Abstract

The characterization of a charged-coupled device (CCD) spectrograph developed at the Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics, Thessaloniki is presented. The absolute sensitivity of the instrument for direct irradiance and sky radiance measurements was determined, respectively, with an uncertainty of 4.4% and 6.6% in the UV-B, and 3% and 6% in the UV-A, visible and near-infrared (NIR) wavelength ranges. The overall uncertainty associated with the direct irradiance and the sky radiance measurements is, respectively, of the order of 5% and 7% in the UV-B, increasing to 10% for low signals [e.g., at solar zenith angles (SZAs) larger than 70°], and 4% and 6% in the UV-A, visible, and NIR. Direct solar spectral irradiance measurements from an independently calibrated spectroradiometer (Bentham DTM 300) were compared with the corresponding CCD measurements. Their agreement in the wavelength range of 310500nm is within 0.5%±1.1% (for SZA between 20° and 70°). Aerosol optical depth (AOD) derived by the two instruments using direct Sun spectra and by a collocated Cimel sunphotometer [Aerosol Robotic network (AERONET)] agree to within 0.02±0.02 in the range of 315870nm. Significant correlation coefficients with a maximum of 0.99 in the range of 340360nm and a minimum of 0.90 at 870nm were found between synchronous AOD measurements with the Bentham and the Cimel instruments.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2007 (1)

E. Jäkel, M. Wendisch, M. Blumthaler, R. Schmitt, and A. R. Webb, “A CCD spectroradiometer for ultraviolet actinic radiation measurements,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 24, 449-462 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

M. R. Dobber, R. J. Dirksen, P. F. Levelt, G. H. J. Van Den Oord, R. H. M. Voors, Q. Kleipool, G. Jaross, M. Kowalewski, E. Hilsenrath, G. W. Leppelmeier, J. De Vries, W. Dierssen, and N. C. Rozemeijer, “Ozone monitoring instrument calibration,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1209-1238(2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Cede, J. Herman, A. Richter, N. Krotkov, and J. Burrows, ”Measurements of nitrogen dioxide total column amounts using a Brewer double spectrophotometer in direct Sun mode,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D05304, (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

N. A. Krotkov, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, J. R. Slusser, G. R. R. Scott, G. J. Labow, A. P. P. Vasilkov, T. Eck, O. Doubovik, and B. N. Holben, “Aerosol ultraviolet absorption experiment (2002 to 2004), part 2: absorption optical thickness, refractive index, and single scattering albedo,” Opt. Eng. 44, 1-17 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Kazadzis, A. Bais, N. Kouremeti, E. Gerasopoulos, K. Garane, M. Blumthaler, B. Schallhart, and A. Cede, “Direct spectral measurements with a Brewer spectroradiometer: absolute calibration and aerosol optical depth retrieval,” Appl. Opt. 44, 1681-1690 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Vandaele, C. Fayt, F. Hendrick, C. Hermans, F. Humbled, M. Van ozendael, M. Gil, M. Navarro, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, G. Braathen, K. Stebel, K. Tornkvist, P. Johnston, K. Kreher, F. Goutail, A. Mieville, J. P. Pommereau, S. Khaikine, A. Richter, H. Oetjen, F. Wittrock, S. Bugarski, U. Friess, K. Pfeilsticker, R. Sinreich, T. Wagner, G. Corlett, and R. Leigh, “An intercomparison campaign of ground-based UV-visible measurements of NO2, BrO, and OClO slant columns: methods of analysis and results for NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D08305, doi: 10.1029/2004JD005423 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

F. Wittrock, H. Oetjen, A. Richter, S. Fietkau, T. Medeke, A. Rozanov, and J. P. Burrows, “MAX-DOAS measurements of atmospheric trace gases in Ny-Ålesund- Radiative transfer studies and their application,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 955-966(2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Hönninger, C. von Friedeburg, and U. Platt, “Multi axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS),” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 231-254 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Gueymard, “The sun's total and spectral irradiance for solar energy applications and solar radiation models,” Sol. Energy 76, 423-453 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. L. Petters, V. K. Saxena, J. R. Slusser, B. N. Wenny, and S. Madronich, “Aerosol single scattering albedo retrieved from measurements of surface UV irradiance and a radiative transfer model,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D9), 4288, doi:10.1029/2002JD002360 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. R. Webb, R. Kift, S. Thiel, A. Bais, M. Blumthaler, A. Kylling, and R. M. Schmitt, “Empirical approach to converting spectral UV measurements to actinic flux data,” Proc. SPIE 4482, 104-114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

J. Gröbner and J. B. Kerr, “Ground-based determination of the spectral ultraviolet extraterrestrial solar irradiance: providing a link between space-based and ground-based solar UV measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D7), 7211-7217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, and A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D12), 12509-12525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Schmid, J. J. Michalsky, D. W. Slater, J. C. Barnard, R. N. Halthore, J. C. Liljegren, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, T. Ingold, and I. Slutsker, “Comparison of columnar water-vapor measurements from solar transmittance methods,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1886-1896(2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

S. Kazadzis, A. F. Bais, D. Balis, C. S. Zerefos, and M. Blumthaler, “Retrieval of downwelling UV actinic flux density spectra from spectral measurements of global and direct solar UV irradiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105(D4), 4857-4864(2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik and M. D. King, “A flexible inversion algorithm for retrieval of aerosol optical properties from Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105(D16), 20673-20696 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman, T. F. Eck, and I. Slutsker, “Accuracy assessments of aerosol optical properties retrieved from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105(D8), 9791-9806 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

