Abstract

A side-polished multimode fiber sensor based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) as the transducing element with a halogen light source is proposed. The SPR fiber sensor is side polished until half the core is closed and coated with a 37 nm gold thin film by dc sputtering. The SPR curve on the optical spectrum is described by an optical spectrum analyzer and can sense a range of widths in wavelengths of SPR effects. The measurement system using the halogen light source is constructed for several real-time detections that are carried out for the measurement of the index liquid detections for the sensitivity analysis. The sensing fiber is demonstrated with a series of refractive index (RI) liquids and set for several experiments, including the stability, repeatability, and resolution calibration. The results for the halogen light source with the resolution of the measurement based on wavelength interrogation were 3×106 refractive index units (RIUs). The SPR dip shifted in wavelength is used as a measure of the RI change at a surface, and this RI change varies directly with the number of biomolecules at the surface. The SPR dip shift in wavelength, which was hybridized at 0.1μM of the target DNA to the probe DNA, was 8.66  nm. The all-fiber multimode SPR sensor, which has the advantages of being low cost, being disposable, having high stability and linearity, being free of labeling, and having potential for real-time detection, permit the sensor and system to be used in biochemical sensing and environmental monitoring.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Kretchmann and H. Reather, "Radiative decay of non-radiative surface plasmons excited by light," Naturforscher 23, 2135-2136 (1968).
  2. A. Otto, "Exitation of nonradiative surface plasma waves in silver by the method of frustrated total reflection," Z. Phys. 216, 398-410 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. Kretchmann, "Die Bestimmung optischer Konstanten von Metallen durch Anregung von Oberflachenplasmashwingungen," Z. Phys. 241, 313-324 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. P. Chen and J. M. Chen, "Use of surface plasma waves for determination of the thickness and optical constants of thin metallic films," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 71, 189-191 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. Fontana, "Analysis of optical surfaces by means of surface plasmon spectroscopy," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 45, 399-405 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. T. Flanagan and R. H. Pantell, "Surface plasmon resonance and immunosensors," Electron. Lett. 20, 968-970 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, and T. Lind, "Gas detection by means of surface plasmons resonance," Sens. Actuators 3, 79-88 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundström, "Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing," Sens. Actuators 4, 299-304 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundström, "Biosensing with surface plasmon resonance--how it all started," Biosens. Bioelectron. 10, 1-9 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. J. Green, R. A. Frazier, K. M. Shakesheff, M. C. Davies, C. J. Roberts, and S. J. B. Tendler, "Surface plasmon resonance analysis of dynamic biological interactions with biomaterials," Biomaterials 21, 1823-1835 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H.-M. Haake, A. Schütz, and G. Gauglitz, "Label-free detection of biomolecular interaction by optical sensors," Fresenius' J. Anal. Chem. 366, 576-585 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Matsubara, S. Kawata, and S. Minami, "Optical chemical sensor based on surface plasmon measurement," Appl. Opt. 27, 1160-1163 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. G. Moharam and T. K. Gaylord, "Rigorous coupled-wave analysis of metallic surface-relief gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1780-1787 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. C. Jorgenson and S. S. Yee, "A fiber-optic chemical sensor based on surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B 12, 213-220 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. C. Jorgenson and S. S. Yee, "Control of the dynamics range and sensitivity of a surface-plasmon resonance based fiber optics sensor," Sens. Actuators B 43, 44-48 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. C. Jung, S. B. Saban, S. S. Yee, and R. B. Darling, "Chemical electrode surface plasmon resonance sensor," Sens Actuators B 32, 143-147 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Markatos, M. N. Zervas, and I. P. Giles, "Optical fiber surface-plasmon wave device," Electron. Lett. 24, 287-288 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  18. N. Zervas and I. P. Giles, "Performance of surface-plasma-wave fiber-optic polarizers," Opt. Lett. 15, 513-515 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. R. Willsch, "High performance metal-clad fibre-optic polarisers," Electron. Lett. 26, 1113-1115 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Homola, "Optical fiber sensor based on surface plasmon excitation, Second European Conference on Optical Chemical Sensors and Biosensors," Sens. Actuators B 29, 401-405 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. Homola, R. Slavi'k, and J. Ctyroký, "Interaction between fiber modes and surface plasmon waves: spectral properties," Opt. Lett. 22, 1403-1405 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. Slavi'k, J. Homola, and J. Ctyroký, "Novel surface plasmon resonance sensor based on single-mode optical fiber," in Chemical, Biochemical, and Environmental Fiber Sensors IX, Proc. SPIE 3105, 325-331 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  23. R. Slavi'k, J. Homola, J. Ctyroký, and E. Brynda, "Novel spectral fiber optic sensor based on surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B 74, 106-111 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  24. R. Slavi'k, J. Homola, and E. Brynda, "A miniature fiber optic surface plasmon resonance sensor for fast detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin B," Biosens. Bioelectron. 17, 591-595 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. J. C. Tubb, F. P. Payne, R. B. Millington, and C. R. Lowe, "Single-mode optical fiber surface plasma wave chemical sensor," Sens. Actuators B 41, 71-79 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  26. I. Garce, C. Aldea, and J. Mateo, "4-layer chemical fiber optics plasmon-based sensor," Sens. Actuators B 7, 771-774 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  27. L. A. Obando and K. S. Booksh, "Tuning dynamic range and sensitivity of white-light, multimode, fiber-optic surface plasmon resonance sensors," Anal. Chem. 71, 5116-5122 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2002

