Abstract

We describe what is believed to be a new approach developed for the National Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) to retrieve pixel-level, cirrus cloud top temperatures (CTTs) from radiances observed in the 8.55 and 12.0μm bandpasses. The methodology solves numerically a set of nonlinear algebraic equations derived from the theory of radiative transfer based upon the correlation between emissivities in these two bandpasses. This new approach has been demonstrated using NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) as a proxy to Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) data. Many scenes have been analyzed covering a wide range of geophysical conditions, including single-layered and multilayered cirrus cloud situations along with diverse backgrounds and seasons. For single-layer clouds, the new approach compares very favorably with the MODIS 5  km resolution cloud products; the mean CTT for both methods are very close, while the standard deviation for the new approach is smaller. However, in multilayered cloud situations, the mean CTTs for the new approach appear to be colder than the CTTs from MODIS cloud products, which are acknowledged to be too warm. Finally, partly because the new approach is applied at the pixel level, CTTs do not increase toward cloud edges as is seen in the MODIS products. Based upon these initial results, the new approach to retrieve improved VIIRS cloud top properties has been incorporated into the ground-based data processing segment of the NPOESS system where prelaunch testing of all VIIRS algorithms continues.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. C. Ou, Y. Takano, K. N. Liou, G. J. Higgins, A. George, and R. Slonaker, "Remote sensing of cirrus cloud optical thickness and effective particle size for the National Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite: sensitivity to instrument noise and uncertainties in environmental parameters," Appl. Opt. 42, 7202-7204 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. C. Ou, K. N. Liou, and Y. Takano, VIIRS Cloud Optical Properties Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (Raytheon Information Technology and Scientific Services, 2003), available online at http://www.ipo.noaa.gov/librarylowbarNPOESS.html.
  3. K. D. Hutchison, J. Roskovensky, J. Jackson, A. Heidinger, M. J. Pavolonis, R. Frey, and T. Kopp, "Automated cloud detection and typing of data collected by the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS)," Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 4681-4706 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. J. Pavolonis and A. K. Heidinger, "Daytime cloud overlap detection from AVHRR and VIIRS," J. Appl. Meteorol. 43, 762-778 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H.-L. Huang, Cloud Top Parameters, Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document, Version 5.0 (Raytheon Information Technology and Scientific Services, 2002), available online at http://www.ipo.noaa.gov/librarylowbarNPOESS.html.
  6. K. N. Liou, S. C. Ou, Y. Takano, F. P. J. Valero, and T. P. Ackerman, "Remote sounding of tropical cirrus cloud temperature and optical depth using 6.5 and 10.5 μm radiometers during STEP," J. Appl. Meteorol. 29, 716-726 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. C. Ou, K. N. Liou, W. M. Gooch, and Y. Takano, "Remote sensing of cirrus cloud parameters using advanced very-high-resolution radiometer 3.7 and 10.9 μm channels," Appl. Opt. 32, 2171-2180 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. C. Ou, K. N. Liou, Y. Takano, N. X. Rao, Q. Fu, A. J. Heymsfield, L. M. Miloshevich, B. Baum, and S. A. Kinne, "Remote sounding of cirrus cloud optical depths and ice crystal sizes from AVHRR data: verification using FIRE II IFO composite measurements," J. Atmos. Sci. 52, 4143-4158 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Chahine, H. Aumann, M. Goldberg, L. McMillin, P. Rosenkranz, D. Staelin, L. Strow, J. Susskind, and M. Gunson, AIRS Team Retrieval for Core Products and Geophysical Parameters, Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document, Vol. 2.2 (NASA-JPL, 2001).
  10. Y. Takano and K. N. Liou, "Solar radiative transfer in cirrus clouds. Part I and II," J. Atmos. Sci. 46, 3-36 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Nakajima and M. D. King, "Determination of the optical thickness and effective particle radius of clouds from reflected solar-radiation measurements. 1. Theory," J. Atmos. Sci. 47, 1878-1893 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. D. King, S.-C. Tsay, S. E. Platnick, M. Wang, and K. N. Liou, Cloud Retrieval Algorithms for MODIS: Optical Thickness, Effective Particle Radius, and Thermodynamic Phase,MODIS Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document, No. ATBD-MOD-05 (NASA-GSFC, 1997).
  13. W. P. Menzel, B. A. Baum, K. I. Strabala, and R. A. Frey, Cloud Top Properties and Cloud Phase Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document, MODIS ATBD Reference Number: ATBD-MOD-04 (NASA-GSFC, 2002).
  14. S. Platnick, M. D. King, S. A. Ackerman, W. P. Menzel, B. A. Baum, J. C. Riedi, and R. A. Frey, "The MODIS cloud products: algorithms and examples from Terra," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 459-473 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

