Abstract

Aircraft and balloon in situ measurements of CH4 and HCl using cw distributed feedback (DFB) interband cascade (IC) lasers arereported. In the stratosphere and upper troposphere, sensitivity toward CH4 and HCl is better than 10  ppbv (1 s) and 90   pptv (50 s), respectively. These are the first flight measurements of trace gas-phase species using cw DFB IC lasers.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  43. A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchingson, and A. Y. Cho, "Methane concentration and isotopic compostion measurements with a mid-infrared quantum-cascade laser," Opt. Lett. 24, 1762-1764 (1999).
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    [CrossRef]

2006

K. Narasaki, S. Tsunematsu, K. Kanao, H. Murakami, T. Nakagawa, K. Mitsuda, J. Inatani, H. Sugita, and M. Murakami, "Mechanical coolers operating below 4.5 K for space application," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 559, 644-647 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Yu, A. Evans, S. Slivken, S. R. Darvish, and M. Razeghi, "Temperature dependent characteristics of lambda ∼ 3.8 μm room-temperature continuous-wave quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 251118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Richter and P. Weibring, "Ultra-high precision mid-IR spectrometer I: design and analysis of an optical fiber pumped difference-frequency generation source," Appl. Phys. B 82, 479-486 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Q. Yang, C. J. Hill, and Y. Qiu, "Mid-IR interband cascade lasers," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 891, 0891-EE0801-0806 (2006).

K. Mansour, Y. Qiu, C. J. Hill, A. Soibel, and R. Q. Yang, "Mid-infrared interband cascade lasers at thermoelectric cooler temperatures," Electron. Lett. 42, 1034-1035 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Froidevaux, N. J. Livesey, W. G. Read, Y. B. Jiang, C. C. Jimenez, M. J. Filipiak, M. J. Schwartz, M. L. Santee, H. C. Pumphrey, J. H. Jiang, D. L. Wu, G. L. Manney, B. J. Drouin, J. W. Waters, E. J. Fetzer, P. F. Bernath, C. D. Boone, K. A. Walker, K. W. Jucks, G. C. Toon, J. J. Margitan, B. Sen, C. R. Webster, L. E. Christensen, J. W. Elkins, E. Atlas, R. A. Lueb, and R. Hendershot, "Early validation analyses of atmospheric profiles from EOS MLS on the aura satellite," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1106-1121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Tsuji, S. Fujikawa, K. Yamada, N. Yoshida, K. Yamamoto, and T. Kikugawa, "Precise measurement of the 13CH4/12CH4 ratio of diluted methane using a near-infrared laser absorption spectrometer," Sens. Actuators B 114, 326-333 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartman, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Q. Yang, C. J. Hill, and B. H. Yang, "High-temperature and low-threshold mid-infrared interband cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 151109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Webster, "Measuring methane and its isotopes 12CH4, 13CH4, and CH3D on the surface of Mars with in situ laser spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 44, 1226-1235 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

V. Formisano, S. Atreya, T. Encrenaz, N. Ignatiev, and M. Giuranna, "Detection of methane in the atmosphere of Mars," Science 306, 1758-1761 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Lin, M. Grau, O. Dier, and M.-C. Amann, "Low threshold room-temperature continuous-wave operation of 2.24-3.04 μm GaInAsSb/AlGaAsSb quantum-well lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5088-5090 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Hill, C. M. Wong, B. Yang, and R. Q. Yang, "Type-II interband cascade lasers emitting at wavelengths beyond 5.1 μm," Electron. Lett. 40, 878-879 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Q. Yang, C. J. Hill, B. Yang, C. M. Wong, R. E. Muller, and P. M. Echternach, "Continuous-operation of distributed feedback interband cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3699-3701 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Horstjann, Y. A. Bakhirkin, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. M. Wong, C. J. Hill, and R. Q. Yang, "Formaldehyde sensor using interband cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 79, 799-803 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Bour, M. Troccoli, F. Capasso, S. Corzine, A. Tandon, D. Mars, and G. Hofler, "Metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy of room-temperature, low-threshold InGaAs/AlInAs quantum cascade lasers," J. Cryst. Growth 272, 526-530 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Pantani, F. Castagnoli, F. D'Amato, M. De Rosa, P. Mazzinghi, and P. Werle, "Two infrared laser spectrometers for the in situ measurement of stratospheric gas concentration," Infrared Phys. Technol. 46, 109-113 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