R. Slavi'k, J. Homola, and E. Brynda, "A miniature fiber optic surface plasmon resonance sensor for fast detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin B," Biosens. Bioelectron. 17, 591-595 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

R. Slavi'k, J. Homola, J. Ctyroký, and E. Brynda, "Novel spectral fiber optic sensor based on surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B 74, 106-111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

R. J. Green, R. A. Frazier, K. M. Shakesheff, M. C. Davies, C. J. Roberts, and S. J. B. Tendler, "Surface plasmon resonance analysis of dynamic biological interactions with biomaterials," Biomaterials 21, 1823-1835 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-M. Haake, A. Schütz, and G. Gauglitz, "Label-free detection of biomolecular interaction by optical sensors," Fresenius' J. Anal. Chem. 366, 576-585 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

L. A. Obando and K. S. Booksh, "Tuning dynamic range and sensitivity of white-light, multimode, fiber-optic surface plasmon resonance sensors," Anal. Chem. 71, 5116-5122 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. J. C. Tubb, F. P. Payne, R. B. Millington, and C. R. Lowe, "Single-mode optical fiber surface plasma wave chemical sensor," Sens. Actuators B 41, 71-79 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, R. Slavi'k, and J. Ctyroký, "Interaction between fiber modes and surface plasmon waves: spectral properties," Opt. Lett. 22, 1403-1405 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavi'k, J. Homola, and J. Ctyroký, "Novel surface plasmon resonance sensor based on single-mode optical fiber," in Chemical, Biochemical, and Environmental Fiber Sensors IX, Proc. SPIE 3105, 325-331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

C. C. Jung, S. B. Saban, S. S. Yee, and R. B. Darling, "Chemical electrode surface plasmon resonance sensor," Sens Actuators B 32, 143-147 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Fontana, "Analysis of optical surfaces by means of surface plasmon spectroscopy," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 45, 399-405 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundström, "Biosensing with surface plasmon resonance--how it all started," Biosens. Bioelectron. 10, 1-9 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, "Optical fiber sensor based on surface plasmon excitation, Second European Conference on Optical Chemical Sensors and Biosensors," Sens. Actuators B 29, 401-405 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

R. C. Jorgenson and S. S. Yee, "Control of the dynamics range and sensitivity of a surface-plasmon resonance based fiber optics sensor," Sens. Actuators B 43, 44-48 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

R. C. Jorgenson and S. S. Yee, "A fiber-optic chemical sensor based on surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B 12, 213-220 (1993).
[CrossRef]

I. Garce, C. Aldea, and J. Mateo, "4-layer chemical fiber optics plasmon-based sensor," Sens. Actuators B 7, 771-774 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990

