Abstract

Measurement of nitric oxide (NO) in the expired breath of crossbred calves received at a research facility was performed using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. Exhaled NO (eNO) concentrations were measured using NO absorption lines at 1912.07cm1 and employing background subtraction. The lower detection limit and measurement precision were determined to be 330 parts in 1012 per unit volume. A custom breath collection system was designed to collect lower airway breath of spontaneously breathing calves while in a restraint chute. Breath was collected and analyzed from calves upon arrival and periodically during a 42 day receiving period. There was a statistically significant relationship between eNO, severity of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in terms of number of times treated, and average daily weight gain over the first 15 days postarrival. In addition, breathing patterns and exhaled CO2 showed a statistically significant relationship with BRD morbidity.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2006 (3)

T. H. Risby and S. F. Solga, "Current status of clinical breath analysis," Appl. Phys. B doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Taylor, M. W. Pijnenburg, A. D. Smith, and J. C. De Jongste, "Exhaled nitric oxide measurements: clinical application and interpretation," Thorax 61, 817-827 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Namjou, C. B. Roller, T. E. Reich, J. D. Jeffers, G. McMillen, P. J. McCann, and M. A. Camp. "Determination of exhaled nitric oxide distributions in a diverse sample population using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

K. D. Skeldon, M. G. M. Gibson, C. A. Wyse, L. C. McMillan, S. D. Monk, C. Longbottom, and M. J. Padgett, "Development of high-resolution real-time sub-ppb ethane spectroscopy and some pilot studies in life science," Appl. Opt. 44, 4712-4721 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Wyse, A. Cathcart, R. Sutherland, S. Ward, L. McMillan, G. Gibson, M. Padgett, and K. Skeldon, "Effect of maximal dynamic exercise on exhaled ethane and carbon monoxide levels in human, equine, and canine athletes," Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A 141, 239-246 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Snowder, L. D. V. Vleck, L. V. Cundiff, and G. L. Bennett, "Influence of breed, heterozygosity, and disease incidence on estimates of variance components of respiratory disease in preweaned beef calves," J. Anim. Sci. 83, 1247-1261 (2005).
[PubMed]

2004 (3)

S. C. George, M. Hogman, S. Permutt, and P. E. Silkoff, "Modeling pulmonary nitric oxide exchange," J. Appl. Physiol. 96, 831-839 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yu and J. Pawliszyn, "On-line monitoring of breath by membrane extraction with sorbent interface coupled with CO2 sensor," J. Chromatog. A 1056, 35-41 (2004).

J. P. Spinhirne, J. A. Koziel, and N. K. Chirase, "Sampling and analysis of volatile organic compounds in bovine breath by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry," J. Chromatogr. A 1025, 63-69 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

B. Wert, A. Fried, S. Rauenbuehler, J. Walega, and B. Henry, "Design and performance of a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer for airborne formaldehyde measurements," J. Geophy. Res. 108, 4350-4358 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

P. Reinhold, A. Langenberg, J. Seifert, M. Rothe, and G. Becher, "Ammonia and urea in the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and in corresponding blood samples," Eur. Respir. J. 20, (Suppl. 38), 428s (2002).

C. B. Roller, K. Namjou, J. Jeffers, M. Camp, P. J. McCann, and J. Grego, "Nitric oxide breath testing using tunable-diode laser absorption spectroscopy: application in monitoring respiratory inflammation," Appl. Opt. 41, 6018-6029 (2002).

C. Roller, K. Namjou, J. Jeffers, W. Potter, P. J. McCann, and J. Grego, "Simultaneous measurement of NO and CO2 in human breath using a single IV-VI mid-infrared laser," Opt. Lett. 27, 107-109 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

D. H. Yates, "Role of exhaled nitric oxide in asthma," Immunol. Cell Biol. 79, 178-190 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Schubert, K. H. Spittler, G. Braun, K. Geiger, and J. Guttmann, "CO(2)-controlled sampling of alveolar gas in mechanically ventilated patients," J. Appl. Physiol. 90, 486-492 (2001).
[PubMed]

2000 (2)

G. L. Mason and P. N. Boschsler, "Evaluation of nitric oxide production by bovine alveolar macrophages," in Proceedings: The American Association of Bovine Practitioners (2000), pp. 183-184.

P. Reinhold, G. Becher, and M. Rothe, "Evaluation of the measurement of leukotriene B4 concentrations in exhaled breath condensate as a noninvasive method for assessing mediators of inflammation in the lungs of calves," Am. J. Vet. Res. 61, 742-749 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (3)

J. M. Fligger, A. S. Waldvogel, H. Pfister, and T. W. Jungi, "Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in spontaneous bovine bronchopneumonia," Vet. Pathol. 36, 397-405 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. V. Stepanov, P. V. Zyrianov, and V. A. Miliaev, "Single-breath NO detection with tunable diode lasers for pulmonary disease diagnosis," in ALT'98 Selected Papers on Novel Laser Methods in Medicine and Biology, A. M. Prokhorov, V. I. Pustovoy, and G. P. Kuz'min, eds., Proc. SPIE 3829, 103-109 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Namjou, P. J. McCann, and W. T. Potter, "Breath testing with a mid-IR laser spectrometer," in Application of Tunable Diode and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Processing Monitoring II, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE 3758, 74-80 (1999).