G. Durry, T. Danguy, and I. Pouchet, "Open multipass absorption cell for in situ monitoring of stratospheric trace gas with telecommunication diodes," Appl. Opt. 41, 424-433 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, L. R. Williams, and C. E. Kolb, "Infrared laser spectrometer with balanced absorption for measurement of isotopic ratios of carbon gases," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 58, 2465-2479 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Mechior, "Continuous wave operation of a mid-infrared semiconductor laser at room temperature," Science 295, 301-305 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Werle, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mucke, F. D'Amato, T. Lancia, and A. Popov, "Spectroscopic gas analyzers based on indium-phosphide, antimonide, and lead-salt diode lasers," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 58, 2361-2372 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Loewenstein, H. Jost, J. Grose, J. Eilers, D. Lynch, S. Jensen, and J. Marmie, "Argus: a new instrument for the measurement of the stratospheric dynamical tracers, N2O and CH4," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 58, 2329-2345 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. C. Richard, K. K. Kelly, R. H. Winkler, R. Wilson, T. L. Thompson, R. J. McLaughlin, A. L. Schmeltekopf, and A. F. Tuck, "A fast-response near-infrared tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer for in situ measurements of CH4 in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere," Appl. Phys. B 75, 183-194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Salawitch, J. J. Margitan, B. Sen, G. C. Toon, M. Rex, G. B. Osterman, J. W. Elkins, E. A. Ray, F. L. Moore, E. Richard, P. Romashkin, D. Hurst, and W. Brune, "Chemical loss of ozone during the Arctic winter of 1999-2000: an analysis based on balloon-borne observations," J. Geophys. Res., [Atmos.] 107, 8269-8288 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

1999

1998

R. D. May, "Open-path, near-infrared tunable diode laser spectrometer for atmospheric measurements of H2O," J. Geophys. Res., [Atmos.] 103, 19161-19172 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, and L. R. Ram-Mohan, "High-power/low-threshold type-II interband cascade mid-IR laser-design and modeling," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 170-172 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

J. R. Meyer, I. Vurgaftman, R. Q. Yang, and L. R. Ram-Mohan, "Type-II and type-I interband cascade lasers," Electron. Lett. 32, 45-46 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Z. Feit, M. McDonald, R. J. Woods, V. Archambault, and P. Mak, "Low threshold PbEuSeTe/PbTe separate confinement buried heterostructure diode lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 738-740 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

R. Q. Yang, "Infrared laser based on intersubband transitions in quantum wells," Superlattices Microstruct. 17, 77-83 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

1993

R. D. May and C. R. Webster, "Data processing and calibration for tunable diode laser harmonic absorption spectrometers," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 49, 335-347 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

G. C. Toon, "The JPL MkIV Interferometer," Opt. Photon. News 2, 19-21 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, R. Toumi, and J. Pyle, "Active nitrogen partitioning and the nightime formation of N2O5 in the stratosphere: measurements of NO, NO2, HNO3, O3, N2O, and jNO2 using the BLISS diode laser spectrometer," J. Geophys. Res., [Atmos.] 95, 13851-13866 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1983

M. H. Proffitt and R. J. McLaughlin, "Fast response dual-beam UV absorption ozone photometer suitable for use on stratospheric balloons," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54, 1719-1728 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Menzies, C. R. Webster, and E. D. Hinkley, "Balloon-borne diode-laser absorption spectrometer for measurements of stratospheric trace species," Appl. Opt. 22, 2655-2664 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Hastie and M. D. Miller, "A balloon borne tunable diode-laser absorption spectrometer for multispecies trace gas measurements," Proc. SPIE 438, 145-150 (1983).

1981

J. Reid and D. Labrie, "Second-harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers--comparison of experiment and theory," Appl. Phys. B 26, 203-210 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979

A. Barbe, P. Marche, C. Secroun, and P. Jouve, "Measurements of tropospheric and stratospheric H2CO by an infrared high-resolution technique," Geophys. Res. Lett. 6, 463-465 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1964

Aellen, T.

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Mechior, "Continuous wave operation of a mid-infrared semiconductor laser at room temperature," Science 295, 301-305 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amann, M.-C.