K. D. Hutchison, J. Roskovensky, J. Jackson, A. Heidinger, M. J. Pavolonis, R. Frey, and T. Kopp, "Automated cloud detection and typing of data collected by the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS)," Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 4681-4706 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

M. J. Pavolonis and A. K. Heidinger, "Daytime cloud overlap detection from AVHRR and VIIRS," J. Appl. Meteorol. 43, 762-778 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

1995 (1)

S. C. Ou, K. N. Liou, Y. Takano, N. X. Rao, Q. Fu, A. J. Heymsfield, L. M. Miloshevich, B. Baum, and S. A. Kinne, "Remote sounding of cirrus cloud optical depths and ice crystal sizes from AVHRR data: verification using FIRE II IFO composite measurements," J. Atmos. Sci. 52, 4143-4158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1990 (2)

K. N. Liou, S. C. Ou, Y. Takano, F. P. J. Valero, and T. P. Ackerman, "Remote sounding of tropical cirrus cloud temperature and optical depth using 6.5 and 10.5 μm radiometers during STEP," J. Appl. Meteorol. 29, 716-726 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima and M. D. King, "Determination of the optical thickness and effective particle radius of clouds from reflected solar-radiation measurements. 1. Theory," J. Atmos. Sci. 47, 1878-1893 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

Y. Takano and K. N. Liou, "Solar radiative transfer in cirrus clouds. Part I and II," J. Atmos. Sci. 46, 3-36 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ackerman, S. A.

S. Platnick, M. D. King, S. A. Ackerman, W. P. Menzel, B. A. Baum, J. C. Riedi, and R. A. Frey, "The MODIS cloud products: algorithms and examples from Terra," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 459-473 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ackerman, T. P.

K. N. Liou, S. C. Ou, Y. Takano, F. P. J. Valero, and T. P. Ackerman, "Remote sounding of tropical cirrus cloud temperature and optical depth using 6.5 and 10.5 μm radiometers during STEP," J. Appl. Meteorol. 29, 716-726 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Aumann, H.

M. Chahine, H. Aumann, M. Goldberg, L. McMillin, P. Rosenkranz, D. Staelin, L. Strow, J. Susskind, and M. Gunson, AIRS Team Retrieval for Core Products and Geophysical Parameters, Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document, Vol. 2.2 (NASA-JPL, 2001).

Baum, B.

S. C. Ou, K. N. Liou, Y. Takano, N. X. Rao, Q. Fu, A. J. Heymsfield, L. M. Miloshevich, B. Baum, and S. A. Kinne, "Remote sounding of cirrus cloud optical depths and ice crystal sizes from AVHRR data: verification using FIRE II IFO composite measurements," J. Atmos. Sci. 52, 4143-4158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Baum, B. A.

S. Platnick, M. D. King, S. A. Ackerman, W. P. Menzel, B. A. Baum, J. C. Riedi, and R. A. Frey, "The MODIS cloud products: algorithms and examples from Terra," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 459-473 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Menzel, B. A. Baum, K. I. Strabala, and R. A. Frey, Cloud Top Properties and Cloud Phase Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document, MODIS ATBD Reference Number: ATBD-MOD-04 (NASA-GSFC, 2002).

Chahine, M.

M. Chahine, H. Aumann, M. Goldberg, L. McMillin, P. Rosenkranz, D. Staelin, L. Strow, J. Susskind, and M. Gunson, AIRS Team Retrieval for Core Products and Geophysical Parameters, Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document, Vol. 2.2 (NASA-JPL, 2001).