N. Zervas and I. P. Giles, "Performance of surface-plasma-wave fiber-optic polarizers," Opt. Lett. 15, 513-515 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Willsch, "High performance metal-clad fibre-optic polarisers," Electron. Lett. 26, 1113-1115 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988

S. Markatos, M. N. Zervas, and I. P. Giles, "Optical fiber surface-plasmon wave device," Electron. Lett. 24, 287-288 (1988).
[CrossRef]

K. Matsubara, S. Kawata, and S. Minami, "Optical chemical sensor based on surface plasmon measurement," Appl. Opt. 27, 1160-1163 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

1984

M. T. Flanagan and R. H. Pantell, "Surface plasmon resonance and immunosensors," Electron. Lett. 20, 968-970 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundström, "Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing," Sens. Actuators 4, 299-304 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, and T. Lind, "Gas detection by means of surface plasmons resonance," Sens. Actuators 3, 79-88 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

W. P. Chen and J. M. Chen, "Use of surface plasma waves for determination of the thickness and optical constants of thin metallic films," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 71, 189-191 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1971

E. Kretchmann, "Die Bestimmung optischer Konstanten von Metallen durch Anregung von Oberflachenplasmashwingungen," Z. Phys. 241, 313-324 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1968

E. Kretchmann and H. Reather, "Radiative decay of non-radiative surface plasmons excited by light," Naturforscher 23, 2135-2136 (1968).

A. Otto, "Exitation of nonradiative surface plasma waves in silver by the method of frustrated total reflection," Z. Phys. 216, 398-410 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Aldea, C.

I. Garce, C. Aldea, and J. Mateo, "4-layer chemical fiber optics plasmon-based sensor," Sens. Actuators B 7, 771-774 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Booksh, K. S.

L. A. Obando and K. S. Booksh, "Tuning dynamic range and sensitivity of white-light, multimode, fiber-optic surface plasmon resonance sensors," Anal. Chem. 71, 5116-5122 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brynda, E.

R. Slavi'k, J. Homola, and E. Brynda, "A miniature fiber optic surface plasmon resonance sensor for fast detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin B," Biosens. Bioelectron. 17, 591-595 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavi'k, J. Homola, J. Ctyroký, and E. Brynda, "Novel spectral fiber optic sensor based on surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B 74, 106-111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. M.

W. P. Chen and J. M. Chen, "Use of surface plasma waves for determination of the thickness and optical constants of thin metallic films," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 71, 189-191 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W. P.

W. P. Chen and J. M. Chen, "Use of surface plasma waves for determination of the thickness and optical constants of thin metallic films," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 71, 189-191 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Ctyroký, J.

R. Slavi'k, J. Homola, J. Ctyroký, and E. Brynda, "Novel spectral fiber optic sensor based on surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B 74, 106-111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, R. Slavi'k, and J. Ctyroký, "Interaction between fiber modes and surface plasmon waves: spectral properties," Opt. Lett. 22, 1403-1405 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavi'k, J. Homola, and J. Ctyroký, "Novel surface plasmon resonance sensor based on single-mode optical fiber," in Chemical, Biochemical, and Environmental Fiber Sensors IX, Proc. SPIE 3105, 325-331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Darling, R. B.

C. C. Jung, S. B. Saban, S. S. Yee, and R. B. Darling, "Chemical electrode surface plasmon resonance sensor," Sens Actuators B 32, 143-147 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Davies, M. C.

R. J. Green, R. A. Frazier, K. M. Shakesheff, M. C. Davies, C. J. Roberts, and S. J. B. Tendler, "Surface plasmon resonance analysis of dynamic biological interactions with biomaterials," Biomaterials 21, 1823-1835 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flanagan, M. T.

M. T. Flanagan and R. H. Pantell, "Surface plasmon resonance and immunosensors," Electron. Lett. 20, 968-970 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Fontana, E.

E. Fontana, "Analysis of optical surfaces by means of surface plasmon spectroscopy," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 45, 399-405 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Frazier, R. A.