C. Lin, M. Grau, O. Dier, and M.-C. Amann, "Low threshold room-temperature continuous-wave operation of 2.24-3.04 μm GaInAsSb/AlGaAsSb quantum-well lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5088-5090 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Archambault, V.

Z. Feit, M. McDonald, R. J. Woods, V. Archambault, and P. Mak, "Low threshold PbEuSeTe/PbTe separate confinement buried heterostructure diode lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 738-740 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Atlas, E.

L. Froidevaux, N. J. Livesey, W. G. Read, Y. B. Jiang, C. C. Jimenez, M. J. Filipiak, M. J. Schwartz, M. L. Santee, H. C. Pumphrey, J. H. Jiang, D. L. Wu, G. L. Manney, B. J. Drouin, J. W. Waters, E. J. Fetzer, P. F. Bernath, C. D. Boone, K. A. Walker, K. W. Jucks, G. C. Toon, J. J. Margitan, B. Sen, C. R. Webster, L. E. Christensen, J. W. Elkins, E. Atlas, R. A. Lueb, and R. Hendershot, "Early validation analyses of atmospheric profiles from EOS MLS on the aura satellite," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1106-1121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Atreya, S.

V. Formisano, S. Atreya, T. Encrenaz, N. Ignatiev, and M. Giuranna, "Detection of methane in the atmosphere of Mars," Science 306, 1758-1761 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baillargeon, J. N.

Bakhirkin, Y. A.

M. Horstjann, Y. A. Bakhirkin, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. M. Wong, C. J. Hill, and R. Q. Yang, "Formaldehyde sensor using interband cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 79, 799-803 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartman, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Barbe, P. Marche, C. Secroun, and P. Jouve, "Measurements of tropospheric and stratospheric H2CO by an infrared high-resolution technique," Geophys. Res. Lett. 6, 463-465 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Beck, M.

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Mechior, "Continuous wave operation of a mid-infrared semiconductor laser at room temperature," Science 295, 301-305 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benner, D. C.

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Hofler, G.

D. Bour, M. Troccoli, F. Capasso, S. Corzine, A. Tandon, D. Mars, and G. Hofler, "Metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy of room-temperature, low-threshold InGaAs/AlInAs quantum cascade lasers," J. Cryst. Growth 272, 526-530 (2004).
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L. Froidevaux, N. J. Livesey, W. G. Read, Y. B. Jiang, C. C. Jimenez, M. J. Filipiak, M. J. Schwartz, M. L. Santee, H. C. Pumphrey, J. H. Jiang, D. L. Wu, G. L. Manney, B. J. Drouin, J. W. Waters, E. J. Fetzer, P. F. Bernath, C. D. Boone, K. A. Walker, K. W. Jucks, G. C. Toon, J. J. Margitan, B. Sen, C. R. Webster, L. E. Christensen, J. W. Elkins, E. Atlas, R. A. Lueb, and R. Hendershot, "Early validation analyses of atmospheric profiles from EOS MLS on the aura satellite," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1106-1121 (2006).
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L. Froidevaux, N. J. Livesey, W. G. Read, Y. B. Jiang, C. C. Jimenez, M. J. Filipiak, M. J. Schwartz, M. L. Santee, H. C. Pumphrey, J. H. Jiang, D. L. Wu, G. L. Manney, B. J. Drouin, J. W. Waters, E. J. Fetzer, P. F. Bernath, C. D. Boone, K. A. Walker, K. W. Jucks, G. C. Toon, J. J. Margitan, B. Sen, C. R. Webster, L. E. Christensen, J. W. Elkins, E. Atlas, R. A. Lueb, and R. Hendershot, "Early validation analyses of atmospheric profiles from EOS MLS on the aura satellite," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1106-1121 (2006).
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M. Loewenstein, H. Jost, J. Grose, J. Eilers, D. Lynch, S. Jensen, and J. Marmie, "Argus: a new instrument for the measurement of the stratospheric dynamical tracers, N2O and CH4," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 58, 2329-2345 (2002).
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L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartman, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
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L. Froidevaux, N. J. Livesey, W. G. Read, Y. B. Jiang, C. C. Jimenez, M. J. Filipiak, M. J. Schwartz, M. L. Santee, H. C. Pumphrey, J. H. Jiang, D. L. Wu, G. L. Manney, B. J. Drouin, J. W. Waters, E. J. Fetzer, P. F. Bernath, C. D. Boone, K. A. Walker, K. W. Jucks, G. C. Toon, J. J. Margitan, B. Sen, C. R. Webster, L. E. Christensen, J. W. Elkins, E. Atlas, R. A. Lueb, and R. Hendershot, "Early validation analyses of atmospheric profiles from EOS MLS on the aura satellite," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1106-1121 (2006).
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L. Froidevaux, N. J. Livesey, W. G. Read, Y. B. Jiang, C. C. Jimenez, M. J. Filipiak, M. J. Schwartz, M. L. Santee, H. C. Pumphrey, J. H. Jiang, D. L. Wu, G. L. Manney, B. J. Drouin, J. W. Waters, E. J. Fetzer, P. F. Bernath, C. D. Boone, K. A. Walker, K. W. Jucks, G. C. Toon, J. J. Margitan, B. Sen, C. R. Webster, L. E. Christensen, J. W. Elkins, E. Atlas, R. A. Lueb, and R. Hendershot, "Early validation analyses of atmospheric profiles from EOS MLS on the aura satellite," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1106-1121 (2006).
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L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartman, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
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M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Mechior, "Continuous wave operation of a mid-infrared semiconductor laser at room temperature," Science 295, 301-305 (2002).
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Mucke, R.