1997 (1)

U. Schedin, B. O. Röken, G. Nyman, C. Frostell, and L. E. Gustafsson, "Endogenous nitric oxide in the airways of different animal species," Acta Anaesthesiol. Scand. 41, 1133-1141 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (5)

L. Konstantin, A. I. Nadezhdinskii, and I. A. Adamouskaya, "Human breath trace gas content study by tunable diode laser spectroscopy technique," Infrared Phys. Technol. 37, 181-192 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Bernareggi, G. Rossoni, E. Clini, E. Pasini, T. Bachetti, G. Cremona, N. Ambrosino, and F. Berti, "Detection of nitric oxide in exhaled air of different animal species using a clinical chemiluminescence analyzer," Pharmacol. Res. 39, 221-224 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Yoo, M. S. Rutherford, S. K. Maheswaran, S. Srinand, and T. R. Ames, "Induction of nitric oxide production by bovine alveolar macrophages in response to Pasteurella haemolytica A1," Microb. Pathog. 20, 361-375 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. L. Mason, Z. Yang, T. W. Olchowy, Z. Jian, and P. N. Bochsler, "Nitric oxide production and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase by bovine alveolar macrophages," Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 53, 15-27 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. E. Whittum, N. E. Woolen, L. J. Perino, and E. T. Littledike, "Relationships among treatment for respiratory tract disease, pulmonary lesions evident at slaughter and rate of weight gain in feedlot cattle," J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 209, 814-818 (1996).

1994 (1)

T. M. Wizemann, C. R. Gardner, J. D. Laskin, S. Quinones, S. K. Durham, N. L. Goller, S. T. Ohnishi, and D. L. Laskin, "Production of nitric oxide and peroxynitrite in the lung during acute endotoxemia," J. Leukoc. Biol. 56, 759-768 (1994).
[PubMed]

1993 (3)

P. Werle, R. Mucke, and F. Slemr, "The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 57, 131-139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Jim, C. W. Booker, C. S. Ribble, P. T. Guichon, and B. E. Thorlakson, "A field investigation of the economic impact of respiratory disease in feedlot calves," Can. Vet. J. 34, 668-673 (1993).
[PubMed]

K. Alving, E. Weitzberg, and J. M. Lundberg, "Increased amount of nitric oxide in exhaled air of asthmatics," Eur. Respir. J. 6, 1368-1370 (1993).
[PubMed]

1991 (1)

L. E. Gustafsson, A. M. Leone, M. G. Persson, N. P. Wiklund, and S. Moncada, "Endogenous nitric oxide is present in the exhaled air of rabbits, guinea pigs and humans," Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 181, 852-857 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adamouskaya, I. A.

L. Konstantin, A. I. Nadezhdinskii, and I. A. Adamouskaya, "Human breath trace gas content study by tunable diode laser spectroscopy technique," Infrared Phys. Technol. 37, 181-192 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Alving, K.

K. Alving, E. Weitzberg, and J. M. Lundberg, "Increased amount of nitric oxide in exhaled air of asthmatics," Eur. Respir. J. 6, 1368-1370 (1993).
[PubMed]

Ambrosino, N.

M. Bernareggi, G. Rossoni, E. Clini, E. Pasini, T. Bachetti, G. Cremona, N. Ambrosino, and F. Berti, "Detection of nitric oxide in exhaled air of different animal species using a clinical chemiluminescence analyzer," Pharmacol. Res. 39, 221-224 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ames, T. R.

H. S. Yoo, M. S. Rutherford, S. K. Maheswaran, S. Srinand, and T. R. Ames, "Induction of nitric oxide production by bovine alveolar macrophages in response to Pasteurella haemolytica A1," Microb. Pathog. 20, 361-375 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bachetti, T.

M. Bernareggi, G. Rossoni, E. Clini, E. Pasini, T. Bachetti, G. Cremona, N. Ambrosino, and F. Berti, "Detection of nitric oxide in exhaled air of different animal species using a clinical chemiluminescence analyzer," Pharmacol. Res. 39, 221-224 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Becher, G.

P. Reinhold, A. Langenberg, J. Seifert, M. Rothe, and G. Becher, "Ammonia and urea in the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and in corresponding blood samples," Eur. Respir. J. 20, (Suppl. 38), 428s (2002).

P. Reinhold, G. Becher, and M. Rothe, "Evaluation of the measurement of leukotriene B4 concentrations in exhaled breath condensate as a noninvasive method for assessing mediators of inflammation in the lungs of calves," Am. J. Vet. Res. 61, 742-749 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bennett, G. L.

G. D. Snowder, L. D. V. Vleck, L. V. Cundiff, and G. L. Bennett, "Influence of breed, heterozygosity, and disease incidence on estimates of variance components of respiratory disease in preweaned beef calves," J. Anim. Sci. 83, 1247-1261 (2005).
[PubMed]

Bernareggi, M.

M. Bernareggi, G. Rossoni, E. Clini, E. Pasini, T. Bachetti, G. Cremona, N. Ambrosino, and F. Berti, "Detection of nitric oxide in exhaled air of different animal species using a clinical chemiluminescence analyzer," Pharmacol. Res. 39, 221-224 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Berti, F.

M. Bernareggi, G. Rossoni, E. Clini, E. Pasini, T. Bachetti, G. Cremona, N. Ambrosino, and F. Berti, "Detection of nitric oxide in exhaled air of different animal species using a clinical chemiluminescence analyzer," Pharmacol. Res. 39, 221-224 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bochsler, P. N.

G. L. Mason, Z. Yang, T. W. Olchowy, Z. Jian, and P. N. Bochsler, "Nitric oxide production and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase by bovine alveolar macrophages," Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 53, 15-27 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Booker, C. W.