G. Bernhard and G. Seckmeyer, “Uncertainty of measurements of spectral solar UV irradiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 104(D12), 14321-14345 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16(1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Sandmeier, C. Muller, B. Hosgood, and G. Andreoli, “Sensitivity analysis and quality assessment of laboratory BRDF data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 64, 176-191 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

A. F. Bais, C. S. Zerefos, and C. T. McElroy, “Solar UVB measurements with the double- and single-monochromator Brewer ozone spectrophotometers,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 833-836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

M. Van Weele, J. V.-G. D. Arellano, and F. Kuik, “Combined measurements of UV-A actinic flux, UV-A irradiance and global radiation in relation to photodissociation rates,” Tellus Ser.B 1 47, 353-364 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Huber, M. Blumthaler, W. Ambach, and J. Staehelin, “Total atmospheric ozone determined from spectral measurements of direct solar UV irradiance,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 53-56(1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Slaper, H. A. J. M. Reinen, M. Blumthaler, M. Huber, and F. Kuik, “Comparing ground-level spectrally resolved solar UV measurements using various instruments: a technique resolving effects of wavelength shift and slit width,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2721-2724 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

A. C. Vandaele, P. C. Simon, J. M. Guilmot, M. Carleer, and R. Colin, “SO2 absorption cross section measurement in the UV using a Fourier transform spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 25599-52605 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, and W. F. J. Evans, “Mid latitude summertime measurements of stratospheric NO2,” Can. J. Phys. 60, 196-200 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

J. E. Hansen and L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527-610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Ambach, W.

M. Huber, M. Blumthaler, W. Ambach, and J. Staehelin, “Total atmospheric ozone determined from spectral measurements of direct solar UV irradiance,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 53-56(1995).
[CrossRef]

Andreoli, G.

C. Sandmeier, C. Muller, B. Hosgood, and G. Andreoli, “Sensitivity analysis and quality assessment of laboratory BRDF data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 64, 176-191 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Arellano, J. V.-G. D.

M. Van Weele, J. V.-G. D. Arellano, and F. Kuik, “Combined measurements of UV-A actinic flux, UV-A irradiance and global radiation in relation to photodissociation rates,” Tellus Ser.B 1 47, 353-364 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bais, A.

S. Kazadzis, A. Bais, N. Kouremeti, E. Gerasopoulos, K. Garane, M. Blumthaler, B. Schallhart, and A. Cede, “Direct spectral measurements with a Brewer spectroradiometer: absolute calibration and aerosol optical depth retrieval,” Appl. Opt. 44, 1681-1690 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Webb, R. Kift, S. Thiel, A. Bais, M. Blumthaler, A. Kylling, and R. M. Schmitt, “Empirical approach to converting spectral UV measurements to actinic flux data,” Proc. SPIE 4482, 104-114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, and C. Roy, “Instruments to measure solar ultraviolet irradiance. Part 1: Spectral instruments,” in Global Atmospheric Watch Report No. 125, TD No. 1066 (World Meteorological Organization, Geneve, Switzerland, 2001) p. 30.

Bais, A. F.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, and A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D12), 12509-12525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Kazadzis, A. F. Bais, D. Balis, C. S. Zerefos, and M. Blumthaler, “Retrieval of downwelling UV actinic flux density spectra from spectral measurements of global and direct solar UV irradiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105(D4), 4857-4864(2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Marenco, V. Santacesaria, A. F. Bais, U. Balis, A. diSarra, A. Papayannis, and C. Zerefos, “Optical properties of tropospheric aerosols determined by lidar and spectrophotometric measurements (Photochemical Activity and Solar Ultraviolet Radiation campaign),” Appl. Opt. 36, 6875-6886 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Bais, C. S. Zerefos, and C. T. McElroy, “Solar UVB measurements with the double- and single-monochromator Brewer ozone spectrophotometers,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 833-836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Bais, “Spectrometers: operational errors and uncertainties,” C. S. Zerefos and A. F. Bais, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 1997), pp. 163-173.

A. F. Bais, ”Absolute spectral measurements of direct solar ultraviolet irradiance with a Brewer spectrophotometer,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5199-5204 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balis, D.

S. Kazadzis, A. F. Bais, D. Balis, C. S. Zerefos, and M. Blumthaler, “Retrieval of downwelling UV actinic flux density spectra from spectral measurements of global and direct solar UV irradiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105(D4), 4857-4864(2000).
[CrossRef]

Balis, U.

Barnard, J. C.

Bass, A. M.

A. M. Bass and R. J. Paur, “The ultraviolet cross-sections of ozone: I. The measurements,” presented at Atmospheric Ozone; Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Halkidiki, Greece, 3-7 Sept. 1984.

Bernhard, G.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, and A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D12), 12509-12525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Bernhard and G. Seckmeyer, “Uncertainty of measurements of spectral solar UV irradiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 104(D12), 14321-14345 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, and C. Roy, “Instruments to measure solar ultraviolet irradiance. Part 1: Spectral instruments,” in Global Atmospheric Watch Report No. 125, TD No. 1066 (World Meteorological Organization, Geneve, Switzerland, 2001) p. 30.

Bhartia, P. K.

N. A. Krotkov, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, J. R. Slusser, G. R. R. Scott, G. J. Labow, A. P. P. Vasilkov, T. Eck, O. Doubovik, and B. N. Holben, “Aerosol ultraviolet absorption experiment (2002 to 2004), part 2: absorption optical thickness, refractive index, and single scattering albedo,” Opt. Eng. 44, 1-17 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Blumthaler, M.

E. Jäkel, M. Wendisch, M. Blumthaler, R. Schmitt, and A. R. Webb, “A CCD spectroradiometer for ultraviolet actinic radiation measurements,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 24, 449-462 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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H. Slaper, H. A. J. M. Reinen, M. Blumthaler, M. Huber, and F. Kuik, “Comparing ground-level spectrally resolved solar UV measurements using various instruments: a technique resolving effects of wavelength shift and slit width,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2721-2724 (1995).
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Booth, C. R.