Frey, R.

K. D. Hutchison, J. Roskovensky, J. Jackson, A. Heidinger, M. J. Pavolonis, R. Frey, and T. Kopp, "Automated cloud detection and typing of data collected by the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS)," Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 4681-4706 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Frey, R. A.

S. Platnick, M. D. King, S. A. Ackerman, W. P. Menzel, B. A. Baum, J. C. Riedi, and R. A. Frey, "The MODIS cloud products: algorithms and examples from Terra," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 459-473 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Menzel, B. A. Baum, K. I. Strabala, and R. A. Frey, Cloud Top Properties and Cloud Phase Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document, MODIS ATBD Reference Number: ATBD-MOD-04 (NASA-GSFC, 2002).

Fu, Q.

S. C. Ou, K. N. Liou, Y. Takano, N. X. Rao, Q. Fu, A. J. Heymsfield, L. M. Miloshevich, B. Baum, and S. A. Kinne, "Remote sounding of cirrus cloud optical depths and ice crystal sizes from AVHRR data: verification using FIRE II IFO composite measurements," J. Atmos. Sci. 52, 4143-4158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

George, A.

Goldberg, M.

M. Chahine, H. Aumann, M. Goldberg, L. McMillin, P. Rosenkranz, D. Staelin, L. Strow, J. Susskind, and M. Gunson, AIRS Team Retrieval for Core Products and Geophysical Parameters, Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document, Vol. 2.2 (NASA-JPL, 2001).

Gooch, W. M.

Gunson, M.

M. Chahine, H. Aumann, M. Goldberg, L. McMillin, P. Rosenkranz, D. Staelin, L. Strow, J. Susskind, and M. Gunson, AIRS Team Retrieval for Core Products and Geophysical Parameters, Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document, Vol. 2.2 (NASA-JPL, 2001).

Heidinger, A.

K. D. Hutchison, J. Roskovensky, J. Jackson, A. Heidinger, M. J. Pavolonis, R. Frey, and T. Kopp, "Automated cloud detection and typing of data collected by the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS)," Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 4681-4706 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Heidinger, A. K.

M. J. Pavolonis and A. K. Heidinger, "Daytime cloud overlap detection from AVHRR and VIIRS," J. Appl. Meteorol. 43, 762-778 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Heymsfield, A. J.

S. C. Ou, K. N. Liou, Y. Takano, N. X. Rao, Q. Fu, A. J. Heymsfield, L. M. Miloshevich, B. Baum, and S. A. Kinne, "Remote sounding of cirrus cloud optical depths and ice crystal sizes from AVHRR data: verification using FIRE II IFO composite measurements," J. Atmos. Sci. 52, 4143-4158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Higgins, G. J.

Huang, H.-L.

H.-L. Huang, Cloud Top Parameters, Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document, Version 5.0 (Raytheon Information Technology and Scientific Services, 2002), available online at http://www.ipo.noaa.gov/librarylowbarNPOESS.html.

Hutchison, K. D.

K. D. Hutchison, J. Roskovensky, J. Jackson, A. Heidinger, M. J. Pavolonis, R. Frey, and T. Kopp, "Automated cloud detection and typing of data collected by the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS)," Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 4681-4706 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, J.

K. D. Hutchison, J. Roskovensky, J. Jackson, A. Heidinger, M. J. Pavolonis, R. Frey, and T. Kopp, "Automated cloud detection and typing of data collected by the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS)," Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 4681-4706 (2005).
[CrossRef]

King, M. D.

S. Platnick, M. D. King, S. A. Ackerman, W. P. Menzel, B. A. Baum, J. C. Riedi, and R. A. Frey, "The MODIS cloud products: algorithms and examples from Terra," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 459-473 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima and M. D. King, "Determination of the optical thickness and effective particle radius of clouds from reflected solar-radiation measurements. 1. Theory," J. Atmos. Sci. 47, 1878-1893 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. D. King, S.-C. Tsay, S. E. Platnick, M. Wang, and K. N. Liou, Cloud Retrieval Algorithms for MODIS: Optical Thickness, Effective Particle Radius, and Thermodynamic Phase,MODIS Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document, No. ATBD-MOD-05 (NASA-GSFC, 1997).