G. K. Jim, C. W. Booker, C. S. Ribble, P. T. Guichon, and B. E. Thorlakson, "A field investigation of the economic impact of respiratory disease in feedlot calves," Can. Vet. J. 34, 668-673 (1993).
[PubMed]

Boschsler, P. N.

G. L. Mason and P. N. Boschsler, "Evaluation of nitric oxide production by bovine alveolar macrophages," in Proceedings: The American Association of Bovine Practitioners (2000), pp. 183-184.

Braun, G.

J. K. Schubert, K. H. Spittler, G. Braun, K. Geiger, and J. Guttmann, "CO(2)-controlled sampling of alveolar gas in mechanically ventilated patients," J. Appl. Physiol. 90, 486-492 (2001).
[PubMed]

Briscoe, W.

R. Forster, A. Dubois, W. Briscoe, and A. Fisher, The Lung: Physiologic Basis of Pulmonary Function Tests (Year Book Medical, 1986).

Camp, M.

C. B. Roller, K. Namjou, J. Jeffers, M. Camp, P. J. McCann, and J. Grego, "Nitric oxide breath testing using tunable-diode laser absorption spectroscopy: application in monitoring respiratory inflammation," Appl. Opt. 41, 6018-6029 (2002).

Camp, M. A.

K. Namjou, C. B. Roller, T. E. Reich, J. D. Jeffers, G. McMillen, P. J. McCann, and M. A. Camp. "Determination of exhaled nitric oxide distributions in a diverse sample population using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cathcart, A.

C. Wyse, A. Cathcart, R. Sutherland, S. Ward, L. McMillan, G. Gibson, M. Padgett, and K. Skeldon, "Effect of maximal dynamic exercise on exhaled ethane and carbon monoxide levels in human, equine, and canine athletes," Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A 141, 239-246 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chirase, N. K.

J. P. Spinhirne, J. A. Koziel, and N. K. Chirase, "Sampling and analysis of volatile organic compounds in bovine breath by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry," J. Chromatogr. A 1025, 63-69 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clini, E.

M. Bernareggi, G. Rossoni, E. Clini, E. Pasini, T. Bachetti, G. Cremona, N. Ambrosino, and F. Berti, "Detection of nitric oxide in exhaled air of different animal species using a clinical chemiluminescence analyzer," Pharmacol. Res. 39, 221-224 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cremona, G.

M. Bernareggi, G. Rossoni, E. Clini, E. Pasini, T. Bachetti, G. Cremona, N. Ambrosino, and F. Berti, "Detection of nitric oxide in exhaled air of different animal species using a clinical chemiluminescence analyzer," Pharmacol. Res. 39, 221-224 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cundiff, L. V.

G. D. Snowder, L. D. V. Vleck, L. V. Cundiff, and G. L. Bennett, "Influence of breed, heterozygosity, and disease incidence on estimates of variance components of respiratory disease in preweaned beef calves," J. Anim. Sci. 83, 1247-1261 (2005).
[PubMed]

De Jongste, J. C.

D. R. Taylor, M. W. Pijnenburg, A. D. Smith, and J. C. De Jongste, "Exhaled nitric oxide measurements: clinical application and interpretation," Thorax 61, 817-827 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dubois, A.

R. Forster, A. Dubois, W. Briscoe, and A. Fisher, The Lung: Physiologic Basis of Pulmonary Function Tests (Year Book Medical, 1986).

Durham, S. K.

T. M. Wizemann, C. R. Gardner, J. D. Laskin, S. Quinones, S. K. Durham, N. L. Goller, S. T. Ohnishi, and D. L. Laskin, "Production of nitric oxide and peroxynitrite in the lung during acute endotoxemia," J. Leukoc. Biol. 56, 759-768 (1994).
[PubMed]

Fisher, A.

R. Forster, A. Dubois, W. Briscoe, and A. Fisher, The Lung: Physiologic Basis of Pulmonary Function Tests (Year Book Medical, 1986).

Fligger, J. M.

J. M. Fligger, A. S. Waldvogel, H. Pfister, and T. W. Jungi, "Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in spontaneous bovine bronchopneumonia," Vet. Pathol. 36, 397-405 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forster, R.

R. Forster, A. Dubois, W. Briscoe, and A. Fisher, The Lung: Physiologic Basis of Pulmonary Function Tests (Year Book Medical, 1986).

Fried, A.

B. Wert, A. Fried, S. Rauenbuehler, J. Walega, and B. Henry, "Design and performance of a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer for airborne formaldehyde measurements," J. Geophy. Res. 108, 4350-4358 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Frostell, C.

U. Schedin, B. O. Röken, G. Nyman, C. Frostell, and L. E. Gustafsson, "Endogenous nitric oxide in the airways of different animal species," Acta Anaesthesiol. Scand. 41, 1133-1141 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gardner, C. R.

T. M. Wizemann, C. R. Gardner, J. D. Laskin, S. Quinones, S. K. Durham, N. L. Goller, S. T. Ohnishi, and D. L. Laskin, "Production of nitric oxide and peroxynitrite in the lung during acute endotoxemia," J. Leukoc. Biol. 56, 759-768 (1994).
[PubMed]

Geiger, K.

J. K. Schubert, K. H. Spittler, G. Braun, K. Geiger, and J. Guttmann, "CO(2)-controlled sampling of alveolar gas in mechanically ventilated patients," J. Appl. Physiol. 90, 486-492 (2001).
[PubMed]

George, S. C.

S. C. George, M. Hogman, S. Permutt, and P. E. Silkoff, "Modeling pulmonary nitric oxide exchange," J. Appl. Physiol. 96, 831-839 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibson, G.