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, and C. Roy, “Instruments to measure solar ultraviolet irradiance. Part 1: Spectral instruments,” in Global Atmospheric Watch Report No. 125, TD No. 1066 (World Meteorological Organization, Geneve, Switzerland, 2001) p. 30.

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A. C. Vandaele, C. Fayt, F. Hendrick, C. Hermans, F. Humbled, M. Van ozendael, M. Gil, M. Navarro, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, G. Braathen, K. Stebel, K. Tornkvist, P. Johnston, K. Kreher, F. Goutail, A. Mieville, J. P. Pommereau, S. Khaikine, A. Richter, H. Oetjen, F. Wittrock, S. Bugarski, U. Friess, K. Pfeilsticker, R. Sinreich, T. Wagner, G. Corlett, and R. Leigh, “An intercomparison campaign of ground-based UV-visible measurements of NO2, BrO, and OClO slant columns: methods of analysis and results for NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D08305, doi: 10.1029/2004JD005423 (2005).
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A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, and A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D12), 12509-12525 (2001).
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Bugarski, S.

A. C. Vandaele, C. Fayt, F. Hendrick, C. Hermans, F. Humbled, M. Van ozendael, M. Gil, M. Navarro, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, G. Braathen, K. Stebel, K. Tornkvist, P. Johnston, K. Kreher, F. Goutail, A. Mieville, J. P. Pommereau, S. Khaikine, A. Richter, H. Oetjen, F. Wittrock, S. Bugarski, U. Friess, K. Pfeilsticker, R. Sinreich, T. Wagner, G. Corlett, and R. Leigh, “An intercomparison campaign of ground-based UV-visible measurements of NO2, BrO, and OClO slant columns: methods of analysis and results for NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D08305, doi: 10.1029/2004JD005423 (2005).
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B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16(1998).
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A. Cede, J. Herman, A. Richter, N. Krotkov, and J. Burrows, ”Measurements of nitrogen dioxide total column amounts using a Brewer double spectrophotometer in direct Sun mode,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D05304, (2006).
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Burrows, J. P.

F. Wittrock, H. Oetjen, A. Richter, S. Fietkau, T. Medeke, A. Rozanov, and J. P. Burrows, “MAX-DOAS measurements of atmospheric trace gases in Ny-Ålesund- Radiative transfer studies and their application,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 955-966(2004).
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A. C. Vandaele, P. C. Simon, J. M. Guilmot, M. Carleer, and R. Colin, “SO2 absorption cross section measurement in the UV using a Fourier transform spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 25599-52605 (1994).
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Cede, A.

A. Cede, J. Herman, A. Richter, N. Krotkov, and J. Burrows, ”Measurements of nitrogen dioxide total column amounts using a Brewer double spectrophotometer in direct Sun mode,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D05304, (2006).
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S. Kazadzis, A. Bais, N. Kouremeti, E. Gerasopoulos, K. Garane, M. Blumthaler, B. Schallhart, and A. Cede, “Direct spectral measurements with a Brewer spectroradiometer: absolute calibration and aerosol optical depth retrieval,” Appl. Opt. 44, 1681-1690 (2005).
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A. C. Vandaele, P. C. Simon, J. M. Guilmot, M. Carleer, and R. Colin, “SO2 absorption cross section measurement in the UV using a Fourier transform spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 25599-52605 (1994).
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A. C. Vandaele, C. Fayt, F. Hendrick, C. Hermans, F. Humbled, M. Van ozendael, M. Gil, M. Navarro, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, G. Braathen, K. Stebel, K. Tornkvist, P. Johnston, K. Kreher, F. Goutail, A. Mieville, J. P. Pommereau, S. Khaikine, A. Richter, H. Oetjen, F. Wittrock, S. Bugarski, U. Friess, K. Pfeilsticker, R. Sinreich, T. Wagner, G. Corlett, and R. Leigh, “An intercomparison campaign of ground-based UV-visible measurements of NO2, BrO, and OClO slant columns: methods of analysis and results for NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D08305, doi: 10.1029/2004JD005423 (2005).
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Disterhoft, P.

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, and C. Roy, “Instruments to measure solar ultraviolet irradiance. Part 1: Spectral instruments,” in Global Atmospheric Watch Report No. 125, TD No. 1066 (World Meteorological Organization, Geneve, Switzerland, 2001) p. 30.

