total 387 data points correspond to 387 signal pairs selected from 249 scans during the measurement time of 10 s . The correlation coefficient and the slope represent the degree of correlation and the ratio of signal magnitude between the sample and the reference cells, respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Plot of successive 10 s data acquisitions recorded within 4 min . The standard deviation for the 20 measurements is 0.04% that represents a detection sensitivity of 400 ppm .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Scatterplot between the measured and the calculated concentrations. R 2 = 0.999 indicates a nearly perfect linearity between the retrieved and the calculated concentrations.

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I n = I 0 n exp ( σ n N L ) ,
I = n I 0 n exp ( σ n N L ) ,
I = I 0 exp ( σ N L ) ,
σ = 1 N L ln [ n R n exp ( σ n N L ) ] ,
σ = n R n σ n ,
σ = R n σ n ,
A ( ω c ) = I 0 N L 4 δ ω 2 d 2 σ d ω 2 | ω = ω C ,
N S L S N R L R = A S ( ω c ) / I 0 S A R ( ω c ) / I 0 R ,
S = A 1 R + A 2 + A 3 X + A 4 X 2 ,
SD = i n ( R i R ¯ ) 2 n 1 ,
TC = SD / R ¯ .

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