Kinne, S. A.

S. C. Ou, K. N. Liou, Y. Takano, N. X. Rao, Q. Fu, A. J. Heymsfield, L. M. Miloshevich, B. Baum, and S. A. Kinne, "Remote sounding of cirrus cloud optical depths and ice crystal sizes from AVHRR data: verification using FIRE II IFO composite measurements," J. Atmos. Sci. 52, 4143-4158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kopp, T.

K. D. Hutchison, J. Roskovensky, J. Jackson, A. Heidinger, M. J. Pavolonis, R. Frey, and T. Kopp, "Automated cloud detection and typing of data collected by the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS)," Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 4681-4706 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liou, K. N.

S. C. Ou, Y. Takano, K. N. Liou, G. J. Higgins, A. George, and R. Slonaker, "Remote sensing of cirrus cloud optical thickness and effective particle size for the National Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite: sensitivity to instrument noise and uncertainties in environmental parameters," Appl. Opt. 42, 7202-7204 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Ou, K. N. Liou, Y. Takano, N. X. Rao, Q. Fu, A. J. Heymsfield, L. M. Miloshevich, B. Baum, and S. A. Kinne, "Remote sounding of cirrus cloud optical depths and ice crystal sizes from AVHRR data: verification using FIRE II IFO composite measurements," J. Atmos. Sci. 52, 4143-4158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Ou, K. N. Liou, W. M. Gooch, and Y. Takano, "Remote sensing of cirrus cloud parameters using advanced very-high-resolution radiometer 3.7 and 10.9 μm channels," Appl. Opt. 32, 2171-2180 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. N. Liou, S. C. Ou, Y. Takano, F. P. J. Valero, and T. P. Ackerman, "Remote sounding of tropical cirrus cloud temperature and optical depth using 6.5 and 10.5 μm radiometers during STEP," J. Appl. Meteorol. 29, 716-726 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takano and K. N. Liou, "Solar radiative transfer in cirrus clouds. Part I and II," J. Atmos. Sci. 46, 3-36 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. D. King, S.-C. Tsay, S. E. Platnick, M. Wang, and K. N. Liou, Cloud Retrieval Algorithms for MODIS: Optical Thickness, Effective Particle Radius, and Thermodynamic Phase,MODIS Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document, No. ATBD-MOD-05 (NASA-GSFC, 1997).

S. C. Ou, K. N. Liou, and Y. Takano, VIIRS Cloud Optical Properties Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (Raytheon Information Technology and Scientific Services, 2003), available online at http://www.ipo.noaa.gov/librarylowbarNPOESS.html.

McMillin, L.

M. Chahine, H. Aumann, M. Goldberg, L. McMillin, P. Rosenkranz, D. Staelin, L. Strow, J. Susskind, and M. Gunson, AIRS Team Retrieval for Core Products and Geophysical Parameters, Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document, Vol. 2.2 (NASA-JPL, 2001).

Menzel, W. P.

S. Platnick, M. D. King, S. A. Ackerman, W. P. Menzel, B. A. Baum, J. C. Riedi, and R. A. Frey, "The MODIS cloud products: algorithms and examples from Terra," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 459-473 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Menzel, B. A. Baum, K. I. Strabala, and R. A. Frey, Cloud Top Properties and Cloud Phase Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document, MODIS ATBD Reference Number: ATBD-MOD-04 (NASA-GSFC, 2002).

Miloshevich, L. M.

S. C. Ou, K. N. Liou, Y. Takano, N. X. Rao, Q. Fu, A. J. Heymsfield, L. M. Miloshevich, B. Baum, and S. A. Kinne, "Remote sounding of cirrus cloud optical depths and ice crystal sizes from AVHRR data: verification using FIRE II IFO composite measurements," J. Atmos. Sci. 52, 4143-4158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, T.

T. Nakajima and M. D. King, "Determination of the optical thickness and effective particle radius of clouds from reflected solar-radiation measurements. 1. Theory," J. Atmos. Sci. 47, 1878-1893 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ou, S. C.