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[CrossRef]

Wagner, G.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartman, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Walker, K. A.

L. Froidevaux, N. J. Livesey, W. G. Read, Y. B. Jiang, C. C. Jimenez, M. J. Filipiak, M. J. Schwartz, M. L. Santee, H. C. Pumphrey, J. H. Jiang, D. L. Wu, G. L. Manney, B. J. Drouin, J. W. Waters, E. J. Fetzer, P. F. Bernath, C. D. Boone, K. A. Walker, K. W. Jucks, G. C. Toon, J. J. Margitan, B. Sen, C. R. Webster, L. E. Christensen, J. W. Elkins, E. Atlas, R. A. Lueb, and R. Hendershot, "Early validation analyses of atmospheric profiles from EOS MLS on the aura satellite," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1106-1121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Waters, J. W.

L. Froidevaux, N. J. Livesey, W. G. Read, Y. B. Jiang, C. C. Jimenez, M. J. Filipiak, M. J. Schwartz, M. L. Santee, H. C. Pumphrey, J. H. Jiang, D. L. Wu, G. L. Manney, B. J. Drouin, J. W. Waters, E. J. Fetzer, P. F. Bernath, C. D. Boone, K. A. Walker, K. W. Jucks, G. C. Toon, J. J. Margitan, B. Sen, C. R. Webster, L. E. Christensen, J. W. Elkins, E. Atlas, R. A. Lueb, and R. Hendershot, "Early validation analyses of atmospheric profiles from EOS MLS on the aura satellite," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1106-1121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Webster, C. R.

L. Froidevaux, N. J. Livesey, W. G. Read, Y. B. Jiang, C. C. Jimenez, M. J. Filipiak, M. J. Schwartz, M. L. Santee, H. C. Pumphrey, J. H. Jiang, D. L. Wu, G. L. Manney, B. J. Drouin, J. W. Waters, E. J. Fetzer, P. F. Bernath, C. D. Boone, K. A. Walker, K. W. Jucks, G. C. Toon, J. J. Margitan, B. Sen, C. R. Webster, L. E. Christensen, J. W. Elkins, E. Atlas, R. A. Lueb, and R. Hendershot, "Early validation analyses of atmospheric profiles from EOS MLS on the aura satellite," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1106-1121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Webster, "Measuring methane and its isotopes 12CH4, 13CH4, and CH3D on the surface of Mars with in situ laser spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 44, 1226-1235 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Webster, G. J. Flesch, D. C. Scott, J. E. Swanson, R. D. May, W. S. Woodward, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchingson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum-cascade laser measurements of stratospheric methane and nitrous oxide," Appl. Opt. 40, 321-326 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Scott, R. L. Herman, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, G. J. Flesch, and E. J. Moyer, "Airborne laser infrared absorption spectrometer (ALIAS-II) for in situ atmospheric measurements of N2O, CH4, CO, HCl, and NO2 from balloon or remotely piloted aircraft platforms," Appl. Opt. 38, 4609-4622 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, C. A. Trimble, R. G. Chave, and J. Kendall. "Aircraft (ER-2) laser infrared absorption spectrometer (ALIAS) for in situ stratospheric measurements of HCl, N2O, CH4, NO2, and HNO3," Appl. Opt. 33, 454-472 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. May and C. R. Webster, "Data processing and calibration for tunable diode laser harmonic absorption spectrometers," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 49, 335-347 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, R. Toumi, and J. Pyle, "Active nitrogen partitioning and the nightime formation of N2O5 in the stratosphere: measurements of NO, NO2, HNO3, O3, N2O, and jNO2 using the BLISS diode laser spectrometer," J. Geophys. Res., [Atmos.] 95, 13851-13866 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Menzies, C. R. Webster, and E. D. Hinkley, "Balloon-borne diode-laser absorption spectrometer for measurements of stratospheric trace species," Appl. Opt. 22, 2655-2664 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weibring, P.

