Abstract

Synthetic aperture interferometry has been previously proposed as a possible in-process method to measure aspheric form (R. Tomlinson, et al., Appl. Opt. 42, 701, 2003.). Preliminary demonstration utilized a scanning probe consisting of a pair of bare single mode fibers to perform source and receive functions. It was found that this probe did not have sufficient numerical aperture (NA) to measure steep surfaces and that simply increasing the NA decreases the light gathering efficiency substantially. In this paper, we introduce supplementary optics to increase the NA, and the light gathering efficiency has been increased by adopting an anamorphic design. A spherical test optic of known form is measured to demonstrate the capability of the new probe design.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. M. G. Stevens, “The application of optical techniques in aspheric surface assessment,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 32, 19-25 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Winger, A. H. Lettington, and P. F. Stillwell, “Diamond machining of flats, spherics, and aspherics,” Proc. SPIE 1320, 322-340 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Xie Jin, Geng An-bing, Xiong Chang-xin, and Wu Xin-jian, “Single-point diamond mirror turning of infrared aspheric lens,” Opt. Precis. Engin. 12, 566-569 (2004).
  4. G. Doughty and J. Smith, “Microcomputer-controlled polishing machine for very smooth and deep aspherical surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2421-2426 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. D. Walker, D. Brooks, A. King, R. Freeman, R. Morton, G. McCawana, and Sug-Whan Kim, “The 'Precessions' tooling for polishing and figuring flat, spherical and aspheric surfaces,” Opt. Express 11, 958-964 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. M. Shanbhag, M. R. Feinberg, G. Sandri, M. N. Horenstein, and T. G. Bifano, “Ion-beam machining of millimeter scale optics,” Appl. Opt. 39, 599-611 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Schindler, G. Boehm, T. Haensel, W. Frank, A. Nickel, B. Rauschenbach, and F. Bigl, “Precision optical asphere fabrication by plasma jet chemical etching (PJCE) and ion beam figuring,” Proc. SPIE 4451, 242-248 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Golini, S. Jacobs, Y. Zhou, E. Fess, M. Atwood, G. D. Kubiak, and D. R. Kania, “Aspheric surface generation requirements for magnetorheological finishing,” in OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics. , Vol. 4, Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, G. D. Kubiak and D. R. Kania, eds. (Opt. Soc. America, 1996), pp. 98-102.
  9. A. B. Shorey, S. D. Jacobs, W. I. Kordonski, and R. F. Gans, “Experiments and observations regarding the mechanisms of glass removal in magnetorheological finishing,” Appl. Opt. 40, 20-23 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. Pruss and H. J. Tiziani, “Dynamic null lens for aspheric testing using a membrane mirror,” Opt. Commun. 233, 15-19 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. C. Wyant and V. P. Bennett, “Using computer generated holograms to test aspheric wavefronts,” Appl. Opt. 11, 2833-2839 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. Tomlinson, J. M. Coupland, and J. Petzing, “Synthetic aperture interferometry: in-process measurement of aspheric optics,” Appl. Opt. 42, 701-707 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. M. Huntley, “Suppression of phase errors from vibration in phase-shifting interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2233-2241 (1998)
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Servin and R. Rodriguez-Vera, “Two-dimensional phase locked loop demodulation of interferograms,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 2087-2094 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (2)

Xie Jin, Geng An-bing, Xiong Chang-xin, and Wu Xin-jian, “Single-point diamond mirror turning of infrared aspheric lens,” Opt. Precis. Engin. 12, 566-569 (2004).

B. Pruss and H. J. Tiziani, “Dynamic null lens for aspheric testing using a membrane mirror,” Opt. Commun. 233, 15-19 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

2001 (2)

A. Schindler, G. Boehm, T. Haensel, W. Frank, A. Nickel, B. Rauschenbach, and F. Bigl, “Precision optical asphere fabrication by plasma jet chemical etching (PJCE) and ion beam figuring,” Proc. SPIE 4451, 242-248 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Shorey, S. D. Jacobs, W. I. Kordonski, and R. F. Gans, “Experiments and observations regarding the mechanisms of glass removal in magnetorheological finishing,” Appl. Opt. 40, 20-23 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

1993 (1)

M. Servin and R. Rodriguez-Vera, “Two-dimensional phase locked loop demodulation of interferograms,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 2087-2094 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

D. M. G. Stevens, “The application of optical techniques in aspheric surface assessment,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 32, 19-25 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

R. Winger, A. H. Lettington, and P. F. Stillwell, “Diamond machining of flats, spherics, and aspherics,” Proc. SPIE 1320, 322-340 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1972 (1)

An-bing, Geng

Xie Jin, Geng An-bing, Xiong Chang-xin, and Wu Xin-jian, “Single-point diamond mirror turning of infrared aspheric lens,” Opt. Precis. Engin. 12, 566-569 (2004).

Atwood, M.

