Abstract

We present a three-telescope space-based interferometer prototype dedicated to high-resolution imaging. This project, named multiaperture fiber-linked interferometer (MAFL), was founded by the European Space Agency. The aim of the MAFL project is to propose, design, and implement for the first time to the best of our knowledge all the optical functions required for the global instrument on the same integrated optics (IO) component for controlling a three-arm interferometer and to obtain reliable science data. The coherent transport from telescopes to the IO component is achieved by means of highly birefringent optical fiber. The laboratory bench is presented, and the results arereported allowing us to validate the optical potentiality of the IO component in this frame. The validation measurements consist of the throughput of this optical device, the performances of metrological servoloop, and the instrumental contrasts and phase closure of the science fringes.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. C. Froelhy, "Coherence and interferometry through optical fibers," in ESO Conference on Scientific Importance of High Angular Resolution at Infrared and Optical Wavelengths (ESO, 1981), pp. 285-293.
  2. L. Delage, F. Reynaud, and A. Lannes, "Laboratory imaging stellar interferometer with fiber links," Appl. Opt. 39, 6406-6420 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Huss, F. Reynaud, and L. Delage, "An all-guided three-arms interferometer for stellar interferometry," Opt. Commun. 196, 55-62 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Kervella, V. Coude du Foresto, W. A. Traub, and M. G. Lacasse, "Cepheid observations by long-baseline interferometry with FLUOR/IOTA," in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, P. Lena and A. Quirrenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE 4006, 551-555 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Haguenaueer, P. Petmezakis, J. P. Berger, D. Mourard, S. D. Ragland, G. Huss, F. Reynaud, E. Le Coarer, P. Y. Perrin, and F. Malbet, "Qualification of IONIC (integrated optics near-infrared interferometric camera)," in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, P. Lena and A. Quirrenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE 4006, 1041-1051 (2000).
  6. P. Haguenauer, M. Barillot, P. Y. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, V. Collomb, P. Labeye, A. Poupinet, V. Weber, Z. Sodnik, and P. Kervella, "Nulling interferometric breadboard using integrated optics beam combiners, preparation to the IRSI/DARWIN mission," in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy II, W. A. Traub, ed., Proc. SPIE 4838, 690-699 (2003).
  7. G. Perrin, O. Lai, P. J. Lena, and V. Coude du Foresto, "Fibered large interferometer on top of Mauna Kea: OHANA, the optical Hawaiian array for nanoradian astronomy," in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, P. Lena and A. Quirrenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE 4006, 708-714 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. G. Petrov, The Amber Team, "Introducing the near-infrared VLTI instrument AMBER to its users," Astrophys. Space Sci. 281, 57-67 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Roussel, "Fibre-linked imaging interferometer: toward a new generation of low-cost large space-based telescope," in Proceedings of Astrofib'96 on Integrated Optics for Astronomical Interferometry, P. Kern and F. Malbet, eds. (ESA, 1996), pp. 3-7.
  10. F. Reynaud and H. Lagorceix, "Stabilization and control of fiber array for the coherent transport of beams in a stellar interferometer," in Proceedings of Astrofib'96 on Integrated Optics for Astronomical Interferometry, P. Kern and F. Malbet, eds. (ESA, 1996), pp. 249-257.
  11. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, 1980).
  12. D. H. Rogstad, "A technique for measuring visibility phase with an optical interferometer in the presence of atmospheric seeing," Appl. Opt. 7, 585-588 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. E. Longueteau, L. Delage, and F. Reynaud, "Influence of the antenna diagram on a stellar interferometer that is suffering from telescope-pointing errors," Appl. Opt. 41, 5835-5844 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. Wallern, W. R. Leeb, and P. J. Winzer, "Minimum length of a single-mode spatial filter," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 19, 2445-2448 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. Delage and F. Reynaud, "Analysis and control of polarization effects on phase closure and image acquisition in a fiber-linked three-telescope stellar interferometer," Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 1-7 (2000).
  16. S. Dyer and D. A. Christensen, "Dispersion effects in fiber-optic interferometer," in Optical Engineering, B. J. Thompson, ed., Proc. SPIE 36, 2440-2447 (1997).
  17. L. M. Simohamed and F. Reynaud, "A two meter stroke optical fiber delay line," Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 37 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Vergnole, T. Kotami, G. Perrin, L. Delage, and F. Reynaud, "Calibration of silica fibers for the Optical Hawaiian Array for Nanoradian Astronomy (OHANA): temperature dependence of differential chromatic dispersion," Opt. Commun. 251, 115-123 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. Huss, "Interferometres stellaires realises a partir de composants d'optique guidee et integree," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Limoges, France, 2001).
  20. G. Huss, E. Longueteau, L. Delage, and F. Reynaud, "Phase closure bias versus dispersion in a stellar interferometer," Opt. Commun. 216, 329-334 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. Olivier, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, V. Collomb, and D. Persegol, "First test on an integrated optics potential for optical path stabilization in a stellar interferometer," Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 660-662 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  22. F. Malbet, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, and P. Benech, "Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry I: concept and astronomical applications," Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 138, 135-145 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  23. H. T. Shang, "Chromatic dispersion measurement by white-light interferometry on meter-length single-mode optical fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 1587 (1981).
  24. W. J. Tango, "Dispersion in stellar interferometry," Appl. Opt. 71, 516-521 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