C. Wyse, A. Cathcart, R. Sutherland, S. Ward, L. McMillan, G. Gibson, M. Padgett, and K. Skeldon, "Effect of maximal dynamic exercise on exhaled ethane and carbon monoxide levels in human, equine, and canine athletes," Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A 141, 239-246 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, M. G. M.

Goller, N. L.

T. M. Wizemann, C. R. Gardner, J. D. Laskin, S. Quinones, S. K. Durham, N. L. Goller, S. T. Ohnishi, and D. L. Laskin, "Production of nitric oxide and peroxynitrite in the lung during acute endotoxemia," J. Leukoc. Biol. 56, 759-768 (1994).
[PubMed]

Grego, J.

C. Roller, K. Namjou, J. Jeffers, W. Potter, P. J. McCann, and J. Grego, "Simultaneous measurement of NO and CO2 in human breath using a single IV-VI mid-infrared laser," Opt. Lett. 27, 107-109 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Roller, K. Namjou, J. Jeffers, M. Camp, P. J. McCann, and J. Grego, "Nitric oxide breath testing using tunable-diode laser absorption spectroscopy: application in monitoring respiratory inflammation," Appl. Opt. 41, 6018-6029 (2002).

Guichon, P. T.

G. K. Jim, C. W. Booker, C. S. Ribble, P. T. Guichon, and B. E. Thorlakson, "A field investigation of the economic impact of respiratory disease in feedlot calves," Can. Vet. J. 34, 668-673 (1993).
[PubMed]

Gustafsson, L. E.

U. Schedin, B. O. Röken, G. Nyman, C. Frostell, and L. E. Gustafsson, "Endogenous nitric oxide in the airways of different animal species," Acta Anaesthesiol. Scand. 41, 1133-1141 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. E. Gustafsson, A. M. Leone, M. G. Persson, N. P. Wiklund, and S. Moncada, "Endogenous nitric oxide is present in the exhaled air of rabbits, guinea pigs and humans," Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 181, 852-857 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guttmann, J.

J. K. Schubert, K. H. Spittler, G. Braun, K. Geiger, and J. Guttmann, "CO(2)-controlled sampling of alveolar gas in mechanically ventilated patients," J. Appl. Physiol. 90, 486-492 (2001).
[PubMed]

Henry, B.

B. Wert, A. Fried, S. Rauenbuehler, J. Walega, and B. Henry, "Design and performance of a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer for airborne formaldehyde measurements," J. Geophy. Res. 108, 4350-4358 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hogman, M.

S. C. George, M. Hogman, S. Permutt, and P. E. Silkoff, "Modeling pulmonary nitric oxide exchange," J. Appl. Physiol. 96, 831-839 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeffers, J.

C. Roller, K. Namjou, J. Jeffers, W. Potter, P. J. McCann, and J. Grego, "Simultaneous measurement of NO and CO2 in human breath using a single IV-VI mid-infrared laser," Opt. Lett. 27, 107-109 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Roller, K. Namjou, J. Jeffers, M. Camp, P. J. McCann, and J. Grego, "Nitric oxide breath testing using tunable-diode laser absorption spectroscopy: application in monitoring respiratory inflammation," Appl. Opt. 41, 6018-6029 (2002).

Jeffers, J. D.

K. Namjou, C. B. Roller, T. E. Reich, J. D. Jeffers, G. McMillen, P. J. McCann, and M. A. Camp. "Determination of exhaled nitric oxide distributions in a diverse sample population using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jian, Z.

G. L. Mason, Z. Yang, T. W. Olchowy, Z. Jian, and P. N. Bochsler, "Nitric oxide production and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase by bovine alveolar macrophages," Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 53, 15-27 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jim, G. K.

G. K. Jim, C. W. Booker, C. S. Ribble, P. T. Guichon, and B. E. Thorlakson, "A field investigation of the economic impact of respiratory disease in feedlot calves," Can. Vet. J. 34, 668-673 (1993).
[PubMed]

Jungi, T. W.

J. M. Fligger, A. S. Waldvogel, H. Pfister, and T. W. Jungi, "Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in spontaneous bovine bronchopneumonia," Vet. Pathol. 36, 397-405 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Konstantin, L.

L. Konstantin, A. I. Nadezhdinskii, and I. A. Adamouskaya, "Human breath trace gas content study by tunable diode laser spectroscopy technique," Infrared Phys. Technol. 37, 181-192 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Koziel, J. A.

J. P. Spinhirne, J. A. Koziel, and N. K. Chirase, "Sampling and analysis of volatile organic compounds in bovine breath by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry," J. Chromatogr. A 1025, 63-69 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langenberg, A.

P. Reinhold, A. Langenberg, J. Seifert, M. Rothe, and G. Becher, "Ammonia and urea in the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and in corresponding blood samples," Eur. Respir. J. 20, (Suppl. 38), 428s (2002).

Laskin, D. L.

T. M. Wizemann, C. R. Gardner, J. D. Laskin, S. Quinones, S. K. Durham, N. L. Goller, S. T. Ohnishi, and D. L. Laskin, "Production of nitric oxide and peroxynitrite in the lung during acute endotoxemia," J. Leukoc. Biol. 56, 759-768 (1994).
[PubMed]

Laskin, J. D.

T. M. Wizemann, C. R. Gardner, J. D. Laskin, S. Quinones, S. K. Durham, N. L. Goller, S. T. Ohnishi, and D. L. Laskin, "Production of nitric oxide and peroxynitrite in the lung during acute endotoxemia," J. Leukoc. Biol. 56, 759-768 (1994).
[PubMed]

Leone, A. M.