D. Richter and P. Weibring, "Ultra-high precision mid-IR spectrometer I: design and analysis of an optical fiber pumped difference-frequency generation source," Appl. Phys. B 82, 479-486 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Werle, P.

M. Pantani, F. Castagnoli, F. D'Amato, M. De Rosa, P. Mazzinghi, and P. Werle, "Two infrared laser spectrometers for the in situ measurement of stratospheric gas concentration," Infrared Phys. Technol. 46, 109-113 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mucke, F. D'Amato, T. Lancia, and A. Popov, "Spectroscopic gas analyzers based on indium-phosphide, antimonide, and lead-salt diode lasers," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 58, 2361-2372 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Williams, L. R.

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, L. R. Williams, and C. E. Kolb, "Infrared laser spectrometer with balanced absorption for measurement of isotopic ratios of carbon gases," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 58, 2465-2479 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, R.

E. C. Richard, K. K. Kelly, R. H. Winkler, R. Wilson, T. L. Thompson, R. J. McLaughlin, A. L. Schmeltekopf, and A. F. Tuck, "A fast-response near-infrared tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer for in situ measurements of CH4 in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere," Appl. Phys. B 75, 183-194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Winkler, R. H.

E. C. Richard, K. K. Kelly, R. H. Winkler, R. Wilson, T. L. Thompson, R. J. McLaughlin, A. L. Schmeltekopf, and A. F. Tuck, "A fast-response near-infrared tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer for in situ measurements of CH4 in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere," Appl. Phys. B 75, 183-194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wong, C. M.

C. J. Hill, C. M. Wong, B. Yang, and R. Q. Yang, "Type-II interband cascade lasers emitting at wavelengths beyond 5.1 μm," Electron. Lett. 40, 878-879 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Q. Yang, C. J. Hill, B. Yang, C. M. Wong, R. E. Muller, and P. M. Echternach, "Continuous-operation of distributed feedback interband cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3699-3701 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Horstjann, Y. A. Bakhirkin, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. M. Wong, C. J. Hill, and R. Q. Yang, "Formaldehyde sensor using interband cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 79, 799-803 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Woods, R. J.

Z. Feit, M. McDonald, R. J. Woods, V. Archambault, and P. Mak, "Low threshold PbEuSeTe/PbTe separate confinement buried heterostructure diode lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 738-740 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Woodward, W. S.

Wu, D. L.

L. Froidevaux, N. J. Livesey, W. G. Read, Y. B. Jiang, C. C. Jimenez, M. J. Filipiak, M. J. Schwartz, M. L. Santee, H. C. Pumphrey, J. H. Jiang, D. L. Wu, G. L. Manney, B. J. Drouin, J. W. Waters, E. J. Fetzer, P. F. Bernath, C. D. Boone, K. A. Walker, K. W. Jucks, G. C. Toon, J. J. Margitan, B. Sen, C. R. Webster, L. E. Christensen, J. W. Elkins, E. Atlas, R. A. Lueb, and R. Hendershot, "Early validation analyses of atmospheric profiles from EOS MLS on the aura satellite," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1106-1121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, K.

K. Tsuji, S. Fujikawa, K. Yamada, N. Yoshida, K. Yamamoto, and T. Kikugawa, "Precise measurement of the 13CH4/12CH4 ratio of diluted methane using a near-infrared laser absorption spectrometer," Sens. Actuators B 114, 326-333 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, K.

