Abstract

A novel lighting system was devised for 3D defect inspection in the wire bondingprocess. Gold wires of 20 μm in diameter were bonded to connect the integrated circuit (IC) chip with the substrate. Bonding wire defects can be classified as 2D type and 3D type. The 2D-type defects include missed, shifted, or shorted wires. These defects can be inspected from a 2D top-view image of the wire. The 3D-type bonding wire defects are sagging wires, and are difficult to inspect from a 2D top-view image. A structured lighting system was designed and developed to facilitate all 2D-type and 3D-type defect inspection. The devised lighting system can be programmed to turn the structured LEDs on or off independently. Experiments show that the devised illumination system is effective for wire bonding inspection and will be valuable for further applications.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. B. Perng, C. C. Chou, and S. M. Lee, "A new wire bonding inspection system by machine vision," Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. (to be published).
  2. W. Zhang, L. M. Koh, and E. M. C. Wong, "Computer vision system for the measurement of IC wire-bond height," in IEEE Region 10 Conference on Computer, Communication, Control and Power Engineering (IEEE, 1993), pp. 948-951.
  3. H. O. Lim, W. Zhang, and L. M. Koh, "Automated visual inspection for IC wire-bond using auto-focusing technique," in 15th IEEE/CHMT International Electronic Manufacturing Technology Symposium (IEEE, 1993), pp. 31-36.
  4. N. N. King and B. K. Sing, "Automated inspection of IC bonding wires using Hough transform," in Proceedings of the 14th Annual Conference of Industrial Electronics Society (IEEE, 1988), pp. 844-847.
  5. Q. Z. Ye, S. H. Ong, and X. Han, "A stereo vision system for the inspection of IC bonding wires," Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 11, 254-262 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. F. Wang and D. I. Cheng, "3-D shape construction and recognition by fusing intensity and structured lighting," in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (IEEE, 1991), pp. 825-830.
  7. R. J. Woodham, "Photometric method for determining surface orientation from multiple images," Opt. Eng. 19, 139-144 (1980).
  8. A. C. Sanderson, L. E. Weiss, and S. K. Nayar, "Structured highlight inspection of specular surfaces," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 10, 44-55 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. L. Chia, Z. Chen, and C. J. Yueh, "Curved surface reconstruction using a simple structured light method," in Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 1996), pp. 674-678.
  10. Y. L. Tian and H. T. Tsui, "3D shape recovery from two-color image sequences using a genetic algorithm," in Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 1996), pp. 938-942.
  11. B. G. Batchelor, "Lighting and viewing techniques," in Automated Visual Inspection, B.G.Batchelor, D.A.Hill, and D.C.Hodgson, eds. (Elsevier, 1985), pp. 103-179.
  12. D. B. Perng, Department of IEM, National Chiao-Tung University, 1001 Ta Hsueh Road, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30050 (personal communication, 2004).

2000 (1)

Q. Z. Ye, S. H. Ong, and X. Han, "A stereo vision system for the inspection of IC bonding wires," Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 11, 254-262 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

A. C. Sanderson, L. E. Weiss, and S. K. Nayar, "Structured highlight inspection of specular surfaces," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 10, 44-55 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

R. J. Woodham, "Photometric method for determining surface orientation from multiple images," Opt. Eng. 19, 139-144 (1980).

Batchelor, B. G.

B. G. Batchelor, "Lighting and viewing techniques," in Automated Visual Inspection, B.G.Batchelor, D.A.Hill, and D.C.Hodgson, eds. (Elsevier, 1985), pp. 103-179.

Chen, Z.

T. L. Chia, Z. Chen, and C. J. Yueh, "Curved surface reconstruction using a simple structured light method," in Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 1996), pp. 674-678.

Cheng, D. I.

Y. F. Wang and D. I. Cheng, "3-D shape construction and recognition by fusing intensity and structured lighting," in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (IEEE, 1991), pp. 825-830.

Chia, T. L.

T. L. Chia, Z. Chen, and C. J. Yueh, "Curved surface reconstruction using a simple structured light method," in Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 1996), pp. 674-678.

Chou, C. C.

D. B. Perng, C. C. Chou, and S. M. Lee, "A new wire bonding inspection system by machine vision," Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. (to be published).

Han, X.

Q. Z. Ye, S. H. Ong, and X. Han, "A stereo vision system for the inspection of IC bonding wires," Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 11, 254-262 (2000).
[CrossRef]

King, N. N.