S. C. Ou, Y. Takano, K. N. Liou, G. J. Higgins, A. George, and R. Slonaker, "Remote sensing of cirrus cloud optical thickness and effective particle size for the National Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite: sensitivity to instrument noise and uncertainties in environmental parameters," Appl. Opt. 42, 7202-7204 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Ou, K. N. Liou, Y. Takano, N. X. Rao, Q. Fu, A. J. Heymsfield, L. M. Miloshevich, B. Baum, and S. A. Kinne, "Remote sounding of cirrus cloud optical depths and ice crystal sizes from AVHRR data: verification using FIRE II IFO composite measurements," J. Atmos. Sci. 52, 4143-4158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Ou, K. N. Liou, W. M. Gooch, and Y. Takano, "Remote sensing of cirrus cloud parameters using advanced very-high-resolution radiometer 3.7 and 10.9 μm channels," Appl. Opt. 32, 2171-2180 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. N. Liou, S. C. Ou, Y. Takano, F. P. J. Valero, and T. P. Ackerman, "Remote sounding of tropical cirrus cloud temperature and optical depth using 6.5 and 10.5 μm radiometers during STEP," J. Appl. Meteorol. 29, 716-726 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Ou, K. N. Liou, and Y. Takano, VIIRS Cloud Optical Properties Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (Raytheon Information Technology and Scientific Services, 2003), available online at http://www.ipo.noaa.gov/librarylowbarNPOESS.html.

Pavolonis, M. J.

K. D. Hutchison, J. Roskovensky, J. Jackson, A. Heidinger, M. J. Pavolonis, R. Frey, and T. Kopp, "Automated cloud detection and typing of data collected by the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS)," Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 4681-4706 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Pavolonis and A. K. Heidinger, "Daytime cloud overlap detection from AVHRR and VIIRS," J. Appl. Meteorol. 43, 762-778 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Platnick, S.

S. Platnick, M. D. King, S. A. Ackerman, W. P. Menzel, B. A. Baum, J. C. Riedi, and R. A. Frey, "The MODIS cloud products: algorithms and examples from Terra," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 459-473 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Platnick, S. E.

M. D. King, S.-C. Tsay, S. E. Platnick, M. Wang, and K. N. Liou, Cloud Retrieval Algorithms for MODIS: Optical Thickness, Effective Particle Radius, and Thermodynamic Phase,MODIS Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document, No. ATBD-MOD-05 (NASA-GSFC, 1997).

Rao, N. X.

S. C. Ou, K. N. Liou, Y. Takano, N. X. Rao, Q. Fu, A. J. Heymsfield, L. M. Miloshevich, B. Baum, and S. A. Kinne, "Remote sounding of cirrus cloud optical depths and ice crystal sizes from AVHRR data: verification using FIRE II IFO composite measurements," J. Atmos. Sci. 52, 4143-4158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Riedi, J. C.

S. Platnick, M. D. King, S. A. Ackerman, W. P. Menzel, B. A. Baum, J. C. Riedi, and R. A. Frey, "The MODIS cloud products: algorithms and examples from Terra," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 459-473 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rosenkranz, P.

M. Chahine, H. Aumann, M. Goldberg, L. McMillin, P. Rosenkranz, D. Staelin, L. Strow, J. Susskind, and M. Gunson, AIRS Team Retrieval for Core Products and Geophysical Parameters, Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document, Vol. 2.2 (NASA-JPL, 2001).

Roskovensky, J.

K. D. Hutchison, J. Roskovensky, J. Jackson, A. Heidinger, M. J. Pavolonis, R. Frey, and T. Kopp, "Automated cloud detection and typing of data collected by the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS)," Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 4681-4706 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Slonaker, R.

Staelin, D.

M. Chahine, H. Aumann, M. Goldberg, L. McMillin, P. Rosenkranz, D. Staelin, L. Strow, J. Susskind, and M. Gunson, AIRS Team Retrieval for Core Products and Geophysical Parameters, Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document, Vol. 2.2 (NASA-JPL, 2001).