K. Tsuji, S. Fujikawa, K. Yamada, N. Yoshida, K. Yamamoto, and T. Kikugawa, "Precise measurement of the 13CH4/12CH4 ratio of diluted methane using a near-infrared laser absorption spectrometer," Sens. Actuators B 114, 326-333 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, B.

R. Q. Yang, C. J. Hill, B. Yang, C. M. Wong, R. E. Muller, and P. M. Echternach, "Continuous-operation of distributed feedback interband cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3699-3701 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Hill, C. M. Wong, B. Yang, and R. Q. Yang, "Type-II interband cascade lasers emitting at wavelengths beyond 5.1 μm," Electron. Lett. 40, 878-879 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, B. H.

R. Q. Yang, C. J. Hill, and B. H. Yang, "High-temperature and low-threshold mid-infrared interband cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 151109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, R. Q.

R. Q. Yang, C. J. Hill, and Y. Qiu, "Mid-IR interband cascade lasers," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 891, 0891-EE0801-0806 (2006).

K. Mansour, Y. Qiu, C. J. Hill, A. Soibel, and R. Q. Yang, "Mid-infrared interband cascade lasers at thermoelectric cooler temperatures," Electron. Lett. 42, 1034-1035 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Q. Yang, C. J. Hill, and B. H. Yang, "High-temperature and low-threshold mid-infrared interband cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 151109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Hill, C. M. Wong, B. Yang, and R. Q. Yang, "Type-II interband cascade lasers emitting at wavelengths beyond 5.1 μm," Electron. Lett. 40, 878-879 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Q. Yang, C. J. Hill, B. Yang, C. M. Wong, R. E. Muller, and P. M. Echternach, "Continuous-operation of distributed feedback interband cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3699-3701 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Horstjann, Y. A. Bakhirkin, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. M. Wong, C. J. Hill, and R. Q. Yang, "Formaldehyde sensor using interband cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 79, 799-803 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Meyer, I. Vurgaftman, R. Q. Yang, and L. R. Ram-Mohan, "Type-II and type-I interband cascade lasers," Electron. Lett. 32, 45-46 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Q. Yang, "Infrared laser based on intersubband transitions in quantum wells," Superlattices Microstruct. 17, 77-83 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Q. Yang, C. J. Hill, K. Mansour, Y. Qiu, A. Soibel, J.-F. Muller, and P. Echternach, "Distributed feedback mid-infrared interband cascade lasers at thermoelectric cooler temperatures" (submitted to IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.).

Yoshida, N.

K. Tsuji, S. Fujikawa, K. Yamada, N. Yoshida, K. Yamamoto, and T. Kikugawa, "Precise measurement of the 13CH4/12CH4 ratio of diluted methane using a near-infrared laser absorption spectrometer," Sens. Actuators B 114, 326-333 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J. S.

J. S. Yu, A. Evans, S. Slivken, S. R. Darvish, and M. Razeghi, "Temperature dependent characteristics of lambda ∼ 3.8 μm room-temperature continuous-wave quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 251118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zahniser, M. S.

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, L. R. Williams, and C. E. Kolb, "Infrared laser spectrometer with balanced absorption for measurement of isotopic ratios of carbon gases," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 58, 2465-2479 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

C. R. Webster, "Measuring methane and its isotopes 12CH4, 13CH4, and CH3D on the surface of Mars with in situ laser spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 44, 1226-1235 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. T. Menzies, C. R. Webster, and E. D. Hinkley, "Balloon-borne diode-laser absorption spectrometer for measurements of stratospheric trace species," Appl. Opt. 22, 2655-2664 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, C. A. Trimble, R. G. Chave, and J. Kendall. "Aircraft (ER-2) laser infrared absorption spectrometer (ALIAS) for in situ stratospheric measurements of HCl, N2O, CH4, NO2, and HNO3," Appl. Opt. 33, 454-472 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Scott, R. L. Herman, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, G. J. Flesch, and E. J. Moyer, "Airborne laser infrared absorption spectrometer (ALIAS-II) for in situ atmospheric measurements of N2O, CH4, CO, HCl, and NO2 from balloon or remotely piloted aircraft platforms," Appl. Opt. 38, 4609-4622 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Webster, G. J. Flesch, D. C. Scott, J. E. Swanson, R. D. May, W. S. Woodward, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchingson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum-cascade laser measurements of stratospheric methane and nitrous oxide," Appl. Opt. 40, 321-326 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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Appl. Phys. B