N. N. King and B. K. Sing, "Automated inspection of IC bonding wires using Hough transform," in Proceedings of the 14th Annual Conference of Industrial Electronics Society (IEEE, 1988), pp. 844-847.

Koh, L. M.

H. O. Lim, W. Zhang, and L. M. Koh, "Automated visual inspection for IC wire-bond using auto-focusing technique," in 15th IEEE/CHMT International Electronic Manufacturing Technology Symposium (IEEE, 1993), pp. 31-36.

W. Zhang, L. M. Koh, and E. M. C. Wong, "Computer vision system for the measurement of IC wire-bond height," in IEEE Region 10 Conference on Computer, Communication, Control and Power Engineering (IEEE, 1993), pp. 948-951.

Lee, S. M.

D. B. Perng, C. C. Chou, and S. M. Lee, "A new wire bonding inspection system by machine vision," Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. (to be published).

Lim, H. O.

H. O. Lim, W. Zhang, and L. M. Koh, "Automated visual inspection for IC wire-bond using auto-focusing technique," in 15th IEEE/CHMT International Electronic Manufacturing Technology Symposium (IEEE, 1993), pp. 31-36.

Nayar, S. K.

A. C. Sanderson, L. E. Weiss, and S. K. Nayar, "Structured highlight inspection of specular surfaces," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 10, 44-55 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ong, S. H.

Q. Z. Ye, S. H. Ong, and X. Han, "A stereo vision system for the inspection of IC bonding wires," Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 11, 254-262 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Perng, D. B.

D. B. Perng, C. C. Chou, and S. M. Lee, "A new wire bonding inspection system by machine vision," Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. (to be published).

D. B. Perng, Department of IEM, National Chiao-Tung University, 1001 Ta Hsueh Road, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30050 (personal communication, 2004).

Sanderson, A. C.

A. C. Sanderson, L. E. Weiss, and S. K. Nayar, "Structured highlight inspection of specular surfaces," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 10, 44-55 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sing, B. K.

N. N. King and B. K. Sing, "Automated inspection of IC bonding wires using Hough transform," in Proceedings of the 14th Annual Conference of Industrial Electronics Society (IEEE, 1988), pp. 844-847.

Tian, Y. L.

Y. L. Tian and H. T. Tsui, "3D shape recovery from two-color image sequences using a genetic algorithm," in Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 1996), pp. 938-942.

Tsui, H. T.

Y. L. Tian and H. T. Tsui, "3D shape recovery from two-color image sequences using a genetic algorithm," in Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 1996), pp. 938-942.

Wang, Y. F.

Y. F. Wang and D. I. Cheng, "3-D shape construction and recognition by fusing intensity and structured lighting," in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (IEEE, 1991), pp. 825-830.

Weiss, L. E.

A. C. Sanderson, L. E. Weiss, and S. K. Nayar, "Structured highlight inspection of specular surfaces," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 10, 44-55 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wong, E. M. C.

W. Zhang, L. M. Koh, and E. M. C. Wong, "Computer vision system for the measurement of IC wire-bond height," in IEEE Region 10 Conference on Computer, Communication, Control and Power Engineering (IEEE, 1993), pp. 948-951.

Woodham, R. J.

R. J. Woodham, "Photometric method for determining surface orientation from multiple images," Opt. Eng. 19, 139-144 (1980).

Ye, Q. Z.

Q. Z. Ye, S. H. Ong, and X. Han, "A stereo vision system for the inspection of IC bonding wires," Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 11, 254-262 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yueh, C. J.

T. L. Chia, Z. Chen, and C. J. Yueh, "Curved surface reconstruction using a simple structured light method," in Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 1996), pp. 674-678.

Zhang, W.

H. O. Lim, W. Zhang, and L. M. Koh, "Automated visual inspection for IC wire-bond using auto-focusing technique," in 15th IEEE/CHMT International Electronic Manufacturing Technology Symposium (IEEE, 1993), pp. 31-36.

W. Zhang, L. M. Koh, and E. M. C. Wong, "Computer vision system for the measurement of IC wire-bond height," in IEEE Region 10 Conference on Computer, Communication, Control and Power Engineering (IEEE, 1993), pp. 948-951.

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (1)

A. C. Sanderson, L. E. Weiss, and S. K. Nayar, "Structured highlight inspection of specular surfaces," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 10, 44-55 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. (1)

Q. Z. Ye, S. H. Ong, and X. Han, "A stereo vision system for the inspection of IC bonding wires," Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 11, 254-262 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

R. J. Woodham, "Photometric method for determining surface orientation from multiple images," Opt. Eng. 19, 139-144 (1980).