2005

S. Vergnole, T. Kotami, G. Perrin, L. Delage, and F. Reynaud, "Calibration of silica fibers for the Optical Hawaiian Array for Nanoradian Astronomy (OHANA): temperature dependence of differential chromatic dispersion," Opt. Commun. 251, 115-123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Olivier, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, V. Collomb, and D. Persegol, "First test on an integrated optics potential for optical path stabilization in a stellar interferometer," Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 660-662 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

G. Huss, E. Longueteau, L. Delage, and F. Reynaud, "Phase closure bias versus dispersion in a stellar interferometer," Opt. Commun. 216, 329-334 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Haguenauer, M. Barillot, P. Y. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, V. Collomb, P. Labeye, A. Poupinet, V. Weber, Z. Sodnik, and P. Kervella, "Nulling interferometric breadboard using integrated optics beam combiners, preparation to the IRSI/DARWIN mission," in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy II, W. A. Traub, ed., Proc. SPIE 4838, 690-699 (2003).

R. G. Petrov, The Amber Team, "Introducing the near-infrared VLTI instrument AMBER to its users," Astrophys. Space Sci. 281, 57-67 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

G. Huss, F. Reynaud, and L. Delage, "An all-guided three-arms interferometer for stellar interferometry," Opt. Commun. 196, 55-62 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

P. Kervella, V. Coude du Foresto, W. A. Traub, and M. G. Lacasse, "Cepheid observations by long-baseline interferometry with FLUOR/IOTA," in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, P. Lena and A. Quirrenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE 4006, 551-555 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Haguenaueer, P. Petmezakis, J. P. Berger, D. Mourard, S. D. Ragland, G. Huss, F. Reynaud, E. Le Coarer, P. Y. Perrin, and F. Malbet, "Qualification of IONIC (integrated optics near-infrared interferometric camera)," in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, P. Lena and A. Quirrenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE 4006, 1041-1051 (2000).

G. Perrin, O. Lai, P. J. Lena, and V. Coude du Foresto, "Fibered large interferometer on top of Mauna Kea: OHANA, the optical Hawaiian array for nanoradian astronomy," in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, P. Lena and A. Quirrenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE 4006, 708-714 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Delage and F. Reynaud, "Analysis and control of polarization effects on phase closure and image acquisition in a fiber-linked three-telescope stellar interferometer," Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 1-7 (2000).

L. Delage, F. Reynaud, and A. Lannes, "Laboratory imaging stellar interferometer with fiber links," Appl. Opt. 39, 6406-6420 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

F. Malbet, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, and P. Benech, "Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry I: concept and astronomical applications," Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 138, 135-145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

S. Dyer and D. A. Christensen, "Dispersion effects in fiber-optic interferometer," in Optical Engineering, B. J. Thompson, ed., Proc. SPIE 36, 2440-2447 (1997).

L. M. Simohamed and F. Reynaud, "A two meter stroke optical fiber delay line," Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 37 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1990

W. J. Tango, "Dispersion in stellar interferometry," Appl. Opt. 71, 516-521 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1981

H. T. Shang, "Chromatic dispersion measurement by white-light interferometry on meter-length single-mode optical fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 1587 (1981).

1968

Barillot, M.

P. Haguenauer, M. Barillot, P. Y. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, V. Collomb, P. Labeye, A. Poupinet, V. Weber, Z. Sodnik, and P. Kervella, "Nulling interferometric breadboard using integrated optics beam combiners, preparation to the IRSI/DARWIN mission," in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy II, W. A. Traub, ed., Proc. SPIE 4838, 690-699 (2003).

Benech, P.

F. Malbet, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, and P. Benech, "Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry I: concept and astronomical applications," Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 138, 135-145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Berger, J. P.