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[CrossRef]

E. C. Richard, K. K. Kelly, R. H. Winkler, R. Wilson, T. L. Thompson, R. J. McLaughlin, A. L. Schmeltekopf, and A. F. Tuck, "A fast-response near-infrared tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer for in situ measurements of CH4 in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere," Appl. Phys. B 75, 183-194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Richter and P. Weibring, "Ultra-high precision mid-IR spectrometer I: design and analysis of an optical fiber pumped difference-frequency generation source," Appl. Phys. B 82, 479-486 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Horstjann, Y. A. Bakhirkin, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. M. Wong, C. J. Hill, and R. Q. Yang, "Formaldehyde sensor using interband cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 79, 799-803 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. Q. Yang, C. J. Hill, B. Yang, C. M. Wong, R. E. Muller, and P. M. Echternach, "Continuous-operation of distributed feedback interband cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3699-3701 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Q. Yang, C. J. Hill, and B. H. Yang, "High-temperature and low-threshold mid-infrared interband cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 151109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Feit, M. McDonald, R. J. Woods, V. Archambault, and P. Mak, "Low threshold PbEuSeTe/PbTe separate confinement buried heterostructure diode lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 738-740 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Lin, M. Grau, O. Dier, and M.-C. Amann, "Low threshold room-temperature continuous-wave operation of 2.24-3.04 μm GaInAsSb/AlGaAsSb quantum-well lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5088-5090 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Yu, A. Evans, S. Slivken, S. R. Darvish, and M. Razeghi, "Temperature dependent characteristics of lambda ∼ 3.8 μm room-temperature continuous-wave quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 251118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

C. J. Hill, C. M. Wong, B. Yang, and R. Q. Yang, "Type-II interband cascade lasers emitting at wavelengths beyond 5.1 μm," Electron. Lett. 40, 878-879 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Mansour, Y. Qiu, C. J. Hill, A. Soibel, and R. Q. Yang, "Mid-infrared interband cascade lasers at thermoelectric cooler temperatures," Electron. Lett. 42, 1034-1035 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Meyer, I. Vurgaftman, R. Q. Yang, and L. R. Ram-Mohan, "Type-II and type-I interband cascade lasers," Electron. Lett. 32, 45-46 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett.

A. Barbe, P. Marche, C. Secroun, and P. Jouve, "Measurements of tropospheric and stratospheric H2CO by an infrared high-resolution technique," Geophys. Res. Lett. 6, 463-465 (1979).
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IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, and L. R. Ram-Mohan, "High-power/low-threshold type-II interband cascade mid-IR laser-design and modeling," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 170-172 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.

L. Froidevaux, N. J. Livesey, W. G. Read, Y. B. Jiang, C. C. Jimenez, M. J. Filipiak, M. J. Schwartz, M. L. Santee, H. C. Pumphrey, J. H. Jiang, D. L. Wu, G. L. Manney, B. J. Drouin, J. W. Waters, E. J. Fetzer, P. F. Bernath, C. D. Boone, K. A. Walker, K. W. Jucks, G. C. Toon, J. J. Margitan, B. Sen, C. R. Webster, L. E. Christensen, J. W. Elkins, E. Atlas, R. A. Lueb, and R. Hendershot, "Early validation analyses of atmospheric profiles from EOS MLS on the aura satellite," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1106-1121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys. Technol.

M. Pantani, F. Castagnoli, F. D'Amato, M. De Rosa, P. Mazzinghi, and P. Werle, "Two infrared laser spectrometers for the in situ measurement of stratospheric gas concentration," Infrared Phys. Technol. 46, 109-113 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

D. Bour, M. Troccoli, F. Capasso, S. Corzine, A. Tandon, D. Mars, and G. Hofler, "Metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy of room-temperature, low-threshold InGaAs/AlInAs quantum cascade lasers," J. Cryst. Growth 272, 526-530 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res., [Atmos.]