Other (9)

Y. F. Wang and D. I. Cheng, "3-D shape construction and recognition by fusing intensity and structured lighting," in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (IEEE, 1991), pp. 825-830.

T. L. Chia, Z. Chen, and C. J. Yueh, "Curved surface reconstruction using a simple structured light method," in Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 1996), pp. 674-678.

Y. L. Tian and H. T. Tsui, "3D shape recovery from two-color image sequences using a genetic algorithm," in Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 1996), pp. 938-942.

B. G. Batchelor, "Lighting and viewing techniques," in Automated Visual Inspection, B.G.Batchelor, D.A.Hill, and D.C.Hodgson, eds. (Elsevier, 1985), pp. 103-179.

D. B. Perng, Department of IEM, National Chiao-Tung University, 1001 Ta Hsueh Road, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30050 (personal communication, 2004).

D. B. Perng, C. C. Chou, and S. M. Lee, "A new wire bonding inspection system by machine vision," Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. (to be published).

W. Zhang, L. M. Koh, and E. M. C. Wong, "Computer vision system for the measurement of IC wire-bond height," in IEEE Region 10 Conference on Computer, Communication, Control and Power Engineering (IEEE, 1993), pp. 948-951.

H. O. Lim, W. Zhang, and L. M. Koh, "Automated visual inspection for IC wire-bond using auto-focusing technique," in 15th IEEE/CHMT International Electronic Manufacturing Technology Symposium (IEEE, 1993), pp. 31-36.

N. N. King and B. K. Sing, "Automated inspection of IC bonding wires using Hough transform," in Proceedings of the 14th Annual Conference of Industrial Electronics Society (IEEE, 1988), pp. 844-847.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (16)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Illustrative image and (b) enlarged top view of part of a wire bonded IC.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Illustration of good bonding wire.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Five possible bonding wire defects.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Incident angle of a circular fluorescent light with surrounding ring diameter of 70   mm and tube height of 17   mm . The incident light angle ranges from 17° to 35°.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dome-type LED lighting device.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Linear inclined optical fiber.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Captured image histogram for the linear inclined optical fiber.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Simplified bonding wire reflection model.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Bonding machine capillary track, (b) side-view illustration of an 3D actual loop of a bonding wire-connecting the pad and lead.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Four independent light sources. Each is designed to illuminate one of the four pseudoreflective surfaces formed by IC chip bonding wires.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Bonding wires located along one side of an IC chip with (a) different deflection angles and (b) different slopes.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Stereograph of a pseudoreflective surface formed by the bonding wires on one side of an IC chip.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(Color online) (a) Side view of the proposed structured lighting system. For clarity, only the east and west strips of LED arrays and associated soft PCBs are depicted. (b) 3D illustration of the structured lighting system. (c) Photograph of the prototype of the proposed structured LED lighting system.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Image of bonding wires captured using the structured LED lighting system. (a) All good wires, (b) some shifted wires.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Profile of the tested good bonding wire.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Profiles of the slightly sagging wires with a drop of 24° in slope and seriously sagging wires with a drop of 28° in slope.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Illumination of the Effect Using the Circular Fluorescent, the Dome-Type LED, and the Linear Inclined Optical Fiber

Tables Icon

Table 2 Images of a Single Bonding Wire Captured by Turning on Some of the LEDs of the Developed Structured LED Lighting System

Tables Icon

Table 3 Images of a Single Bonding Wire Captured for 3D Wire Inspection by Turning On Some of the LEDs of the Devised Structured LED Lighting System

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

θ = π 4 σ 2 .
θ = tan 1 ( Loop   height ( Pad ( x ) Lead ( x ) ) 2 + ( Pad ( y ) Lead ( y ) ) 2 Top   length ) .
θ wire   surface = tan 1 ( height   of   wire   surface projective   length   of   w i r e  surface ) .
90 upper   boundary   of   incident   light   angle 2 ,
< i n c l i n e d s l o p e o f i l l u min a t e d b o n d i n g w i r e
< 90 lower   boundary   of   incident   light   angle 2 ,
90 [ 6 + j 1 * 2.5 1.25 ] 2 .
< i n c l i n e d s l o p e o f i l l u min a t e d b o n d i n g w i r e
< 90 [ 6 + i 1 * 2.5 1.25 ] 2 .

Metrics