K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Haguenaueer, P. Petmezakis, J. P. Berger, D. Mourard, S. D. Ragland, G. Huss, F. Reynaud, E. Le Coarer, P. Y. Perrin, and F. Malbet, "Qualification of IONIC (integrated optics near-infrared interferometric camera)," in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, P. Lena and A. Quirrenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE 4006, 1041-1051 (2000).

F. Malbet, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, and P. Benech, "Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry I: concept and astronomical applications," Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 138, 135-145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, 1980).

Christensen, D. A.

S. Dyer and D. A. Christensen, "Dispersion effects in fiber-optic interferometer," in Optical Engineering, B. J. Thompson, ed., Proc. SPIE 36, 2440-2447 (1997).

Collomb, V.

S. Olivier, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, V. Collomb, and D. Persegol, "First test on an integrated optics potential for optical path stabilization in a stellar interferometer," Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 660-662 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Haguenauer, M. Barillot, P. Y. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, V. Collomb, P. Labeye, A. Poupinet, V. Weber, Z. Sodnik, and P. Kervella, "Nulling interferometric breadboard using integrated optics beam combiners, preparation to the IRSI/DARWIN mission," in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy II, W. A. Traub, ed., Proc. SPIE 4838, 690-699 (2003).

Coude du Foresto, V.

P. Kervella, V. Coude du Foresto, W. A. Traub, and M. G. Lacasse, "Cepheid observations by long-baseline interferometry with FLUOR/IOTA," in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, P. Lena and A. Quirrenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE 4006, 551-555 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Perrin, O. Lai, P. J. Lena, and V. Coude du Foresto, "Fibered large interferometer on top of Mauna Kea: OHANA, the optical Hawaiian array for nanoradian astronomy," in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, P. Lena and A. Quirrenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE 4006, 708-714 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Delage, L.

S. Olivier, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, V. Collomb, and D. Persegol, "First test on an integrated optics potential for optical path stabilization in a stellar interferometer," Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 660-662 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Vergnole, T. Kotami, G. Perrin, L. Delage, and F. Reynaud, "Calibration of silica fibers for the Optical Hawaiian Array for Nanoradian Astronomy (OHANA): temperature dependence of differential chromatic dispersion," Opt. Commun. 251, 115-123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Huss, E. Longueteau, L. Delage, and F. Reynaud, "Phase closure bias versus dispersion in a stellar interferometer," Opt. Commun. 216, 329-334 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Longueteau, L. Delage, and F. Reynaud, "Influence of the antenna diagram on a stellar interferometer that is suffering from telescope-pointing errors," Appl. Opt. 41, 5835-5844 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Huss, F. Reynaud, and L. Delage, "An all-guided three-arms interferometer for stellar interferometry," Opt. Commun. 196, 55-62 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Delage and F. Reynaud, "Analysis and control of polarization effects on phase closure and image acquisition in a fiber-linked three-telescope stellar interferometer," Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 1-7 (2000).

L. Delage, F. Reynaud, and A. Lannes, "Laboratory imaging stellar interferometer with fiber links," Appl. Opt. 39, 6406-6420 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dyer, S.

S. Dyer and D. A. Christensen, "Dispersion effects in fiber-optic interferometer," in Optical Engineering, B. J. Thompson, ed., Proc. SPIE 36, 2440-2447 (1997).

Froelhy, C.

C. Froelhy, "Coherence and interferometry through optical fibers," in ESO Conference on Scientific Importance of High Angular Resolution at Infrared and Optical Wavelengths (ESO, 1981), pp. 285-293.

Haguenaueer, P.

K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Haguenaueer, P. Petmezakis, J. P. Berger, D. Mourard, S. D. Ragland, G. Huss, F. Reynaud, E. Le Coarer, P. Y. Perrin, and F. Malbet, "Qualification of IONIC (integrated optics near-infrared interferometric camera)," in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, P. Lena and A. Quirrenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE 4006, 1041-1051 (2000).

Haguenauer, P.

P. Haguenauer, M. Barillot, P. Y. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, V. Collomb, P. Labeye, A. Poupinet, V. Weber, Z. Sodnik, and P. Kervella, "Nulling interferometric breadboard using integrated optics beam combiners, preparation to the IRSI/DARWIN mission," in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy II, W. A. Traub, ed., Proc. SPIE 4838, 690-699 (2003).

Huss, G.

G. Huss, E. Longueteau, L. Delage, and F. Reynaud, "Phase closure bias versus dispersion in a stellar interferometer," Opt. Commun. 216, 329-334 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Huss, F. Reynaud, and L. Delage, "An all-guided three-arms interferometer for stellar interferometry," Opt. Commun. 196, 55-62 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Haguenaueer, P. Petmezakis, J. P. Berger, D. Mourard, S. D. Ragland, G. Huss, F. Reynaud, E. Le Coarer, P. Y. Perrin, and F. Malbet, "Qualification of IONIC (integrated optics near-infrared interferometric camera)," in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, P. Lena and A. Quirrenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE 4006, 1041-1051 (2000).