R. J. Salawitch, J. J. Margitan, B. Sen, G. C. Toon, M. Rex, G. B. Osterman, J. W. Elkins, E. A. Ray, F. L. Moore, E. Richard, P. Romashkin, D. Hurst, and W. Brune, "Chemical loss of ozone during the Arctic winter of 1999-2000: an analysis based on balloon-borne observations," J. Geophys. Res., [Atmos.] 107, 8269-8288 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, R. Toumi, and J. Pyle, "Active nitrogen partitioning and the nightime formation of N2O5 in the stratosphere: measurements of NO, NO2, HNO3, O3, N2O, and jNO2 using the BLISS diode laser spectrometer," J. Geophys. Res., [Atmos.] 95, 13851-13866 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. D. May, "Open-path, near-infrared tunable diode laser spectrometer for atmospheric measurements of H2O," J. Geophys. Res., [Atmos.] 103, 19161-19172 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartman, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. D. May and C. R. Webster, "Data processing and calibration for tunable diode laser harmonic absorption spectrometers," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 49, 335-347 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.

R. Q. Yang, C. J. Hill, and Y. Qiu, "Mid-IR interband cascade lasers," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 891, 0891-EE0801-0806 (2006).

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A

K. Narasaki, S. Tsunematsu, K. Kanao, H. Murakami, T. Nakagawa, K. Mitsuda, J. Inatani, H. Sugita, and M. Murakami, "Mechanical coolers operating below 4.5 K for space application," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 559, 644-647 (2006).
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Sens. Actuators B

K. Tsuji, S. Fujikawa, K. Yamada, N. Yoshida, K. Yamamoto, and T. Kikugawa, "Precise measurement of the 13CH4/12CH4 ratio of diluted methane using a near-infrared laser absorption spectrometer," Sens. Actuators B 114, 326-333 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, L. R. Williams, and C. E. Kolb, "Infrared laser spectrometer with balanced absorption for measurement of isotopic ratios of carbon gases," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 58, 2465-2479 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Superlattices Microstruct.

R. Q. Yang, "Infrared laser based on intersubband transitions in quantum wells," Superlattices Microstruct. 17, 77-83 (1995).
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R. Q. Yang, C. J. Hill, K. Mansour, Y. Qiu, A. Soibel, J.-F. Muller, and P. Echternach, "Distributed feedback mid-infrared interband cascade lasers at thermoelectric cooler temperatures" (submitted to IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measured spectrum of HCl, O 3 , and CH 4 acquired during the ALIAS-II flight on 16 September 2004, near Ft. Sumner, New Mexico (open circles) and fitted spectrum (curve) where region III was not incorporated in the fit (see text). HCl and O3 had overlapping absorptions. Spectrum was acquired with 50   s integration time. The noise limit was set by optical fringes within the ALIAS-II instrument. The smallest absorption that could be determined (to 25% accuracy and precision) was 1 .5 × 10 5 , which corresponds to an HCl detection limit of 90 pptv at 32 m b a r . For reference, measured volumetric mixing ratios for HCl (ALIAS-II), CH 4 ( MkIV ) , and O 3 (JPL Ozone Photometer) were 1.62   ppbv , 1 .35   ppmv , and 3 .87   ppmv , respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measurements of methane mixing ratio versus time during an ALIAS-I flight on 7 July 2005 from Ellington Field, Texas. Dark curve, methane measurements; light curve, aircraft altitude; inset, 2f spectrum of the measured CH4 transition at t = 65,010   s with 1   s averaging.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Synchronously acquired direct absorbance (DC in figure) and 2f spectra of C H 4 12 and C H 4 13 lines near 3057.8 cm 1 using Laser C. Acquired over 50 s at a pressure of 0.18   mbar , 297   K . The 2f spectra is the lower positioned signal. The 2f signals for the strongly absorbing C H 4 12 lines are off scale and not shown. 2f feature centered at 80.1   mA is due to a C H 4 12 transition.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Emission frequency versus injected current for Laser C. Circles refer to measured line centers for the methane scan shown in Fig. 3, correlated with HITRAN line positions. Line, linear fit to the methane line centers. Similar to Lasers A and B, emission wavenumber versus injected current was observed to be highly linear ( R 2 > 0.999 ) .

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Key Laser Characteristics

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Table 2 ALIAS-II Line Parameters

Equations (2)

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H 2 ( ν ) = C I o ( ν ) 0 π D ( ν + m cos θ ) cos 2 θ d θ ,
D ( ν ) = L ( ν τ ) I o ( ν ) exp ( n = 1 7 G n ( ν ) ) d τ ,

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