R. J. Green, R. A. Frazier, K. M. Shakesheff, M. C. Davies, C. J. Roberts, and S. J. B. Tendler, "Surface plasmon resonance analysis of dynamic biological interactions with biomaterials," Biomaterials 21, 1823-1835 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garce, I.

I. Garce, C. Aldea, and J. Mateo, "4-layer chemical fiber optics plasmon-based sensor," Sens. Actuators B 7, 771-774 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gauglitz, G.

H.-M. Haake, A. Schütz, and G. Gauglitz, "Label-free detection of biomolecular interaction by optical sensors," Fresenius' J. Anal. Chem. 366, 576-585 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gaylord, T. K.

Giles, I. P.

N. Zervas and I. P. Giles, "Performance of surface-plasma-wave fiber-optic polarizers," Opt. Lett. 15, 513-515 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Markatos, M. N. Zervas, and I. P. Giles, "Optical fiber surface-plasmon wave device," Electron. Lett. 24, 287-288 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Green, R. J.

R. J. Green, R. A. Frazier, K. M. Shakesheff, M. C. Davies, C. J. Roberts, and S. J. B. Tendler, "Surface plasmon resonance analysis of dynamic biological interactions with biomaterials," Biomaterials 21, 1823-1835 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haake, H.-M.

H.-M. Haake, A. Schütz, and G. Gauglitz, "Label-free detection of biomolecular interaction by optical sensors," Fresenius' J. Anal. Chem. 366, 576-585 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Homola, J.

R. Slavi'k, J. Homola, and E. Brynda, "A miniature fiber optic surface plasmon resonance sensor for fast detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin B," Biosens. Bioelectron. 17, 591-595 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavi'k, J. Homola, J. Ctyroký, and E. Brynda, "Novel spectral fiber optic sensor based on surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B 74, 106-111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavi'k, J. Homola, and J. Ctyroký, "Novel surface plasmon resonance sensor based on single-mode optical fiber," in Chemical, Biochemical, and Environmental Fiber Sensors IX, Proc. SPIE 3105, 325-331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, R. Slavi'k, and J. Ctyroký, "Interaction between fiber modes and surface plasmon waves: spectral properties," Opt. Lett. 22, 1403-1405 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, "Optical fiber sensor based on surface plasmon excitation, Second European Conference on Optical Chemical Sensors and Biosensors," Sens. Actuators B 29, 401-405 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jorgenson, R. C.

R. C. Jorgenson and S. S. Yee, "Control of the dynamics range and sensitivity of a surface-plasmon resonance based fiber optics sensor," Sens. Actuators B 43, 44-48 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Jorgenson and S. S. Yee, "A fiber-optic chemical sensor based on surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B 12, 213-220 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jung, C. C.

C. C. Jung, S. B. Saban, S. S. Yee, and R. B. Darling, "Chemical electrode surface plasmon resonance sensor," Sens Actuators B 32, 143-147 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

Kretchmann, E.

E. Kretchmann, "Die Bestimmung optischer Konstanten von Metallen durch Anregung von Oberflachenplasmashwingungen," Z. Phys. 241, 313-324 (1971).
[CrossRef]

E. Kretchmann and H. Reather, "Radiative decay of non-radiative surface plasmons excited by light," Naturforscher 23, 2135-2136 (1968).

Liedberg, B.

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundström, "Biosensing with surface plasmon resonance--how it all started," Biosens. Bioelectron. 10, 1-9 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundström, "Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing," Sens. Actuators 4, 299-304 (1983).
[CrossRef]

C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, and T. Lind, "Gas detection by means of surface plasmons resonance," Sens. Actuators 3, 79-88 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lind, T.

C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, and T. Lind, "Gas detection by means of surface plasmons resonance," Sens. Actuators 3, 79-88 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lowe, C. R.

A. J. C. Tubb, F. P. Payne, R. B. Millington, and C. R. Lowe, "Single-mode optical fiber surface plasma wave chemical sensor," Sens. Actuators B 41, 71-79 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lundström, I.