G. Huss, "Interferometres stellaires realises a partir de composants d'optique guidee et integree," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Limoges, France, 2001).

Kern, P.

F. Malbet, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, and P. Benech, "Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry I: concept and astronomical applications," Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 138, 135-145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kern, P. Y.

P. Haguenauer, M. Barillot, P. Y. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, V. Collomb, P. Labeye, A. Poupinet, V. Weber, Z. Sodnik, and P. Kervella, "Nulling interferometric breadboard using integrated optics beam combiners, preparation to the IRSI/DARWIN mission," in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy II, W. A. Traub, ed., Proc. SPIE 4838, 690-699 (2003).

Kervella, P.

P. Haguenauer, M. Barillot, P. Y. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, V. Collomb, P. Labeye, A. Poupinet, V. Weber, Z. Sodnik, and P. Kervella, "Nulling interferometric breadboard using integrated optics beam combiners, preparation to the IRSI/DARWIN mission," in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy II, W. A. Traub, ed., Proc. SPIE 4838, 690-699 (2003).

P. Kervella, V. Coude du Foresto, W. A. Traub, and M. G. Lacasse, "Cepheid observations by long-baseline interferometry with FLUOR/IOTA," in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, P. Lena and A. Quirrenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE 4006, 551-555 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kotami, T.

S. Vergnole, T. Kotami, G. Perrin, L. Delage, and F. Reynaud, "Calibration of silica fibers for the Optical Hawaiian Array for Nanoradian Astronomy (OHANA): temperature dependence of differential chromatic dispersion," Opt. Commun. 251, 115-123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Labeye, P.

P. Haguenauer, M. Barillot, P. Y. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, V. Collomb, P. Labeye, A. Poupinet, V. Weber, Z. Sodnik, and P. Kervella, "Nulling interferometric breadboard using integrated optics beam combiners, preparation to the IRSI/DARWIN mission," in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy II, W. A. Traub, ed., Proc. SPIE 4838, 690-699 (2003).

Lacasse, M. G.

P. Kervella, V. Coude du Foresto, W. A. Traub, and M. G. Lacasse, "Cepheid observations by long-baseline interferometry with FLUOR/IOTA," in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, P. Lena and A. Quirrenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE 4006, 551-555 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lagorceix, H.

F. Reynaud and H. Lagorceix, "Stabilization and control of fiber array for the coherent transport of beams in a stellar interferometer," in Proceedings of Astrofib'96 on Integrated Optics for Astronomical Interferometry, P. Kern and F. Malbet, eds. (ESA, 1996), pp. 249-257.

Lai, O.

G. Perrin, O. Lai, P. J. Lena, and V. Coude du Foresto, "Fibered large interferometer on top of Mauna Kea: OHANA, the optical Hawaiian array for nanoradian astronomy," in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, P. Lena and A. Quirrenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE 4006, 708-714 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lannes, A.

Le Coarer, E.

K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Haguenaueer, P. Petmezakis, J. P. Berger, D. Mourard, S. D. Ragland, G. Huss, F. Reynaud, E. Le Coarer, P. Y. Perrin, and F. Malbet, "Qualification of IONIC (integrated optics near-infrared interferometric camera)," in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, P. Lena and A. Quirrenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE 4006, 1041-1051 (2000).

Leeb, W. R.

A. Wallern, W. R. Leeb, and P. J. Winzer, "Minimum length of a single-mode spatial filter," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 19, 2445-2448 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lena, P. J.

G. Perrin, O. Lai, P. J. Lena, and V. Coude du Foresto, "Fibered large interferometer on top of Mauna Kea: OHANA, the optical Hawaiian array for nanoradian astronomy," in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, P. Lena and A. Quirrenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE 4006, 708-714 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Longueteau, E.

G. Huss, E. Longueteau, L. Delage, and F. Reynaud, "Phase closure bias versus dispersion in a stellar interferometer," Opt. Commun. 216, 329-334 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Longueteau, L. Delage, and F. Reynaud, "Influence of the antenna diagram on a stellar interferometer that is suffering from telescope-pointing errors," Appl. Opt. 41, 5835-5844 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malbet, F.