D. Golini, S. Jacobs, Y. Zhou, E. Fess, M. Atwood, G. D. Kubiak, and D. R. Kania, “Aspheric surface generation requirements for magnetorheological finishing,” in OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics. , Vol. 4, Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, G. D. Kubiak and D. R. Kania, eds. (Opt. Soc. America, 1996), pp. 98-102.

Bennett, V. P.

Bifano, T. G.

Bigl, F.

A. Schindler, G. Boehm, T. Haensel, W. Frank, A. Nickel, B. Rauschenbach, and F. Bigl, “Precision optical asphere fabrication by plasma jet chemical etching (PJCE) and ion beam figuring,” Proc. SPIE 4451, 242-248 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boehm, G.

A. Schindler, G. Boehm, T. Haensel, W. Frank, A. Nickel, B. Rauschenbach, and F. Bigl, “Precision optical asphere fabrication by plasma jet chemical etching (PJCE) and ion beam figuring,” Proc. SPIE 4451, 242-248 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brooks, D.

Chang-xin, Xiong

Xie Jin, Geng An-bing, Xiong Chang-xin, and Wu Xin-jian, “Single-point diamond mirror turning of infrared aspheric lens,” Opt. Precis. Engin. 12, 566-569 (2004).

Coupland, J. M.

Doughty, G.

Feinberg, M. R.

Fess, E.

D. Golini, S. Jacobs, Y. Zhou, E. Fess, M. Atwood, G. D. Kubiak, and D. R. Kania, “Aspheric surface generation requirements for magnetorheological finishing,” in OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics. , Vol. 4, Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, G. D. Kubiak and D. R. Kania, eds. (Opt. Soc. America, 1996), pp. 98-102.

Frank, W.

A. Schindler, G. Boehm, T. Haensel, W. Frank, A. Nickel, B. Rauschenbach, and F. Bigl, “Precision optical asphere fabrication by plasma jet chemical etching (PJCE) and ion beam figuring,” Proc. SPIE 4451, 242-248 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, R.

Gans, R. F.

Golini, D.

D. Golini, S. Jacobs, Y. Zhou, E. Fess, M. Atwood, G. D. Kubiak, and D. R. Kania, “Aspheric surface generation requirements for magnetorheological finishing,” in OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics. , Vol. 4, Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, G. D. Kubiak and D. R. Kania, eds. (Opt. Soc. America, 1996), pp. 98-102.

Haensel, T.

A. Schindler, G. Boehm, T. Haensel, W. Frank, A. Nickel, B. Rauschenbach, and F. Bigl, “Precision optical asphere fabrication by plasma jet chemical etching (PJCE) and ion beam figuring,” Proc. SPIE 4451, 242-248 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Horenstein, M. N.

Huntley, J. M.

Jacobs, S.

D. Golini, S. Jacobs, Y. Zhou, E. Fess, M. Atwood, G. D. Kubiak, and D. R. Kania, “Aspheric surface generation requirements for magnetorheological finishing,” in OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics. , Vol. 4, Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, G. D. Kubiak and D. R. Kania, eds. (Opt. Soc. America, 1996), pp. 98-102.

Jacobs, S. D.

Jin, Xie

Xie Jin, Geng An-bing, Xiong Chang-xin, and Wu Xin-jian, “Single-point diamond mirror turning of infrared aspheric lens,” Opt. Precis. Engin. 12, 566-569 (2004).

Kania, D. R.

D. Golini, S. Jacobs, Y. Zhou, E. Fess, M. Atwood, G. D. Kubiak, and D. R. Kania, “Aspheric surface generation requirements for magnetorheological finishing,” in OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics. , Vol. 4, Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, G. D. Kubiak and D. R. Kania, eds. (Opt. Soc. America, 1996), pp. 98-102.

Kim, Sug-Whan

King, A.

Kordonski, W. I.

Kubiak, G. D.

D. Golini, S. Jacobs, Y. Zhou, E. Fess, M. Atwood, G. D. Kubiak, and D. R. Kania, “Aspheric surface generation requirements for magnetorheological finishing,” in OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics. , Vol. 4, Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, G. D. Kubiak and D. R. Kania, eds. (Opt. Soc. America, 1996), pp. 98-102.

Lettington, A. H.

R. Winger, A. H. Lettington, and P. F. Stillwell, “Diamond machining of flats, spherics, and aspherics,” Proc. SPIE 1320, 322-340 (1990).
[CrossRef]

McCawana, G.

Morton, R.

Nickel, A.

A. Schindler, G. Boehm, T. Haensel, W. Frank, A. Nickel, B. Rauschenbach, and F. Bigl, “Precision optical asphere fabrication by plasma jet chemical etching (PJCE) and ion beam figuring,” Proc. SPIE 4451, 242-248 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Petzing, J.

Pruss, B.

B. Pruss and H. J. Tiziani, “Dynamic null lens for aspheric testing using a membrane mirror,” Opt. Commun. 233, 15-19 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rauschenbach, B.

A. Schindler, G. Boehm, T. Haensel, W. Frank, A. Nickel, B. Rauschenbach, and F. Bigl, “Precision optical asphere fabrication by plasma jet chemical etching (PJCE) and ion beam figuring,” Proc. SPIE 4451, 242-248 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez-Vera, R.