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundström, "Biosensing with surface plasmon resonance--how it all started," Biosens. Bioelectron. 10, 1-9 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundström, "Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing," Sens. Actuators 4, 299-304 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Markatos, S.

S. Markatos, M. N. Zervas, and I. P. Giles, "Optical fiber surface-plasmon wave device," Electron. Lett. 24, 287-288 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Mateo, J.

I. Garce, C. Aldea, and J. Mateo, "4-layer chemical fiber optics plasmon-based sensor," Sens. Actuators B 7, 771-774 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Matsubara, K.

Millington, R. B.

A. J. C. Tubb, F. P. Payne, R. B. Millington, and C. R. Lowe, "Single-mode optical fiber surface plasma wave chemical sensor," Sens. Actuators B 41, 71-79 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Minami, S.

Moharam, M. G.

Nylander, C.

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundström, "Biosensing with surface plasmon resonance--how it all started," Biosens. Bioelectron. 10, 1-9 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundström, "Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing," Sens. Actuators 4, 299-304 (1983).
[CrossRef]

C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, and T. Lind, "Gas detection by means of surface plasmons resonance," Sens. Actuators 3, 79-88 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Obando, L. A.

L. A. Obando and K. S. Booksh, "Tuning dynamic range and sensitivity of white-light, multimode, fiber-optic surface plasmon resonance sensors," Anal. Chem. 71, 5116-5122 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Otto, A.

A. Otto, "Exitation of nonradiative surface plasma waves in silver by the method of frustrated total reflection," Z. Phys. 216, 398-410 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Pantell, R. H.

M. T. Flanagan and R. H. Pantell, "Surface plasmon resonance and immunosensors," Electron. Lett. 20, 968-970 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Payne, F. P.

A. J. C. Tubb, F. P. Payne, R. B. Millington, and C. R. Lowe, "Single-mode optical fiber surface plasma wave chemical sensor," Sens. Actuators B 41, 71-79 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Reather, H.

E. Kretchmann and H. Reather, "Radiative decay of non-radiative surface plasmons excited by light," Naturforscher 23, 2135-2136 (1968).

Roberts, C. J.

R. J. Green, R. A. Frazier, K. M. Shakesheff, M. C. Davies, C. J. Roberts, and S. J. B. Tendler, "Surface plasmon resonance analysis of dynamic biological interactions with biomaterials," Biomaterials 21, 1823-1835 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saban, S. B.

C. C. Jung, S. B. Saban, S. S. Yee, and R. B. Darling, "Chemical electrode surface plasmon resonance sensor," Sens Actuators B 32, 143-147 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schütz, A.

H.-M. Haake, A. Schütz, and G. Gauglitz, "Label-free detection of biomolecular interaction by optical sensors," Fresenius' J. Anal. Chem. 366, 576-585 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shakesheff, K. M.

R. J. Green, R. A. Frazier, K. M. Shakesheff, M. C. Davies, C. J. Roberts, and S. J. B. Tendler, "Surface plasmon resonance analysis of dynamic biological interactions with biomaterials," Biomaterials 21, 1823-1835 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slavi'k, R.

R. Slavi'k, J. Homola, and E. Brynda, "A miniature fiber optic surface plasmon resonance sensor for fast detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin B," Biosens. Bioelectron. 17, 591-595 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavi'k, J. Homola, J. Ctyroký, and E. Brynda, "Novel spectral fiber optic sensor based on surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B 74, 106-111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavi'k, J. Homola, and J. Ctyroký, "Novel surface plasmon resonance sensor based on single-mode optical fiber," in Chemical, Biochemical, and Environmental Fiber Sensors IX, Proc. SPIE 3105, 325-331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, R. Slavi'k, and J. Ctyroký, "Interaction between fiber modes and surface plasmon waves: spectral properties," Opt. Lett. 22, 1403-1405 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tendler, S. J. B.

R. J. Green, R. A. Frazier, K. M. Shakesheff, M. C. Davies, C. J. Roberts, and S. J. B. Tendler, "Surface plasmon resonance analysis of dynamic biological interactions with biomaterials," Biomaterials 21, 1823-1835 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tubb, A. J. C.