K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Haguenaueer, P. Petmezakis, J. P. Berger, D. Mourard, S. D. Ragland, G. Huss, F. Reynaud, E. Le Coarer, P. Y. Perrin, and F. Malbet, "Qualification of IONIC (integrated optics near-infrared interferometric camera)," in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, P. Lena and A. Quirrenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE 4006, 1041-1051 (2000).

F. Malbet, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, and P. Benech, "Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry I: concept and astronomical applications," Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 138, 135-145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mourard, D.

K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Haguenaueer, P. Petmezakis, J. P. Berger, D. Mourard, S. D. Ragland, G. Huss, F. Reynaud, E. Le Coarer, P. Y. Perrin, and F. Malbet, "Qualification of IONIC (integrated optics near-infrared interferometric camera)," in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, P. Lena and A. Quirrenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE 4006, 1041-1051 (2000).

Olivier, S.

S. Olivier, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, V. Collomb, and D. Persegol, "First test on an integrated optics potential for optical path stabilization in a stellar interferometer," Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 660-662 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, G.

S. Vergnole, T. Kotami, G. Perrin, L. Delage, and F. Reynaud, "Calibration of silica fibers for the Optical Hawaiian Array for Nanoradian Astronomy (OHANA): temperature dependence of differential chromatic dispersion," Opt. Commun. 251, 115-123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Perrin, O. Lai, P. J. Lena, and V. Coude du Foresto, "Fibered large interferometer on top of Mauna Kea: OHANA, the optical Hawaiian array for nanoradian astronomy," in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, P. Lena and A. Quirrenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE 4006, 708-714 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, P. Y.

K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Haguenaueer, P. Petmezakis, J. P. Berger, D. Mourard, S. D. Ragland, G. Huss, F. Reynaud, E. Le Coarer, P. Y. Perrin, and F. Malbet, "Qualification of IONIC (integrated optics near-infrared interferometric camera)," in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, P. Lena and A. Quirrenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE 4006, 1041-1051 (2000).

Persegol, D.

S. Olivier, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, V. Collomb, and D. Persegol, "First test on an integrated optics potential for optical path stabilization in a stellar interferometer," Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 660-662 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Petmezakis, P.

K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Haguenaueer, P. Petmezakis, J. P. Berger, D. Mourard, S. D. Ragland, G. Huss, F. Reynaud, E. Le Coarer, P. Y. Perrin, and F. Malbet, "Qualification of IONIC (integrated optics near-infrared interferometric camera)," in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, P. Lena and A. Quirrenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE 4006, 1041-1051 (2000).

Petrov, R. G.

R. G. Petrov, The Amber Team, "Introducing the near-infrared VLTI instrument AMBER to its users," Astrophys. Space Sci. 281, 57-67 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Poupinet, A.

P. Haguenauer, M. Barillot, P. Y. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, V. Collomb, P. Labeye, A. Poupinet, V. Weber, Z. Sodnik, and P. Kervella, "Nulling interferometric breadboard using integrated optics beam combiners, preparation to the IRSI/DARWIN mission," in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy II, W. A. Traub, ed., Proc. SPIE 4838, 690-699 (2003).

Ragland, S. D.

K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Haguenaueer, P. Petmezakis, J. P. Berger, D. Mourard, S. D. Ragland, G. Huss, F. Reynaud, E. Le Coarer, P. Y. Perrin, and F. Malbet, "Qualification of IONIC (integrated optics near-infrared interferometric camera)," in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, P. Lena and A. Quirrenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE 4006, 1041-1051 (2000).

Reynaud, F.

S. Vergnole, T. Kotami, G. Perrin, L. Delage, and F. Reynaud, "Calibration of silica fibers for the Optical Hawaiian Array for Nanoradian Astronomy (OHANA): temperature dependence of differential chromatic dispersion," Opt. Commun. 251, 115-123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Olivier, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, V. Collomb, and D. Persegol, "First test on an integrated optics potential for optical path stabilization in a stellar interferometer," Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 660-662 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Huss, E. Longueteau, L. Delage, and F. Reynaud, "Phase closure bias versus dispersion in a stellar interferometer," Opt. Commun. 216, 329-334 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Longueteau, L. Delage, and F. Reynaud, "Influence of the antenna diagram on a stellar interferometer that is suffering from telescope-pointing errors," Appl. Opt. 41, 5835-5844 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Huss, F. Reynaud, and L. Delage, "An all-guided three-arms interferometer for stellar interferometry," Opt. Commun. 196, 55-62 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Delage and F. Reynaud, "Analysis and control of polarization effects on phase closure and image acquisition in a fiber-linked three-telescope stellar interferometer," Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 1-7 (2000).