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M. R. Dobber, R. J. Dirksen, P. F. Levelt, G. H. J. Van Den Oord, R. H. M. Voors, Q. Kleipool, G. Jaross, M. Kowalewski, E. Hilsenrath, G. W. Leppelmeier, J. De Vries, W. Dierssen, and N. C. Rozemeijer, “Ozone monitoring instrument calibration,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1209-1238(2006).
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N. A. Krotkov, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, J. R. Slusser, G. R. R. Scott, G. J. Labow, A. P. P. Vasilkov, T. Eck, O. Doubovik, and B. N. Holben, “Aerosol ultraviolet absorption experiment (2002 to 2004), part 2: absorption optical thickness, refractive index, and single scattering albedo,” Opt. Eng. 44, 1-17 (2005).
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N. A. Krotkov, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, J. R. Slusser, G. R. R. Scott, G. J. Labow, A. P. P. Vasilkov, T. Eck, O. Doubovik, and B. N. Holben, “Aerosol ultraviolet absorption experiment (2002 to 2004), part 2: absorption optical thickness, refractive index, and single scattering albedo,” Opt. Eng. 44, 1-17 (2005).
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B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16(1998).
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A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, and A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D12), 12509-12525 (2001).
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A. C. Vandaele, C. Fayt, F. Hendrick, C. Hermans, F. Humbled, M. Van ozendael, M. Gil, M. Navarro, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, G. Braathen, K. Stebel, K. Tornkvist, P. Johnston, K. Kreher, F. Goutail, A. Mieville, J. P. Pommereau, S. Khaikine, A. Richter, H. Oetjen, F. Wittrock, S. Bugarski, U. Friess, K. Pfeilsticker, R. Sinreich, T. Wagner, G. Corlett, and R. Leigh, “An intercomparison campaign of ground-based UV-visible measurements of NO2, BrO, and OClO slant columns: methods of analysis and results for NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D08305, doi: 10.1029/2004JD005423 (2005).
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F. Wittrock, H. Oetjen, A. Richter, S. Fietkau, T. Medeke, A. Rozanov, and J. P. Burrows, “MAX-DOAS measurements of atmospheric trace gases in Ny-Ålesund- Radiative transfer studies and their application,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 955-966(2004).
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A. C. Vandaele, C. Fayt, F. Hendrick, C. Hermans, F. Humbled, M. Van ozendael, M. Gil, M. Navarro, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, G. Braathen, K. Stebel, K. Tornkvist, P. Johnston, K. Kreher, F. Goutail, A. Mieville, J. P. Pommereau, S. Khaikine, A. Richter, H. Oetjen, F. Wittrock, S. Bugarski, U. Friess, K. Pfeilsticker, R. Sinreich, T. Wagner, G. Corlett, and R. Leigh, “An intercomparison campaign of ground-based UV-visible measurements of NO2, BrO, and OClO slant columns: methods of analysis and results for NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D08305, doi: 10.1029/2004JD005423 (2005).
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A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, and A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D12), 12509-12525 (2001).
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A. C. Vandaele, C. Fayt, F. Hendrick, C. Hermans, F. Humbled, M. Van ozendael, M. Gil, M. Navarro, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, G. Braathen, K. Stebel, K. Tornkvist, P. Johnston, K. Kreher, F. Goutail, A. Mieville, J. P. Pommereau, S. Khaikine, A. Richter, H. Oetjen, F. Wittrock, S. Bugarski, U. Friess, K. Pfeilsticker, R. Sinreich, T. Wagner, G. Corlett, and R. Leigh, “An intercomparison campaign of ground-based UV-visible measurements of NO2, BrO, and OClO slant columns: methods of analysis and results for NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D08305, doi: 10.1029/2004JD005423 (2005).
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A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, and A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D12), 12509-12525 (2001).
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A. C. Vandaele, C. Fayt, F. Hendrick, C. Hermans, F. Humbled, M. Van ozendael, M. Gil, M. Navarro, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, G. Braathen, K. Stebel, K. Tornkvist, P. Johnston, K. Kreher, F. Goutail, A. Mieville, J. P. Pommereau, S. Khaikine, A. Richter, H. Oetjen, F. Wittrock, S. Bugarski, U. Friess, K. Pfeilsticker, R. Sinreich, T. Wagner, G. Corlett, and R. Leigh, “An intercomparison campaign of ground-based UV-visible measurements of NO2, BrO, and OClO slant columns: methods of analysis and results for NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D08305, doi: 10.1029/2004JD005423 (2005).
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A. C. Vandaele, C. Fayt, F. Hendrick, C. Hermans, F. Humbled, M. Van ozendael, M. Gil, M. Navarro, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, G. Braathen, K. Stebel, K. Tornkvist, P. Johnston, K. Kreher, F. Goutail, A. Mieville, J. P. Pommereau, S. Khaikine, A. Richter, H. Oetjen, F. Wittrock, S. Bugarski, U. Friess, K. Pfeilsticker, R. Sinreich, T. Wagner, G. Corlett, and R. Leigh, “An intercomparison campaign of ground-based UV-visible measurements of NO2, BrO, and OClO slant columns: methods of analysis and results for NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D08305, doi: 10.1029/2004JD005423 (2005).
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A. Cede, J. Herman, A. Richter, N. Krotkov, and J. Burrows, ”Measurements of nitrogen dioxide total column amounts using a Brewer double spectrophotometer in direct Sun mode,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D05304, (2006).
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N. A. Krotkov, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, J. R. Slusser, G. R. R. Scott, G. J. Labow, A. P. P. Vasilkov, T. Eck, O. Doubovik, and B. N. Holben, “Aerosol ultraviolet absorption experiment (2002 to 2004), part 2: absorption optical thickness, refractive index, and single scattering albedo,” Opt. Eng. 44, 1-17 (2005).
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A. C. Vandaele, C. Fayt, F. Hendrick, C. Hermans, F. Humbled, M. Van ozendael, M. Gil, M. Navarro, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, G. Braathen, K. Stebel, K. Tornkvist, P. Johnston, K. Kreher, F. Goutail, A. Mieville, J. P. Pommereau, S. Khaikine, A. Richter, H. Oetjen, F. Wittrock, S. Bugarski, U. Friess, K. Pfeilsticker, R. Sinreich, T. Wagner, G. Corlett, and R. Leigh, “An intercomparison campaign of ground-based UV-visible measurements of NO2, BrO, and OClO slant columns: methods of analysis and results for NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D08305, doi: 10.1029/2004JD005423 (2005).
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M. R. Dobber, R. J. Dirksen, P. F. Levelt, G. H. J. Van Den Oord, R. H. M. Voors, Q. Kleipool, G. Jaross, M. Kowalewski, E. Hilsenrath, G. W. Leppelmeier, J. De Vries, W. Dierssen, and N. C. Rozemeijer, “Ozone monitoring instrument calibration,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1209-1238(2006).
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N. A. Krotkov, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, J. R. Slusser, G. R. R. Scott, G. J. Labow, A. P. P. Vasilkov, T. Eck, O. Doubovik, and B. N. Holben, “Aerosol ultraviolet absorption experiment (2002 to 2004), part 2: absorption optical thickness, refractive index, and single scattering albedo,” Opt. Eng. 44, 1-17 (2005).
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B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16(1998).
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M. Huber, M. Blumthaler, W. Ambach, and J. Staehelin, “Total atmospheric ozone determined from spectral measurements of direct solar UV irradiance,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 53-56(1995).
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Humbled, F.