A. J. C. Tubb, F. P. Payne, R. B. Millington, and C. R. Lowe, "Single-mode optical fiber surface plasma wave chemical sensor," Sens. Actuators B 41, 71-79 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Willsch, R.

R. Willsch, "High performance metal-clad fibre-optic polarisers," Electron. Lett. 26, 1113-1115 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yee, S. S.

C. C. Jung, S. B. Saban, S. S. Yee, and R. B. Darling, "Chemical electrode surface plasmon resonance sensor," Sens Actuators B 32, 143-147 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Jorgenson and S. S. Yee, "Control of the dynamics range and sensitivity of a surface-plasmon resonance based fiber optics sensor," Sens. Actuators B 43, 44-48 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Jorgenson and S. S. Yee, "A fiber-optic chemical sensor based on surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B 12, 213-220 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zervas, M. N.

S. Markatos, M. N. Zervas, and I. P. Giles, "Optical fiber surface-plasmon wave device," Electron. Lett. 24, 287-288 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Zervas, N.

Anal. Chem.

L. A. Obando and K. S. Booksh, "Tuning dynamic range and sensitivity of white-light, multimode, fiber-optic surface plasmon resonance sensors," Anal. Chem. 71, 5116-5122 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Biomaterials

R. J. Green, R. A. Frazier, K. M. Shakesheff, M. C. Davies, C. J. Roberts, and S. J. B. Tendler, "Surface plasmon resonance analysis of dynamic biological interactions with biomaterials," Biomaterials 21, 1823-1835 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biosens. Bioelectron.

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundström, "Biosensing with surface plasmon resonance--how it all started," Biosens. Bioelectron. 10, 1-9 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavi'k, J. Homola, and E. Brynda, "A miniature fiber optic surface plasmon resonance sensor for fast detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin B," Biosens. Bioelectron. 17, 591-595 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

R. Willsch, "High performance metal-clad fibre-optic polarisers," Electron. Lett. 26, 1113-1115 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Markatos, M. N. Zervas, and I. P. Giles, "Optical fiber surface-plasmon wave device," Electron. Lett. 24, 287-288 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Flanagan and R. H. Pantell, "Surface plasmon resonance and immunosensors," Electron. Lett. 20, 968-970 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Fresenius' J. Anal. Chem.

H.-M. Haake, A. Schütz, and G. Gauglitz, "Label-free detection of biomolecular interaction by optical sensors," Fresenius' J. Anal. Chem. 366, 576-585 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.

E. Fontana, "Analysis of optical surfaces by means of surface plasmon spectroscopy," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 45, 399-405 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

W. P. Chen and J. M. Chen, "Use of surface plasma waves for determination of the thickness and optical constants of thin metallic films," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 71, 189-191 (1981).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Sensing system consisting of a light, a 2 × 2 coupler, a side-polished sensing fiber, a side-polished reference fiber, and an OSA. (b) Multimode sensing fiber structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

AFM picture of the roughness analyzer of a gold thin film with a scan size of 1 μ m × 1 μ m .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) SPR curves on the OSA. The dashed and solid curves are the results for the air (reference) and alcohol (sensing) measurement, respectively. (b) SPR curves described and calculated by the mathematic method.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

OSA scans the sensing fiber once every 5 min, and the stable SPR response is observed.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Response curves of the gold-deposited optical-fiber sensor with film thicknesses of 37 and 43.3   nm to ethanol solutions. The dotted curve, solid curve, and the dashed curve are deposited with gold thickness of 43.3, 37, and 30   nm , respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Dashed curve for the SPR response of air and solid curve for the SPR of RI index with n = 1.38 ; (b) dashed curve for the SPR response of air and solid curve for the SPR response of RI index with n = 1.40 .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Shift of SPR dip depends on the refractive index liquid.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Calibration of the refractive index liquid variation versus the SPR dips of the wavelength.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Transmitted light versus a series of refractive index liquids in a wavelength of 800   nm marked on the OSA.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

SPR spectra of the PBS, probe DNA, and target DNA.

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