L. E. Gustafsson, A. M. Leone, M. G. Persson, N. P. Wiklund, and S. Moncada, "Endogenous nitric oxide is present in the exhaled air of rabbits, guinea pigs and humans," Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 181, 852-857 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Littledike, E. T.

T. E. Whittum, N. E. Woolen, L. J. Perino, and E. T. Littledike, "Relationships among treatment for respiratory tract disease, pulmonary lesions evident at slaughter and rate of weight gain in feedlot cattle," J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 209, 814-818 (1996).

Longbottom, C.

Lundberg, J. M.

K. Alving, E. Weitzberg, and J. M. Lundberg, "Increased amount of nitric oxide in exhaled air of asthmatics," Eur. Respir. J. 6, 1368-1370 (1993).
[PubMed]

Maheswaran, S. K.

H. S. Yoo, M. S. Rutherford, S. K. Maheswaran, S. Srinand, and T. R. Ames, "Induction of nitric oxide production by bovine alveolar macrophages in response to Pasteurella haemolytica A1," Microb. Pathog. 20, 361-375 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mason, G. L.

G. L. Mason and P. N. Boschsler, "Evaluation of nitric oxide production by bovine alveolar macrophages," in Proceedings: The American Association of Bovine Practitioners (2000), pp. 183-184.

G. L. Mason, Z. Yang, T. W. Olchowy, Z. Jian, and P. N. Bochsler, "Nitric oxide production and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase by bovine alveolar macrophages," Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 53, 15-27 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCann, P. J.

K. Namjou, C. B. Roller, T. E. Reich, J. D. Jeffers, G. McMillen, P. J. McCann, and M. A. Camp. "Determination of exhaled nitric oxide distributions in a diverse sample population using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Roller, K. Namjou, J. Jeffers, M. Camp, P. J. McCann, and J. Grego, "Nitric oxide breath testing using tunable-diode laser absorption spectroscopy: application in monitoring respiratory inflammation," Appl. Opt. 41, 6018-6029 (2002).

C. Roller, K. Namjou, J. Jeffers, W. Potter, P. J. McCann, and J. Grego, "Simultaneous measurement of NO and CO2 in human breath using a single IV-VI mid-infrared laser," Opt. Lett. 27, 107-109 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Namjou, P. J. McCann, and W. T. Potter, "Breath testing with a mid-IR laser spectrometer," in Application of Tunable Diode and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Processing Monitoring II, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE 3758, 74-80 (1999).

McMillan, L.

C. Wyse, A. Cathcart, R. Sutherland, S. Ward, L. McMillan, G. Gibson, M. Padgett, and K. Skeldon, "Effect of maximal dynamic exercise on exhaled ethane and carbon monoxide levels in human, equine, and canine athletes," Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A 141, 239-246 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McMillan, L. C.

McMillen, G.

K. Namjou, C. B. Roller, T. E. Reich, J. D. Jeffers, G. McMillen, P. J. McCann, and M. A. Camp. "Determination of exhaled nitric oxide distributions in a diverse sample population using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miliaev, V. A.

E. V. Stepanov, P. V. Zyrianov, and V. A. Miliaev, "Single-breath NO detection with tunable diode lasers for pulmonary disease diagnosis," in ALT'98 Selected Papers on Novel Laser Methods in Medicine and Biology, A. M. Prokhorov, V. I. Pustovoy, and G. P. Kuz'min, eds., Proc. SPIE 3829, 103-109 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moncada, S.

L. E. Gustafsson, A. M. Leone, M. G. Persson, N. P. Wiklund, and S. Moncada, "Endogenous nitric oxide is present in the exhaled air of rabbits, guinea pigs and humans," Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 181, 852-857 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monk, S. D.

Mucke, R.

P. Werle, R. Mucke, and F. Slemr, "The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 57, 131-139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nadezhdinskii, A. I.

L. Konstantin, A. I. Nadezhdinskii, and I. A. Adamouskaya, "Human breath trace gas content study by tunable diode laser spectroscopy technique," Infrared Phys. Technol. 37, 181-192 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Namjou, K.

K. Namjou, C. B. Roller, T. E. Reich, J. D. Jeffers, G. McMillen, P. J. McCann, and M. A. Camp. "Determination of exhaled nitric oxide distributions in a diverse sample population using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Roller, K. Namjou, J. Jeffers, M. Camp, P. J. McCann, and J. Grego, "Nitric oxide breath testing using tunable-diode laser absorption spectroscopy: application in monitoring respiratory inflammation," Appl. Opt. 41, 6018-6029 (2002).

C. Roller, K. Namjou, J. Jeffers, W. Potter, P. J. McCann, and J. Grego, "Simultaneous measurement of NO and CO2 in human breath using a single IV-VI mid-infrared laser," Opt. Lett. 27, 107-109 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Namjou, P. J. McCann, and W. T. Potter, "Breath testing with a mid-IR laser spectrometer," in Application of Tunable Diode and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Processing Monitoring II, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE 3758, 74-80 (1999).

Nyman, G.

U. Schedin, B. O. Röken, G. Nyman, C. Frostell, and L. E. Gustafsson, "Endogenous nitric oxide in the airways of different animal species," Acta Anaesthesiol. Scand. 41, 1133-1141 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohnishi, S. T.

T. M. Wizemann, C. R. Gardner, J. D. Laskin, S. Quinones, S. K. Durham, N. L. Goller, S. T. Ohnishi, and D. L. Laskin, "Production of nitric oxide and peroxynitrite in the lung during acute endotoxemia," J. Leukoc. Biol. 56, 759-768 (1994).
[PubMed]

Olchowy, T. W.