A. C. Vandaele, C. Fayt, F. Hendrick, C. Hermans, F. Humbled, M. Van ozendael, M. Gil, M. Navarro, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, G. Braathen, K. Stebel, K. Tornkvist, P. Johnston, K. Kreher, F. Goutail, A. Mieville, J. P. Pommereau, S. Khaikine, A. Richter, H. Oetjen, F. Wittrock, S. Bugarski, U. Friess, K. Pfeilsticker, R. Sinreich, T. Wagner, G. Corlett, and R. Leigh, “An intercomparison campaign of ground-based UV-visible measurements of NO2, BrO, and OClO slant columns: methods of analysis and results for NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D08305, doi: 10.1029/2004JD005423 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ingold, T.

Jäkel, E.

E. Jäkel, M. Wendisch, M. Blumthaler, R. Schmitt, and A. R. Webb, “A CCD spectroradiometer for ultraviolet actinic radiation measurements,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 24, 449-462 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jankowiak, I.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16(1998).
[CrossRef]

Jaross, G.

M. R. Dobber, R. J. Dirksen, P. F. Levelt, G. H. J. Van Den Oord, R. H. M. Voors, Q. Kleipool, G. Jaross, M. Kowalewski, E. Hilsenrath, G. W. Leppelmeier, J. De Vries, W. Dierssen, and N. C. Rozemeijer, “Ozone monitoring instrument calibration,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1209-1238(2006).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, P.

A. C. Vandaele, C. Fayt, F. Hendrick, C. Hermans, F. Humbled, M. Van ozendael, M. Gil, M. Navarro, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, G. Braathen, K. Stebel, K. Tornkvist, P. Johnston, K. Kreher, F. Goutail, A. Mieville, J. P. Pommereau, S. Khaikine, A. Richter, H. Oetjen, F. Wittrock, S. Bugarski, U. Friess, K. Pfeilsticker, R. Sinreich, T. Wagner, G. Corlett, and R. Leigh, “An intercomparison campaign of ground-based UV-visible measurements of NO2, BrO, and OClO slant columns: methods of analysis and results for NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D08305, doi: 10.1029/2004JD005423 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Josefsson, W.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, and A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D12), 12509-12525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, Y. J.

O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman, T. F. Eck, and I. Slutsker, “Accuracy assessments of aerosol optical properties retrieved from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105(D8), 9791-9806 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16(1998).
[CrossRef]

Kazadzis, S.

S. Kazadzis, A. Bais, N. Kouremeti, E. Gerasopoulos, K. Garane, M. Blumthaler, B. Schallhart, and A. Cede, “Direct spectral measurements with a Brewer spectroradiometer: absolute calibration and aerosol optical depth retrieval,” Appl. Opt. 44, 1681-1690 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, and A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D12), 12509-12525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Kazadzis, A. F. Bais, D. Balis, C. S. Zerefos, and M. Blumthaler, “Retrieval of downwelling UV actinic flux density spectra from spectral measurements of global and direct solar UV irradiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105(D4), 4857-4864(2000).
[CrossRef]

Kerr, J. B.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, and A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D12), 12509-12525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Gröbner and J. B. Kerr, “Ground-based determination of the spectral ultraviolet extraterrestrial solar irradiance: providing a link between space-based and ground-based solar UV measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D7), 7211-7217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, and W. F. J. Evans, “Mid latitude summertime measurements of stratospheric NO2,” Can. J. Phys. 60, 196-200 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kerr, W. F. J. Evans, and C. L. Mateer, “Measurements of SO2 in the Mount St. Helens debris,” in Atmospheric Effects and Potential Climatic Impact of the 1980 Eruptions of Mount St. Helens, Conference Publication 2240 (1982), pp. 219-223.

Khaikine, S.

A. C. Vandaele, C. Fayt, F. Hendrick, C. Hermans, F. Humbled, M. Van ozendael, M. Gil, M. Navarro, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, G. Braathen, K. Stebel, K. Tornkvist, P. Johnston, K. Kreher, F. Goutail, A. Mieville, J. P. Pommereau, S. Khaikine, A. Richter, H. Oetjen, F. Wittrock, S. Bugarski, U. Friess, K. Pfeilsticker, R. Sinreich, T. Wagner, G. Corlett, and R. Leigh, “An intercomparison campaign of ground-based UV-visible measurements of NO2, BrO, and OClO slant columns: methods of analysis and results for NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D08305, doi: 10.1029/2004JD005423 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kift, R.

A. R. Webb, R. Kift, S. Thiel, A. Bais, M. Blumthaler, A. Kylling, and R. M. Schmitt, “Empirical approach to converting spectral UV measurements to actinic flux data,” Proc. SPIE 4482, 104-114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

King, M. D.