Strabala, K. I.

W. P. Menzel, B. A. Baum, K. I. Strabala, and R. A. Frey, Cloud Top Properties and Cloud Phase Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document, MODIS ATBD Reference Number: ATBD-MOD-04 (NASA-GSFC, 2002).

Strow, L.

M. Chahine, H. Aumann, M. Goldberg, L. McMillin, P. Rosenkranz, D. Staelin, L. Strow, J. Susskind, and M. Gunson, AIRS Team Retrieval for Core Products and Geophysical Parameters, Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document, Vol. 2.2 (NASA-JPL, 2001).

Susskind, J.

M. Chahine, H. Aumann, M. Goldberg, L. McMillin, P. Rosenkranz, D. Staelin, L. Strow, J. Susskind, and M. Gunson, AIRS Team Retrieval for Core Products and Geophysical Parameters, Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document, Vol. 2.2 (NASA-JPL, 2001).

Takano, Y.

S. C. Ou, Y. Takano, K. N. Liou, G. J. Higgins, A. George, and R. Slonaker, "Remote sensing of cirrus cloud optical thickness and effective particle size for the National Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite: sensitivity to instrument noise and uncertainties in environmental parameters," Appl. Opt. 42, 7202-7204 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Ou, K. N. Liou, Y. Takano, N. X. Rao, Q. Fu, A. J. Heymsfield, L. M. Miloshevich, B. Baum, and S. A. Kinne, "Remote sounding of cirrus cloud optical depths and ice crystal sizes from AVHRR data: verification using FIRE II IFO composite measurements," J. Atmos. Sci. 52, 4143-4158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Ou, K. N. Liou, W. M. Gooch, and Y. Takano, "Remote sensing of cirrus cloud parameters using advanced very-high-resolution radiometer 3.7 and 10.9 μm channels," Appl. Opt. 32, 2171-2180 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. N. Liou, S. C. Ou, Y. Takano, F. P. J. Valero, and T. P. Ackerman, "Remote sounding of tropical cirrus cloud temperature and optical depth using 6.5 and 10.5 μm radiometers during STEP," J. Appl. Meteorol. 29, 716-726 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takano and K. N. Liou, "Solar radiative transfer in cirrus clouds. Part I and II," J. Atmos. Sci. 46, 3-36 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Ou, K. N. Liou, and Y. Takano, VIIRS Cloud Optical Properties Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (Raytheon Information Technology and Scientific Services, 2003), available online at http://www.ipo.noaa.gov/librarylowbarNPOESS.html.

Tsay, S.-C.

M. D. King, S.-C. Tsay, S. E. Platnick, M. Wang, and K. N. Liou, Cloud Retrieval Algorithms for MODIS: Optical Thickness, Effective Particle Radius, and Thermodynamic Phase,MODIS Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document, No. ATBD-MOD-05 (NASA-GSFC, 1997).

Valero, F. P. J.

K. N. Liou, S. C. Ou, Y. Takano, F. P. J. Valero, and T. P. Ackerman, "Remote sounding of tropical cirrus cloud temperature and optical depth using 6.5 and 10.5 μm radiometers during STEP," J. Appl. Meteorol. 29, 716-726 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

M. D. King, S.-C. Tsay, S. E. Platnick, M. Wang, and K. N. Liou, Cloud Retrieval Algorithms for MODIS: Optical Thickness, Effective Particle Radius, and Thermodynamic Phase,MODIS Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document, No. ATBD-MOD-05 (NASA-GSFC, 1997).

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (1)

S. Platnick, M. D. King, S. A. Ackerman, W. P. Menzel, B. A. Baum, J. C. Riedi, and R. A. Frey, "The MODIS cloud products: algorithms and examples from Terra," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 459-473 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Remote Sens. (1)

K. D. Hutchison, J. Roskovensky, J. Jackson, A. Heidinger, M. J. Pavolonis, R. Frey, and T. Kopp, "Automated cloud detection and typing of data collected by the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS)," Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 4681-4706 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol. (2)

M. J. Pavolonis and A. K. Heidinger, "Daytime cloud overlap detection from AVHRR and VIIRS," J. Appl. Meteorol. 43, 762-778 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Other (5)

M. D. King, S.-C. Tsay, S. E. Platnick, M. Wang, and K. N. Liou, Cloud Retrieval Algorithms for MODIS: Optical Thickness, Effective Particle Radius, and Thermodynamic Phase,MODIS Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document, No. ATBD-MOD-05 (NASA-GSFC, 1997).