L. Delage, F. Reynaud, and A. Lannes, "Laboratory imaging stellar interferometer with fiber links," Appl. Opt. 39, 6406-6420 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Haguenaueer, P. Petmezakis, J. P. Berger, D. Mourard, S. D. Ragland, G. Huss, F. Reynaud, E. Le Coarer, P. Y. Perrin, and F. Malbet, "Qualification of IONIC (integrated optics near-infrared interferometric camera)," in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, P. Lena and A. Quirrenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE 4006, 1041-1051 (2000).

L. M. Simohamed and F. Reynaud, "A two meter stroke optical fiber delay line," Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 37 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Reynaud and H. Lagorceix, "Stabilization and control of fiber array for the coherent transport of beams in a stellar interferometer," in Proceedings of Astrofib'96 on Integrated Optics for Astronomical Interferometry, P. Kern and F. Malbet, eds. (ESA, 1996), pp. 249-257.

Rogstad, D. H.

Roussel, P.

P. Roussel, "Fibre-linked imaging interferometer: toward a new generation of low-cost large space-based telescope," in Proceedings of Astrofib'96 on Integrated Optics for Astronomical Interferometry, P. Kern and F. Malbet, eds. (ESA, 1996), pp. 3-7.

Rousselet-Perraut, K.

K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Haguenaueer, P. Petmezakis, J. P. Berger, D. Mourard, S. D. Ragland, G. Huss, F. Reynaud, E. Le Coarer, P. Y. Perrin, and F. Malbet, "Qualification of IONIC (integrated optics near-infrared interferometric camera)," in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, P. Lena and A. Quirrenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE 4006, 1041-1051 (2000).

F. Malbet, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, and P. Benech, "Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry I: concept and astronomical applications," Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 138, 135-145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schanen-Duport, I.

P. Haguenauer, M. Barillot, P. Y. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, V. Collomb, P. Labeye, A. Poupinet, V. Weber, Z. Sodnik, and P. Kervella, "Nulling interferometric breadboard using integrated optics beam combiners, preparation to the IRSI/DARWIN mission," in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy II, W. A. Traub, ed., Proc. SPIE 4838, 690-699 (2003).

F. Malbet, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, and P. Benech, "Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry I: concept and astronomical applications," Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 138, 135-145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shang, H. T.

H. T. Shang, "Chromatic dispersion measurement by white-light interferometry on meter-length single-mode optical fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 1587 (1981).

Simohamed, L. M.

L. M. Simohamed and F. Reynaud, "A two meter stroke optical fiber delay line," Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 37 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sodnik, Z.

P. Haguenauer, M. Barillot, P. Y. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, V. Collomb, P. Labeye, A. Poupinet, V. Weber, Z. Sodnik, and P. Kervella, "Nulling interferometric breadboard using integrated optics beam combiners, preparation to the IRSI/DARWIN mission," in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy II, W. A. Traub, ed., Proc. SPIE 4838, 690-699 (2003).

Tango, W. J.

W. J. Tango, "Dispersion in stellar interferometry," Appl. Opt. 71, 516-521 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Traub, W. A.

P. Kervella, V. Coude du Foresto, W. A. Traub, and M. G. Lacasse, "Cepheid observations by long-baseline interferometry with FLUOR/IOTA," in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, P. Lena and A. Quirrenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE 4006, 551-555 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vergnole, S.

S. Vergnole, T. Kotami, G. Perrin, L. Delage, and F. Reynaud, "Calibration of silica fibers for the Optical Hawaiian Array for Nanoradian Astronomy (OHANA): temperature dependence of differential chromatic dispersion," Opt. Commun. 251, 115-123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wallern, A.

A. Wallern, W. R. Leeb, and P. J. Winzer, "Minimum length of a single-mode spatial filter," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 19, 2445-2448 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Weber, V.

P. Haguenauer, M. Barillot, P. Y. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, V. Collomb, P. Labeye, A. Poupinet, V. Weber, Z. Sodnik, and P. Kervella, "Nulling interferometric breadboard using integrated optics beam combiners, preparation to the IRSI/DARWIN mission," in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy II, W. A. Traub, ed., Proc. SPIE 4838, 690-699 (2003).

Winzer, P. J.

A. Wallern, W. R. Leeb, and P. J. Winzer, "Minimum length of a single-mode spatial filter," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 19, 2445-2448 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, 1980).

Appl. Opt.

Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser.

F. Malbet, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, and P. Benech, "Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry I: concept and astronomical applications," Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 138, 135-145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. Space Sci.