O. Dubovik and M. D. King, “A flexible inversion algorithm for retrieval of aerosol optical properties from Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105(D16), 20673-20696 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman, T. F. Eck, and I. Slutsker, “Accuracy assessments of aerosol optical properties retrieved from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105(D8), 9791-9806 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kirsch, P. J.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, and A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D12), 12509-12525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kjeldstad, B.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, and A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D12), 12509-12525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kleipool, Q.

M. R. Dobber, R. J. Dirksen, P. F. Levelt, G. H. J. Van Den Oord, R. H. M. Voors, Q. Kleipool, G. Jaross, M. Kowalewski, E. Hilsenrath, G. W. Leppelmeier, J. De Vries, W. Dierssen, and N. C. Rozemeijer, “Ozone monitoring instrument calibration,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1209-1238(2006).
[CrossRef]

Koskela, T.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, and A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D12), 12509-12525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kostkowski, H. J.

H. J. Kostkowski, Reliable Spectroradiometry (Spectroradiometery Consulting, 1997), p. 610.

Kouremeti, N.

Kowalewski, M.

M. R. Dobber, R. J. Dirksen, P. F. Levelt, G. H. J. Van Den Oord, R. H. M. Voors, Q. Kleipool, G. Jaross, M. Kowalewski, E. Hilsenrath, G. W. Leppelmeier, J. De Vries, W. Dierssen, and N. C. Rozemeijer, “Ozone monitoring instrument calibration,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1209-1238(2006).
[CrossRef]

Kreher, K.

A. C. Vandaele, C. Fayt, F. Hendrick, C. Hermans, F. Humbled, M. Van ozendael, M. Gil, M. Navarro, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, G. Braathen, K. Stebel, K. Tornkvist, P. Johnston, K. Kreher, F. Goutail, A. Mieville, J. P. Pommereau, S. Khaikine, A. Richter, H. Oetjen, F. Wittrock, S. Bugarski, U. Friess, K. Pfeilsticker, R. Sinreich, T. Wagner, G. Corlett, and R. Leigh, “An intercomparison campaign of ground-based UV-visible measurements of NO2, BrO, and OClO slant columns: methods of analysis and results for NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D08305, doi: 10.1029/2004JD005423 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krotkov, N.

A. Cede, J. Herman, A. Richter, N. Krotkov, and J. Burrows, ”Measurements of nitrogen dioxide total column amounts using a Brewer double spectrophotometer in direct Sun mode,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D05304, (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krotkov, N. A.

N. A. Krotkov, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, J. R. Slusser, G. R. R. Scott, G. J. Labow, A. P. P. Vasilkov, T. Eck, O. Doubovik, and B. N. Holben, “Aerosol ultraviolet absorption experiment (2002 to 2004), part 2: absorption optical thickness, refractive index, and single scattering albedo,” Opt. Eng. 44, 1-17 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kuik, F.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, and A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D12), 12509-12525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Slaper, H. A. J. M. Reinen, M. Blumthaler, M. Huber, and F. Kuik, “Comparing ground-level spectrally resolved solar UV measurements using various instruments: a technique resolving effects of wavelength shift and slit width,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2721-2724 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Van Weele, J. V.-G. D. Arellano, and F. Kuik, “Combined measurements of UV-A actinic flux, UV-A irradiance and global radiation in relation to photodissociation rates,” Tellus Ser.B 1 47, 353-364 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kylling, A.

A. R. Webb, R. Kift, S. Thiel, A. Bais, M. Blumthaler, A. Kylling, and R. M. Schmitt, “Empirical approach to converting spectral UV measurements to actinic flux data,” Proc. SPIE 4482, 104-114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Labow, G. J.

N. A. Krotkov, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, J. R. Slusser, G. R. R. Scott, G. J. Labow, A. P. P. Vasilkov, T. Eck, O. Doubovik, and B. N. Holben, “Aerosol ultraviolet absorption experiment (2002 to 2004), part 2: absorption optical thickness, refractive index, and single scattering albedo,” Opt. Eng. 44, 1-17 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lavenu, F.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16(1998).
[CrossRef]

Leigh, R.

A. C. Vandaele, C. Fayt, F. Hendrick, C. Hermans, F. Humbled, M. Van ozendael, M. Gil, M. Navarro, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, G. Braathen, K. Stebel, K. Tornkvist, P. Johnston, K. Kreher, F. Goutail, A. Mieville, J. P. Pommereau, S. Khaikine, A. Richter, H. Oetjen, F. Wittrock, S. Bugarski, U. Friess, K. Pfeilsticker, R. Sinreich, T. Wagner, G. Corlett, and R. Leigh, “An intercomparison campaign of ground-based UV-visible measurements of NO2, BrO, and OClO slant columns: methods of analysis and results for NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D08305, doi: 10.1029/2004JD005423 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Leppelmeier, G. W.

M. R. Dobber, R. J. Dirksen, P. F. Levelt, G. H. J. Van Den Oord, R. H. M. Voors, Q. Kleipool, G. Jaross, M. Kowalewski, E. Hilsenrath, G. W. Leppelmeier, J. De Vries, W. Dierssen, and N. C. Rozemeijer, “Ozone monitoring instrument calibration,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1209-1238(2006).
[CrossRef]

Leszczynski, K.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, and A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D12), 12509-12525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Levelt, P. F.

M. R. Dobber, R. J. Dirksen, P. F. Levelt, G. H. J. Van Den Oord, R. H. M. Voors, Q. Kleipool, G. Jaross, M. Kowalewski, E. Hilsenrath, G. W. Leppelmeier, J. De Vries, W. Dierssen, and N. C. Rozemeijer, “Ozone monitoring instrument calibration,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1209-1238(2006).
[CrossRef]

Liljegren, J. C.

Livingston, J. M.

Madronich, S.