G. L. Mason, Z. Yang, T. W. Olchowy, Z. Jian, and P. N. Bochsler, "Nitric oxide production and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase by bovine alveolar macrophages," Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 53, 15-27 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Padgett, M.

C. Wyse, A. Cathcart, R. Sutherland, S. Ward, L. McMillan, G. Gibson, M. Padgett, and K. Skeldon, "Effect of maximal dynamic exercise on exhaled ethane and carbon monoxide levels in human, equine, and canine athletes," Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A 141, 239-246 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Padgett, M. J.

Pasini, E.

M. Bernareggi, G. Rossoni, E. Clini, E. Pasini, T. Bachetti, G. Cremona, N. Ambrosino, and F. Berti, "Detection of nitric oxide in exhaled air of different animal species using a clinical chemiluminescence analyzer," Pharmacol. Res. 39, 221-224 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pawliszyn, J.

Y. Yu and J. Pawliszyn, "On-line monitoring of breath by membrane extraction with sorbent interface coupled with CO2 sensor," J. Chromatog. A 1056, 35-41 (2004).

Perino, L. J.

T. E. Whittum, N. E. Woolen, L. J. Perino, and E. T. Littledike, "Relationships among treatment for respiratory tract disease, pulmonary lesions evident at slaughter and rate of weight gain in feedlot cattle," J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 209, 814-818 (1996).

Permutt, S.

S. C. George, M. Hogman, S. Permutt, and P. E. Silkoff, "Modeling pulmonary nitric oxide exchange," J. Appl. Physiol. 96, 831-839 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Persson, M. G.

L. E. Gustafsson, A. M. Leone, M. G. Persson, N. P. Wiklund, and S. Moncada, "Endogenous nitric oxide is present in the exhaled air of rabbits, guinea pigs and humans," Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 181, 852-857 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfister, H.

J. M. Fligger, A. S. Waldvogel, H. Pfister, and T. W. Jungi, "Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in spontaneous bovine bronchopneumonia," Vet. Pathol. 36, 397-405 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phillips, M.

M. Phillips, "Detection of volatile organic compounds in breath," in Disease Markers in Exhaled Breath, N.Marczin, S.A.Kharitonov, M.H.Yacoub, and P.J.Barnes, eds. (Dekker, 2002), pp. 219-231.

Pijnenburg, M. W.

D. R. Taylor, M. W. Pijnenburg, A. D. Smith, and J. C. De Jongste, "Exhaled nitric oxide measurements: clinical application and interpretation," Thorax 61, 817-827 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Potter, W.

Potter, W. T.

K. Namjou, P. J. McCann, and W. T. Potter, "Breath testing with a mid-IR laser spectrometer," in Application of Tunable Diode and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Processing Monitoring II, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE 3758, 74-80 (1999).

Quinones, S.

T. M. Wizemann, C. R. Gardner, J. D. Laskin, S. Quinones, S. K. Durham, N. L. Goller, S. T. Ohnishi, and D. L. Laskin, "Production of nitric oxide and peroxynitrite in the lung during acute endotoxemia," J. Leukoc. Biol. 56, 759-768 (1994).
[PubMed]

Rauenbuehler, S.

B. Wert, A. Fried, S. Rauenbuehler, J. Walega, and B. Henry, "Design and performance of a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer for airborne formaldehyde measurements," J. Geophy. Res. 108, 4350-4358 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reich, T. E.

K. Namjou, C. B. Roller, T. E. Reich, J. D. Jeffers, G. McMillen, P. J. McCann, and M. A. Camp. "Determination of exhaled nitric oxide distributions in a diverse sample population using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reinhold, P.

P. Reinhold, A. Langenberg, J. Seifert, M. Rothe, and G. Becher, "Ammonia and urea in the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and in corresponding blood samples," Eur. Respir. J. 20, (Suppl. 38), 428s (2002).

P. Reinhold, G. Becher, and M. Rothe, "Evaluation of the measurement of leukotriene B4 concentrations in exhaled breath condensate as a noninvasive method for assessing mediators of inflammation in the lungs of calves," Am. J. Vet. Res. 61, 742-749 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ribble, C. S.

G. K. Jim, C. W. Booker, C. S. Ribble, P. T. Guichon, and B. E. Thorlakson, "A field investigation of the economic impact of respiratory disease in feedlot calves," Can. Vet. J. 34, 668-673 (1993).
[PubMed]

Risby, T. H.

T. H. Risby and S. F. Solga, "Current status of clinical breath analysis," Appl. Phys. B doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

Röken, B. O.

U. Schedin, B. O. Röken, G. Nyman, C. Frostell, and L. E. Gustafsson, "Endogenous nitric oxide in the airways of different animal species," Acta Anaesthesiol. Scand. 41, 1133-1141 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roller, C.

Roller, C. B.

K. Namjou, C. B. Roller, T. E. Reich, J. D. Jeffers, G. McMillen, P. J. McCann, and M. A. Camp. "Determination of exhaled nitric oxide distributions in a diverse sample population using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Roller, K. Namjou, J. Jeffers, M. Camp, P. J. McCann, and J. Grego, "Nitric oxide breath testing using tunable-diode laser absorption spectroscopy: application in monitoring respiratory inflammation," Appl. Opt. 41, 6018-6029 (2002).

Rossoni, G.

M. Bernareggi, G. Rossoni, E. Clini, E. Pasini, T. Bachetti, G. Cremona, N. Ambrosino, and F. Berti, "Detection of nitric oxide in exhaled air of different animal species using a clinical chemiluminescence analyzer," Pharmacol. Res. 39, 221-224 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rothe, M.