M. Servin and R. Rodriguez-Vera, “Two-dimensional phase locked loop demodulation of interferograms,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 2087-2094 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sandri, G.

Schindler, A.

A. Schindler, G. Boehm, T. Haensel, W. Frank, A. Nickel, B. Rauschenbach, and F. Bigl, “Precision optical asphere fabrication by plasma jet chemical etching (PJCE) and ion beam figuring,” Proc. SPIE 4451, 242-248 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Servin, M.

M. Servin and R. Rodriguez-Vera, “Two-dimensional phase locked loop demodulation of interferograms,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 2087-2094 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shanbhag, P. M.

Shorey, A. B.

Smith, J.

Stevens, D. M. G.

D. M. G. Stevens, “The application of optical techniques in aspheric surface assessment,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 32, 19-25 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stillwell, P. F.

R. Winger, A. H. Lettington, and P. F. Stillwell, “Diamond machining of flats, spherics, and aspherics,” Proc. SPIE 1320, 322-340 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tiziani, H. J.

B. Pruss and H. J. Tiziani, “Dynamic null lens for aspheric testing using a membrane mirror,” Opt. Commun. 233, 15-19 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tomlinson, R.

Walker, D. D.

Winger, R.

R. Winger, A. H. Lettington, and P. F. Stillwell, “Diamond machining of flats, spherics, and aspherics,” Proc. SPIE 1320, 322-340 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wyant, J. C.

Xin-jian, Wu

Xie Jin, Geng An-bing, Xiong Chang-xin, and Wu Xin-jian, “Single-point diamond mirror turning of infrared aspheric lens,” Opt. Precis. Engin. 12, 566-569 (2004).

Zhou, Y.

D. Golini, S. Jacobs, Y. Zhou, E. Fess, M. Atwood, G. D. Kubiak, and D. R. Kania, “Aspheric surface generation requirements for magnetorheological finishing,” in OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics. , Vol. 4, Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, G. D. Kubiak and D. R. Kania, eds. (Opt. Soc. America, 1996), pp. 98-102.

Appl. Opt. (5)

Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. (1)

D. M. G. Stevens, “The application of optical techniques in aspheric surface assessment,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 32, 19-25 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

M. Servin and R. Rodriguez-Vera, “Two-dimensional phase locked loop demodulation of interferograms,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 2087-2094 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

B. Pruss and H. J. Tiziani, “Dynamic null lens for aspheric testing using a membrane mirror,” Opt. Commun. 233, 15-19 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Precis. Engin. (1)

Xie Jin, Geng An-bing, Xiong Chang-xin, and Wu Xin-jian, “Single-point diamond mirror turning of infrared aspheric lens,” Opt. Precis. Engin. 12, 566-569 (2004).

Proc. SPIE (2)

R. Winger, A. H. Lettington, and P. F. Stillwell, “Diamond machining of flats, spherics, and aspherics,” Proc. SPIE 1320, 322-340 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Schindler, G. Boehm, T. Haensel, W. Frank, A. Nickel, B. Rauschenbach, and F. Bigl, “Precision optical asphere fabrication by plasma jet chemical etching (PJCE) and ion beam figuring,” Proc. SPIE 4451, 242-248 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

D. Golini, S. Jacobs, Y. Zhou, E. Fess, M. Atwood, G. D. Kubiak, and D. R. Kania, “Aspheric surface generation requirements for magnetorheological finishing,” in OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics. , Vol. 4, Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, G. D. Kubiak and D. R. Kania, eds. (Opt. Soc. America, 1996), pp. 98-102.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Synthetic aperture interferometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Optical schematic of the anamorphic probe in the radial plane, (b) Optical schematic of the anamorphic probe in the tangential plane.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

3D model of the probe.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Block diagram of the experimental setup.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Interference signal.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured surface deviation.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Gray scale image of the surface form error of the test surface.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Surface form error due to probe distance, tilt and decentration.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison Between Anamorphic and Bare Fiber Probe

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

OPD = 2 { [ ( x p x f 1 ) 2 + y f 1 2 ] 1 / 2 [ ( x f 2 x p ) 2 + y f 2 2 ] 1 / 2 [ n ( y r y f 2 ) ] } ,
I ( x p ) = 2 I r { 1 + cos [ 2 π OPD ( x p ) λ ] } .
OPD meas ( x p ) = λ 2 π [ cos 1 ( I ( x p ) / 2 I r 1 ) ] ,
Δ OPD = OPD meas OPD .
Δ OPD = OPD y f 1 Δ y f 1 + OPD y f 2 Δ y f 2 .
Δ OPD = 2 ( [ ( x p x f 1 ) 2 + ( y f 1 ) 2 ] 1 / 2 y f 1 Δ y f 1 { [ ( x f 2 x p ) 2 + ( y f 2 ) 2 ] 1 / 2 y f 2 n } Δ y f 2 ) .

Metrics