J. L. Petters, V. K. Saxena, J. R. Slusser, B. N. Wenny, and S. Madronich, “Aerosol single scattering albedo retrieved from measurements of surface UV irradiance and a radiative transfer model,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D9), 4288, doi:10.1029/2002JD002360 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Marenco, F.

Mateer, C. L.

J. B. Kerr, W. F. J. Evans, and C. L. Mateer, “Measurements of SO2 in the Mount St. Helens debris,” in Atmospheric Effects and Potential Climatic Impact of the 1980 Eruptions of Mount St. Helens, Conference Publication 2240 (1982), pp. 219-223.

McElroy, C. T.

A. F. Bais, C. S. Zerefos, and C. T. McElroy, “Solar UVB measurements with the double- and single-monochromator Brewer ozone spectrophotometers,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 833-836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, and W. F. J. Evans, “Mid latitude summertime measurements of stratospheric NO2,” Can. J. Phys. 60, 196-200 (1982).
[CrossRef]

McKenzie, R.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, and A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D12), 12509-12525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McKenzie, R. L.

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, and C. Roy, “Instruments to measure solar ultraviolet irradiance. Part 1: Spectral instruments,” in Global Atmospheric Watch Report No. 125, TD No. 1066 (World Meteorological Organization, Geneve, Switzerland, 2001) p. 30.

Medeke, T.

F. Wittrock, H. Oetjen, A. Richter, S. Fietkau, T. Medeke, A. Rozanov, and J. P. Burrows, “MAX-DOAS measurements of atmospheric trace gases in Ny-Ålesund- Radiative transfer studies and their application,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 955-966(2004).
[CrossRef]

Michalsky, J. J.

Mieville, A.

A. C. Vandaele, C. Fayt, F. Hendrick, C. Hermans, F. Humbled, M. Van ozendael, M. Gil, M. Navarro, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, G. Braathen, K. Stebel, K. Tornkvist, P. Johnston, K. Kreher, F. Goutail, A. Mieville, J. P. Pommereau, S. Khaikine, A. Richter, H. Oetjen, F. Wittrock, S. Bugarski, U. Friess, K. Pfeilsticker, R. Sinreich, T. Wagner, G. Corlett, and R. Leigh, “An intercomparison campaign of ground-based UV-visible measurements of NO2, BrO, and OClO slant columns: methods of analysis and results for NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D08305, doi: 10.1029/2004JD005423 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miyauchi, M.

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, and C. Roy, “Instruments to measure solar ultraviolet irradiance. Part 1: Spectral instruments,” in Global Atmospheric Watch Report No. 125, TD No. 1066 (World Meteorological Organization, Geneve, Switzerland, 2001) p. 30.

Muller, C.

C. Sandmeier, C. Muller, B. Hosgood, and G. Andreoli, “Sensitivity analysis and quality assessment of laboratory BRDF data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 64, 176-191 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, T.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16(1998).
[CrossRef]

Navarro, M.

A. C. Vandaele, C. Fayt, F. Hendrick, C. Hermans, F. Humbled, M. Van ozendael, M. Gil, M. Navarro, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, G. Braathen, K. Stebel, K. Tornkvist, P. Johnston, K. Kreher, F. Goutail, A. Mieville, J. P. Pommereau, S. Khaikine, A. Richter, H. Oetjen, F. Wittrock, S. Bugarski, U. Friess, K. Pfeilsticker, R. Sinreich, T. Wagner, G. Corlett, and R. Leigh, “An intercomparison campaign of ground-based UV-visible measurements of NO2, BrO, and OClO slant columns: methods of analysis and results for NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D08305, doi: 10.1029/2004JD005423 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Oetjen, H.

A. C. Vandaele, C. Fayt, F. Hendrick, C. Hermans, F. Humbled, M. Van ozendael, M. Gil, M. Navarro, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, G. Braathen, K. Stebel, K. Tornkvist, P. Johnston, K. Kreher, F. Goutail, A. Mieville, J. P. Pommereau, S. Khaikine, A. Richter, H. Oetjen, F. Wittrock, S. Bugarski, U. Friess, K. Pfeilsticker, R. Sinreich, T. Wagner, G. Corlett, and R. Leigh, “An intercomparison campaign of ground-based UV-visible measurements of NO2, BrO, and OClO slant columns: methods of analysis and results for NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D08305, doi: 10.1029/2004JD005423 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Wittrock, H. Oetjen, A. Richter, S. Fietkau, T. Medeke, A. Rozanov, and J. P. Burrows, “MAX-DOAS measurements of atmospheric trace gases in Ny-Ålesund- Radiative transfer studies and their application,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 955-966(2004).
[CrossRef]

Papayannis, A.

Paur, R. J.

A. M. Bass and R. J. Paur, “The ultraviolet cross-sections of ozone: I. The measurements,” presented at Atmospheric Ozone; Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Halkidiki, Greece, 3-7 Sept. 1984.

Petters, J. L.

J. L. Petters, V. K. Saxena, J. R. Slusser, B. N. Wenny, and S. Madronich, “Aerosol single scattering albedo retrieved from measurements of surface UV irradiance and a radiative transfer model,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D9), 4288, doi:10.1029/2002JD002360 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pfeilsticker, K.

A. C. Vandaele, C. Fayt, F. Hendrick, C. Hermans, F. Humbled, M. Van ozendael, M. Gil, M. Navarro, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, G. Braathen, K. Stebel, K. Tornkvist, P. Johnston, K. Kreher, F. Goutail, A. Mieville, J. P. Pommereau, S. Khaikine, A. Richter, H. Oetjen, F. Wittrock, S. Bugarski, U. Friess, K. Pfeilsticker, R. Sinreich, T. Wagner, G. Corlett, and R. Leigh, “An intercomparison campaign of ground-based UV-visible measurements of NO2, BrO, and OClO slant columns: methods of analysis and results for NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D08305, doi: 10.1029/2004JD005423 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Platt, U.