R. G. Petrov, The Amber Team, "Introducing the near-infrared VLTI instrument AMBER to its users," Astrophys. Space Sci. 281, 57-67 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

A. Wallern, W. R. Leeb, and P. J. Winzer, "Minimum length of a single-mode spatial filter," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 19, 2445-2448 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Shang, "Chromatic dispersion measurement by white-light interferometry on meter-length single-mode optical fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 1587 (1981).

Opt. Commun.

S. Vergnole, T. Kotami, G. Perrin, L. Delage, and F. Reynaud, "Calibration of silica fibers for the Optical Hawaiian Array for Nanoradian Astronomy (OHANA): temperature dependence of differential chromatic dispersion," Opt. Commun. 251, 115-123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Huss, E. Longueteau, L. Delage, and F. Reynaud, "Phase closure bias versus dispersion in a stellar interferometer," Opt. Commun. 216, 329-334 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Huss, F. Reynaud, and L. Delage, "An all-guided three-arms interferometer for stellar interferometry," Opt. Commun. 196, 55-62 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

P. Kervella, V. Coude du Foresto, W. A. Traub, and M. G. Lacasse, "Cepheid observations by long-baseline interferometry with FLUOR/IOTA," in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, P. Lena and A. Quirrenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE 4006, 551-555 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Haguenaueer, P. Petmezakis, J. P. Berger, D. Mourard, S. D. Ragland, G. Huss, F. Reynaud, E. Le Coarer, P. Y. Perrin, and F. Malbet, "Qualification of IONIC (integrated optics near-infrared interferometric camera)," in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, P. Lena and A. Quirrenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE 4006, 1041-1051 (2000).

G. Perrin, O. Lai, P. J. Lena, and V. Coude du Foresto, "Fibered large interferometer on top of Mauna Kea: OHANA, the optical Hawaiian array for nanoradian astronomy," in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, P. Lena and A. Quirrenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE 4006, 708-714 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Dyer and D. A. Christensen, "Dispersion effects in fiber-optic interferometer," in Optical Engineering, B. J. Thompson, ed., Proc. SPIE 36, 2440-2447 (1997).

Pure Appl. Opt.

L. M. Simohamed and F. Reynaud, "A two meter stroke optical fiber delay line," Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 37 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Delage and F. Reynaud, "Analysis and control of polarization effects on phase closure and image acquisition in a fiber-linked three-telescope stellar interferometer," Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 1-7 (2000).

S. Olivier, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, V. Collomb, and D. Persegol, "First test on an integrated optics potential for optical path stabilization in a stellar interferometer," Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 660-662 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other

G. Huss, "Interferometres stellaires realises a partir de composants d'optique guidee et integree," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Limoges, France, 2001).

C. Froelhy, "Coherence and interferometry through optical fibers," in ESO Conference on Scientific Importance of High Angular Resolution at Infrared and Optical Wavelengths (ESO, 1981), pp. 285-293.

P. Haguenauer, M. Barillot, P. Y. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, V. Collomb, P. Labeye, A. Poupinet, V. Weber, Z. Sodnik, and P. Kervella, "Nulling interferometric breadboard using integrated optics beam combiners, preparation to the IRSI/DARWIN mission," in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy II, W. A. Traub, ed., Proc. SPIE 4838, 690-699 (2003).

P. Roussel, "Fibre-linked imaging interferometer: toward a new generation of low-cost large space-based telescope," in Proceedings of Astrofib'96 on Integrated Optics for Astronomical Interferometry, P. Kern and F. Malbet, eds. (ESA, 1996), pp. 3-7.