P. Reinhold, A. Langenberg, J. Seifert, M. Rothe, and G. Becher, "Ammonia and urea in the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and in corresponding blood samples," Eur. Respir. J. 20, (Suppl. 38), 428s (2002).

P. Reinhold, G. Becher, and M. Rothe, "Evaluation of the measurement of leukotriene B4 concentrations in exhaled breath condensate as a noninvasive method for assessing mediators of inflammation in the lungs of calves," Am. J. Vet. Res. 61, 742-749 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rutherford, M. S.

H. S. Yoo, M. S. Rutherford, S. K. Maheswaran, S. Srinand, and T. R. Ames, "Induction of nitric oxide production by bovine alveolar macrophages in response to Pasteurella haemolytica A1," Microb. Pathog. 20, 361-375 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schedin, U.

U. Schedin, B. O. Röken, G. Nyman, C. Frostell, and L. E. Gustafsson, "Endogenous nitric oxide in the airways of different animal species," Acta Anaesthesiol. Scand. 41, 1133-1141 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schubert, J. K.

J. K. Schubert, K. H. Spittler, G. Braun, K. Geiger, and J. Guttmann, "CO(2)-controlled sampling of alveolar gas in mechanically ventilated patients," J. Appl. Physiol. 90, 486-492 (2001).
[PubMed]

Seifert, J.

P. Reinhold, A. Langenberg, J. Seifert, M. Rothe, and G. Becher, "Ammonia and urea in the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and in corresponding blood samples," Eur. Respir. J. 20, (Suppl. 38), 428s (2002).

Silkoff, P. E.

S. C. George, M. Hogman, S. Permutt, and P. E. Silkoff, "Modeling pulmonary nitric oxide exchange," J. Appl. Physiol. 96, 831-839 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skeldon, K.

C. Wyse, A. Cathcart, R. Sutherland, S. Ward, L. McMillan, G. Gibson, M. Padgett, and K. Skeldon, "Effect of maximal dynamic exercise on exhaled ethane and carbon monoxide levels in human, equine, and canine athletes," Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A 141, 239-246 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Skeldon, K. D.

Slemr, F.

P. Werle, R. Mucke, and F. Slemr, "The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 57, 131-139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Smith, A. D.

D. R. Taylor, M. W. Pijnenburg, A. D. Smith, and J. C. De Jongste, "Exhaled nitric oxide measurements: clinical application and interpretation," Thorax 61, 817-827 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Snowder, G. D.

G. D. Snowder, L. D. V. Vleck, L. V. Cundiff, and G. L. Bennett, "Influence of breed, heterozygosity, and disease incidence on estimates of variance components of respiratory disease in preweaned beef calves," J. Anim. Sci. 83, 1247-1261 (2005).
[PubMed]

Solga, S. F.

T. H. Risby and S. F. Solga, "Current status of clinical breath analysis," Appl. Phys. B doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

Spinhirne, J. P.

J. P. Spinhirne, J. A. Koziel, and N. K. Chirase, "Sampling and analysis of volatile organic compounds in bovine breath by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry," J. Chromatogr. A 1025, 63-69 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spittler, K. H.

J. K. Schubert, K. H. Spittler, G. Braun, K. Geiger, and J. Guttmann, "CO(2)-controlled sampling of alveolar gas in mechanically ventilated patients," J. Appl. Physiol. 90, 486-492 (2001).
[PubMed]

Srinand, S.

H. S. Yoo, M. S. Rutherford, S. K. Maheswaran, S. Srinand, and T. R. Ames, "Induction of nitric oxide production by bovine alveolar macrophages in response to Pasteurella haemolytica A1," Microb. Pathog. 20, 361-375 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stepanov, E. V.

E. V. Stepanov, P. V. Zyrianov, and V. A. Miliaev, "Single-breath NO detection with tunable diode lasers for pulmonary disease diagnosis," in ALT'98 Selected Papers on Novel Laser Methods in Medicine and Biology, A. M. Prokhorov, V. I. Pustovoy, and G. P. Kuz'min, eds., Proc. SPIE 3829, 103-109 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, R.

C. Wyse, A. Cathcart, R. Sutherland, S. Ward, L. McMillan, G. Gibson, M. Padgett, and K. Skeldon, "Effect of maximal dynamic exercise on exhaled ethane and carbon monoxide levels in human, equine, and canine athletes," Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A 141, 239-246 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, D. R.

D. R. Taylor, M. W. Pijnenburg, A. D. Smith, and J. C. De Jongste, "Exhaled nitric oxide measurements: clinical application and interpretation," Thorax 61, 817-827 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thorlakson, B. E.

G. K. Jim, C. W. Booker, C. S. Ribble, P. T. Guichon, and B. E. Thorlakson, "A field investigation of the economic impact of respiratory disease in feedlot calves," Can. Vet. J. 34, 668-673 (1993).
[PubMed]

Vleck, L. D. V.

G. D. Snowder, L. D. V. Vleck, L. V. Cundiff, and G. L. Bennett, "Influence of breed, heterozygosity, and disease incidence on estimates of variance components of respiratory disease in preweaned beef calves," J. Anim. Sci. 83, 1247-1261 (2005).
[PubMed]

Waldvogel, A. S.

J. M. Fligger, A. S. Waldvogel, H. Pfister, and T. W. Jungi, "Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in spontaneous bovine bronchopneumonia," Vet. Pathol. 36, 397-405 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walega, J.