G. Hönninger, C. von Friedeburg, and U. Platt, “Multi axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS),” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 231-254 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pommereau, J. P.

A. C. Vandaele, C. Fayt, F. Hendrick, C. Hermans, F. Humbled, M. Van ozendael, M. Gil, M. Navarro, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, G. Braathen, K. Stebel, K. Tornkvist, P. Johnston, K. Kreher, F. Goutail, A. Mieville, J. P. Pommereau, S. Khaikine, A. Richter, H. Oetjen, F. Wittrock, S. Bugarski, U. Friess, K. Pfeilsticker, R. Sinreich, T. Wagner, G. Corlett, and R. Leigh, “An intercomparison campaign of ground-based UV-visible measurements of NO2, BrO, and OClO slant columns: methods of analysis and results for NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D08305, doi: 10.1029/2004JD005423 (2005).
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E. Jäkel, M. Wendisch, M. Blumthaler, R. Schmitt, and A. R. Webb, “A CCD spectroradiometer for ultraviolet actinic radiation measurements,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 24, 449-462 (2007).
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A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, and A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D12), 12509-12525 (2001).
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J. L. Petters, V. K. Saxena, J. R. Slusser, B. N. Wenny, and S. Madronich, “Aerosol single scattering albedo retrieved from measurements of surface UV irradiance and a radiative transfer model,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D9), 4288, doi:10.1029/2002JD002360 (2003).
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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

CCD system: spectrograph and control unit (left), direct irradiance and radiance telescopes on tracker (right).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dark signal versus integration time at four selected wavelengths and for a constant temperature of 20 ° C . The standard deviation for each integration time derived from a set of eight measurements is also shown.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Wavelength dependence of the electronic offset, e ( λ ) , as derived from linear regressions between the dark signal and the integration time at different temperatures.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Average dark signal as a function of the instrument’s temperature for different integration times.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fraction of the stray-light signal with respect to the measured irradiance at 340 nm as a function of irradiance. The symbols represent the actual measurements and the smooth line a third degree polynomial fit.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Percentage of stray-light correction with respect to spectral direct irradiance for different SZAs (upper panel). Wavelength threshold for stray-light correction as a function of SZAs (lower panel).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Wavelength variation of the calculated distance x using the sky radiance optics without the attenuation filter (upper panel). Error in lamp irradiance at a distance of 182 cm resulting from the variation of x with wavelength (lower panel).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Direct irradiance (left axis, blue line) and radiance (right axis, green line) calibration function of the CCD.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

SNR as a function of the measured signal expressed in counts per second for IT ranging from 10 to 500 ms . Colored lines correspond to polynomial fits on the data for different integration times (actual data are shown only for IT= 10 ms ).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Detection limit for direct irradiance measurements (blue axis–line) and sky radiance measurements (light green axis–line).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

FWHM of the CCD slit function as a function of wavelength, measured by three different methods (left). The solid curve corresponds to a spline fit on the data. The slit function shape, which is assumed representative for the entire spectral range of the instrument, was measured with a He–Cd laser at 325.15 nm center wavelength, and with a Xe lamp and a monochromator at 322.06 and 330.01 nm (right).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Diurnal variation of direct irradiance ratios at seven selected 5 nm wide wavelength bands, as measured by the CCD and the Bentham instruments at Thessaloniki between 14 and 24 July 2006.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Median of the spectral ratio of 68 direct irradiance measurements by the CCD and the Bentham instruments at Thessaloniki between 14 and 24 July 2006. The green envelope represents the extreme values and the red lines the 5th and 95th percentiles.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Comparison of aerosol optical depth at nine wavelengths (310, 320, 340, 380, 420, 450, 480, 675, and 870 nm ) retrieved from direct irradiance measurements with the Bentham, the Cimel, and the CCD instruments during the SCOUT-O3 campaign (12–24 July 2006) at Thessaloniki, Greece.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Linearity Uncertainty Budget for Different Wavelengths and Integration Times

Tables Icon

Table 2 Linearity Uncertainty Budget for Average Spectrum and Integration Times

Tables Icon

Table 3 Summary of Uncertainty Analysis (Level of Confidence 68.3%)

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S d = e ( λ ) + S t ( λ , T ) IT .
R ( λ , IT ) = S ( λ , IT ) E ( λ ) ,
E ( λ , IT , d i ) E ( λ , IT , d j ) = ( d j + x d i + x ) 2 .
S c ( λ , IT ) = S ( λ , IT ) S dark ( λ , IT ) [ 230 nm 240 nm S WG 320 ( λ , IT ) 230 nm 240 nm S dark ( λ , IT ) ] S WG 320 ( λ , IT ) ,
R ( λ , IT ) = IT IT Ref E ( λ ) S far ( λ , IT ref ) ,
S far ( λ , IT ref ) = S far c ( 588 nm , IT ref ) [ S close c ( λ , IT ref c ) S close c ( 588 nm , IT ref c ) ] .
ρ ( θ i , ϕ i ; λ ) = 1 π ϕ r = 0 ϕ r = 2 π θ r = 0 θ r = π / 2 R ( θ i , ϕ i ; θ r , ϕ r ; λ ) · cos ( θ r ) · sin ( θ r ) d θ r d ϕ r ,
L ( λ ) = E ( λ ) ρ ( λ ) π ,
R ( λ , IT ) = ( IT IT ref ) L ( λ ) S c ( λ , IT ref ) ,
SNR = S S dark σ 2 S + σ 2 S dark ,

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