W. P. Menzel, B. A. Baum, K. I. Strabala, and R. A. Frey, Cloud Top Properties and Cloud Phase Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document, MODIS ATBD Reference Number: ATBD-MOD-04 (NASA-GSFC, 2002).

H.-L. Huang, Cloud Top Parameters, Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document, Version 5.0 (Raytheon Information Technology and Scientific Services, 2002), available online at http://www.ipo.noaa.gov/librarylowbarNPOESS.html.

S. C. Ou, K. N. Liou, and Y. Takano, VIIRS Cloud Optical Properties Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (Raytheon Information Technology and Scientific Services, 2003), available online at http://www.ipo.noaa.gov/librarylowbarNPOESS.html.

M. Chahine, H. Aumann, M. Goldberg, L. McMillin, P. Rosenkranz, D. Staelin, L. Strow, J. Susskind, and M. Gunson, AIRS Team Retrieval for Core Products and Geophysical Parameters, Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document, Vol. 2.2 (NASA-JPL, 2001).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Architecture of the VIIRS cloud algorithms: COT, cloud optical thickness; CPS, cloud effective particle size; CTH, cloud top height; CTT, cloud top temperature; SDR, VIIRS sensor data records; VCM, VIIRS cloud mask. Products listed in the boxes filled with the lightest shade of gray are final products that will be accessible by the user community. Products in black boxes represent inputs to the algorithms that are shown in boxes in the middle shade of gray.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Results from analysis of single-layered cirrus in daytime data found in MODIS granule 2002.032.1750. (a) True-color composite of MODIS data; (b) false-color composite showing cloud phase; (c) VIIRS cloud phase analysis; (d) MODIS cloud phase from EDG; (e), (f) comparison of VIIRS versus MODIS cloud top temperatures; and (g), (h) distributions of VIIRS and MODIS cloud top temperatures retrieved from their respective algorithms. (i) Blockiness associated with the optimization method used in the original VIIRS algorithms that are now eliminated by the new VIIRS CTT algorithms.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fig. 2.(Continued).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Results from analysis of single-layered and overlap cirrus in daytime data found in MODIS granule 2002.001.0340. (a) True-color composite of MODIS data; (b) false-color composite showing cloud phase; (c) VIIRS cloud phase analysis; (e), (f) comparison of VIIRS versus MODIS cloud top temperatures; (g), (h) distributions of VIIRS and MODIS cloud top temperatures retrieved from their respective algorithms.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Results from analysis of single-layered and overlap cirrus in nighttime data found in MODIS granule 2002.001.0435. (a) False-color composite of MODIS data; (b) manually generated cloud mask used to assess performance of VIIRS and MODIS cloud masks; (c) VIIRS cloud phase analysis; (d) MODIS cloud phase from EDG; (e), (f) comparison of VIIRS versus MODIS cloud top temperatures; (g), (h) distributions of VIIRS and MODIS cloud top temperatures retrieved from their respective algorithms.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Performance Requirements for the VIIRS Cloud Top Temperature as Shown in the NPOESS System Specification a

Equations (8)

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Ri=(1εi)Rai+εiBi(Tc)i=12,14,15,16,      
εi=1exp(kiτ)i=14,16.
(1ε14)1/k14=(1ε16)1/k16.
[(R16B16(Tc))/(Ra16B16(Tc))][(R14B14(Tc))/(Ra14B14(Tc))]k16/k14=0.
[(R15B15(Tc))/(Ra15B15(Tc))][(R12B12(Tc))/(Ra12B12(Tc))]k15/k12=0.
k16/k14=1.5960.004*De.
k15/k12=n=02bnDe,kn,
De,m=c{τ/[Δz(α+β/De)IWC]}1/3De.

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