B. Wert, A. Fried, S. Rauenbuehler, J. Walega, and B. Henry, "Design and performance of a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer for airborne formaldehyde measurements," J. Geophy. Res. 108, 4350-4358 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ward, S.

C. Wyse, A. Cathcart, R. Sutherland, S. Ward, L. McMillan, G. Gibson, M. Padgett, and K. Skeldon, "Effect of maximal dynamic exercise on exhaled ethane and carbon monoxide levels in human, equine, and canine athletes," Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A 141, 239-246 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Weitzberg, E.

K. Alving, E. Weitzberg, and J. M. Lundberg, "Increased amount of nitric oxide in exhaled air of asthmatics," Eur. Respir. J. 6, 1368-1370 (1993).
[PubMed]

Werle, P.

P. Werle, R. Mucke, and F. Slemr, "The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 57, 131-139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wert, B.

B. Wert, A. Fried, S. Rauenbuehler, J. Walega, and B. Henry, "Design and performance of a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer for airborne formaldehyde measurements," J. Geophy. Res. 108, 4350-4358 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Whittum, T. E.

T. E. Whittum, N. E. Woolen, L. J. Perino, and E. T. Littledike, "Relationships among treatment for respiratory tract disease, pulmonary lesions evident at slaughter and rate of weight gain in feedlot cattle," J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 209, 814-818 (1996).

Wiklund, N. P.

L. E. Gustafsson, A. M. Leone, M. G. Persson, N. P. Wiklund, and S. Moncada, "Endogenous nitric oxide is present in the exhaled air of rabbits, guinea pigs and humans," Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 181, 852-857 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wizemann, T. M.

T. M. Wizemann, C. R. Gardner, J. D. Laskin, S. Quinones, S. K. Durham, N. L. Goller, S. T. Ohnishi, and D. L. Laskin, "Production of nitric oxide and peroxynitrite in the lung during acute endotoxemia," J. Leukoc. Biol. 56, 759-768 (1994).
[PubMed]

Woolen, N. E.

T. E. Whittum, N. E. Woolen, L. J. Perino, and E. T. Littledike, "Relationships among treatment for respiratory tract disease, pulmonary lesions evident at slaughter and rate of weight gain in feedlot cattle," J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 209, 814-818 (1996).

Wyse, C.

C. Wyse, A. Cathcart, R. Sutherland, S. Ward, L. McMillan, G. Gibson, M. Padgett, and K. Skeldon, "Effect of maximal dynamic exercise on exhaled ethane and carbon monoxide levels in human, equine, and canine athletes," Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A 141, 239-246 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wyse, C. A.

Yang, Z.

G. L. Mason, Z. Yang, T. W. Olchowy, Z. Jian, and P. N. Bochsler, "Nitric oxide production and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase by bovine alveolar macrophages," Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 53, 15-27 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. B. Roller, K. Namjou, J. Jeffers, M. Camp, P. J. McCann, and J. Grego, "Nitric oxide breath testing using tunable-diode laser absorption spectroscopy: application in monitoring respiratory inflammation," Appl. Opt. 41, 6018-6029 (2002).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the breath collection apparatus consisting of a mask, bacterial–viral filter, NDIR  CO2 sensor, pressure sensor, vacuum chamber, sample collection bag, side-stream sample ON∕OFF valve, selector valves, and 4 mm diameter restrictor. (b) CO2 trend measured using the NDIR  CO2 sensor and corresponding exhalation–inhalation pressure trend. The shaded regions indicate when the sample ON∕OFF valve is open and collecting breath.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photograph showing breath collection from a newly arrived steer restrained in a hydraulic chute. Visible are the breath collection mask and sensors.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Acquired background, sample, and background subtracted spectra.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Allan deviation plot showing 1σ detection limits for NO signal integration times from 0 to over 100 s.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) NO histogram for zero air (n=43) and an eNO histogram for cattle (n=380) . (b) Upper plot shows the background-subtracted spectra for all cattle in gray and the averaged spectrum in black. The lower plot is the averaged NO 2f absorption feature. The algorithm used to determine the NO concentration yielded a value of 295  ppt when used to process the averaged spectrum.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Plot of exhaled CO2 concentrations measured by the TDLAS instrument versus the NDIR  CO2 sensor showing a positive correlation. The NDIR  CO2 sensor measured on average a factor of 1.28 higher than the TDLAS instrument. The dashed line is the linear fit forced through the chart origin where y and x are the NDIR  CO2 and TDLAS  CO2 measured concentrations, respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Probability density functions of body temperature for control and clinically suspect calves. The cutoff for treatment of the clinically suspect calves was 104°F or a clinical score of 3 or greater.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Bar plot of eNO with standard deviation for all groups where (*) indicates a p value of less than 0.05 compared to the control and posttreated subset groups, and (b) bar plot of average exhaled CO2 as measured by the NDIR CO2 sensor where (*) indicates a p value of less than 0.01 compared with all groups.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Plot of eCO2 concentrations as measured by the TDLAS instrument. Three periods were identified where the second period suffered from reduced concentrations due to a leak in the sample bag. The number of measurements made in the first, second, and third periods was 213, 132, and 31, respectively.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Bar plot of eNO concentrations for periods 1–3 identified in Fig. 9 and (b) corresponding CO2 values as measured by the TDLAS instrument and NDIR CO2 sensor.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Plot of exhaled NO, average ETST, and ADG for control calves, calves treated once, and calves treated more than once in the first 15 days postarrival.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of Measurement Results for All Loads of Cattle upon Arrival a

Tables Icon

Table 2 eNO and NDIR CO2 Concentrations with Uncertainties and Sample Size

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