F. Reynaud and H. Lagorceix, "Stabilization and control of fiber array for the coherent transport of beams in a stellar interferometer," in Proceedings of Astrofib'96 on Integrated Optics for Astronomical Interferometry, P. Kern and F. Malbet, eds. (ESA, 1996), pp. 249-257.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, 1980).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Functions required in a synthesized aperture: (1) telescope pointing and tip–tilt systems ensure the coupling of star light in the waveguide, (2) polarization maintaining fibers permit a coherent propagation, (3) fiber delay lines generate the delay or minimize the differential chromatic dispersion effects, (4) by the way of temporal modulations of each fiber ams, the interferometric signal is acquired versus time, (5) interferometric mixing is achieved by polarization maintaining components and permit the acquisition of photometry for contrast calibration.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Temporal fringes: Optical path modulations on the three arms allow us to encode the interferometric signal of each couple of arms on one of the spectral channels N 12 , N 23 , and N 13. A Fourier transform permits us to extract information.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Test bench and MAFL: the experimental setup is composed of a star simulator with a 40   nm bandwidth laser source at 1550   nm , a polarizing assembly, polarization maintaining fiber, and a collimator L 1 ; three-telescope array T 1 , T 2 and T 3 ; T 1 and T 3 are mounted on a translation stage that is made up of three optical path modulators to generate temporal fringes; three fiber delay lines to compensate the differential chromatic dispersion; the central module where science and metrology mixing stages are implemented; science and metrology detectors.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Design of the tapered interferometer used for the metrology mixing: tapered waveguides transform the fundamental mode of the single-mode input waveguide into a fundamental mode of the multimode section. In the planar waveguide the two inputs interfere. Two collecting waveguides are placed in a specific position to get two π / 2 phase-shifted interferometric signals.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Block diagram of the IO chip with both science and metrology signals: (1) metrology source is injected into the IO chip, (2) it is divided in four parts—three to have a round trip in the interferometric arm and one to have a single pass in a reference fiber, (3) science and metrology beams come from interferometric arms, (4) Y-junctions separate science from metrology beams, (5) metrology beams go into the metrology interferometers where they interfere with the beam from the reference fiber; and (6) science beams go to the science interferometer.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Design of the science interferometer: two stages of Y-junctions permit us to collect the photometry of each interferometric arm in order to correct the contrastprocessing. Reverse Y-junctions provide the interferometric signal.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

View of IO chip: definition of the different types of connections with fibers. Port A, connection with interferometric arms and reference fiber; Port B, output of science and metrology interferometers; Port C, input of the metrology source.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Science fringe acquisition when the servo-loop is off (left) and on (right). Temporal fringes are on the top and the spectrum below. When the servoloop is off, a cross talk between neighboring peaks appears in the spectral density (left and down). This cross talk disappears when the servo-loop is on, and contrast and phase closure measurement accuracy are improved by a factor of 10, demonstrating the interest of the metrology system.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Calibration of differential chromatic dispersion effect. (1) Two fiber delay lines are in neutral position. The group delay between the two arms is canceled by moving a translation stage. (2) Fiber delay line T j is stretched. First order appears in spectral phase, and the fringes are lost. (3) Group delay between the two arms is canceled by moving the translation stage of T j . First order disappears in spectral phase, and the fringes can be acquired. (4) Two last operations are repeated to calibrate the differential chromatic dispersion between the two arms.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Coefficient a 2 of the Taylor development of spectral phase versus the fiber delay line position (corresponding to equivalent air path Δ L ).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Simulations of contrasts attributable only to differential chromatic dispersion. Top: order 2 canceled-contrast = 100% down: worst-case contrast = 99.9%.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured Performances for the Metrology and the Science Signals

Tables Icon

Table 2 Metrology Fringes Properties: Contrasts and Phase-Shift Measurements

Tables Icon

Table 3 Science Results: Contrasts and Phase Closure Measurements with 30 Acquisitions

Equations (92)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

( T i , T j )
N 12
N 23
N 13
f 12
f 23
f 13
( p j p i )
N 12
N 23
N 13
I = I 0 + N 12 + N 23 + N 13 ,
N i j = 2 I i I j  cos [ 2 π λ ( p j p i ) t ] ,
I 0
( i , j ) ( 1 , 2 , 3 )
I i
I j
( i , j ) ( 1 , 2 , 3 )
p i
p j
( i , j ) ( 1 , 2 , 3 )
1310   nm
( 1550   nm )
( 1310   nm )
1550   nm
( 1550   nm )
( 1310   nm )
1310   nm
1550   nm
100 μ m
π / 2
π / 2
250 μ m
1310   nm
π / 2
250 μ m
100   nm
1.7 μ m
3 × 10 5
45   mm × 50   mm
100   mm × 100   mm
π / 2
π / 2
λ M / 350   rms
λ M
T 1 T 2
T 2 T 3
T 1 T 3
1550   nm
40   nm
B ( ν ) = B 0 ( ν ) ( 1 + C ( ν ) cos ( Δ ϕ ( ν ) ) ,
B ( ν )
B 0 ( ν )
C ( ν )
Δ ϕ ( ν )
Δ ϕ ( ν )
Δ ϕ ( ν ) = a 0 + a 1 ( ν ν 0 ) + a 2 ( ν ν 0 ) 2 + a 3 ( ν ν 0 ) 3 ,
ν 0
a i
a 1
a 2
a 3
a 2
a 3
T i
T j
T j
T j
T j
a 1
T j
40   nm
1550   nm
40   nm
5   cm × 5   cm
1550   nm
40   nm
N 12
N 23
40   nm
1550   nm
L 1
T 1
T 2
T 3
T 1
T 3
π / 2
T j
T j
a 2
Δ L

Metrics