Abstract

An optical calibration source for free-space systems with large beams is presented. It produces a 2 W, 370  mm beam tunable from 15451570  nm with a wavefront error of <λ/15 peak to valley and <0.013λ rms at 1550  nm, power stability of <±0.02  dB, arbitrarily selected polarization, and polarization stability of <±1°/h in orientation and <±0.02/h in ellipticity.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. C. Larson, Y. A. Akulova, C. Coldren, T. Lijeberg, G. A. Fish, S. Nakagawa, A. Dahl, P. Kozodoy, D. Bingo, M. Bai, N. Ramdas, S. Penniman, T. Wipiejewski, and L. A. Coldren, "High performance widely-tunable SG-DBR lasers," in Novel In-Plane Semiconductor Lasers II, C. F. Gmachl and D. P. Bour, eds., Proc. SPIE 4995, 66-80 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Thaniyavarn, "Wavelength independent, optical damage immune Z-propagation LiNbO3 waveguide polarization converter," Appl. Physics Lett. 47, 674-676 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Heismann, "Integrated-optic polarization transformer for reset-free endless polarization control," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1989-1906 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. H. Woods, "Highly reliable high power optical amplifiers at 1.55 μm," in Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits VIII, L. A. Eldada and E. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE 6124, 61240Q1-9 (2006).
  5. R. Noé, H. Heidrich, and D. Hoffmann, "Endless polarization control systems for coherent optics," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1199-1207 (1988).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

T. H. Woods, "Highly reliable high power optical amplifiers at 1.55 μm," in Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits VIII, L. A. Eldada and E. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE 6124, 61240Q1-9 (2006).

2003 (1)

M. C. Larson, Y. A. Akulova, C. Coldren, T. Lijeberg, G. A. Fish, S. Nakagawa, A. Dahl, P. Kozodoy, D. Bingo, M. Bai, N. Ramdas, S. Penniman, T. Wipiejewski, and L. A. Coldren, "High performance widely-tunable SG-DBR lasers," in Novel In-Plane Semiconductor Lasers II, C. F. Gmachl and D. P. Bour, eds., Proc. SPIE 4995, 66-80 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

F. Heismann, "Integrated-optic polarization transformer for reset-free endless polarization control," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1989-1906 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

R. Noé, H. Heidrich, and D. Hoffmann, "Endless polarization control systems for coherent optics," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1199-1207 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

S. Thaniyavarn, "Wavelength independent, optical damage immune Z-propagation LiNbO3 waveguide polarization converter," Appl. Physics Lett. 47, 674-676 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Akulova, Y. A.

M. C. Larson, Y. A. Akulova, C. Coldren, T. Lijeberg, G. A. Fish, S. Nakagawa, A. Dahl, P. Kozodoy, D. Bingo, M. Bai, N. Ramdas, S. Penniman, T. Wipiejewski, and L. A. Coldren, "High performance widely-tunable SG-DBR lasers," in Novel In-Plane Semiconductor Lasers II, C. F. Gmachl and D. P. Bour, eds., Proc. SPIE 4995, 66-80 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bai, M.

M. C. Larson, Y. A. Akulova, C. Coldren, T. Lijeberg, G. A. Fish, S. Nakagawa, A. Dahl, P. Kozodoy, D. Bingo, M. Bai, N. Ramdas, S. Penniman, T. Wipiejewski, and L. A. Coldren, "High performance widely-tunable SG-DBR lasers," in Novel In-Plane Semiconductor Lasers II, C. F. Gmachl and D. P. Bour, eds., Proc. SPIE 4995, 66-80 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bingo, D.

M. C. Larson, Y. A. Akulova, C. Coldren, T. Lijeberg, G. A. Fish, S. Nakagawa, A. Dahl, P. Kozodoy, D. Bingo, M. Bai, N. Ramdas, S. Penniman, T. Wipiejewski, and L. A. Coldren, "High performance widely-tunable SG-DBR lasers," in Novel In-Plane Semiconductor Lasers II, C. F. Gmachl and D. P. Bour, eds., Proc. SPIE 4995, 66-80 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, C.

M. C. Larson, Y. A. Akulova, C. Coldren, T. Lijeberg, G. A. Fish, S. Nakagawa, A. Dahl, P. Kozodoy, D. Bingo, M. Bai, N. Ramdas, S. Penniman, T. Wipiejewski, and L. A. Coldren, "High performance widely-tunable SG-DBR lasers," in Novel In-Plane Semiconductor Lasers II, C. F. Gmachl and D. P. Bour, eds., Proc. SPIE 4995, 66-80 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L. A.

M. C. Larson, Y. A. Akulova, C. Coldren, T. Lijeberg, G. A. Fish, S. Nakagawa, A. Dahl, P. Kozodoy, D. Bingo, M. Bai, N. Ramdas, S. Penniman, T. Wipiejewski, and L. A. Coldren, "High performance widely-tunable SG-DBR lasers," in Novel In-Plane Semiconductor Lasers II, C. F. Gmachl and D. P. Bour, eds., Proc. SPIE 4995, 66-80 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dahl, A.

M. C. Larson, Y. A. Akulova, C. Coldren, T. Lijeberg, G. A. Fish, S. Nakagawa, A. Dahl, P. Kozodoy, D. Bingo, M. Bai, N. Ramdas, S. Penniman, T. Wipiejewski, and L. A. Coldren, "High performance widely-tunable SG-DBR lasers," in Novel In-Plane Semiconductor Lasers II, C. F. Gmachl and D. P. Bour, eds., Proc. SPIE 4995, 66-80 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fish, G. A.

M. C. Larson, Y. A. Akulova, C. Coldren, T. Lijeberg, G. A. Fish, S. Nakagawa, A. Dahl, P. Kozodoy, D. Bingo, M. Bai, N. Ramdas, S. Penniman, T. Wipiejewski, and L. A. Coldren, "High performance widely-tunable SG-DBR lasers," in Novel In-Plane Semiconductor Lasers II, C. F. Gmachl and D. P. Bour, eds., Proc. SPIE 4995, 66-80 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Heidrich, H.

R. Noé, H. Heidrich, and D. Hoffmann, "Endless polarization control systems for coherent optics," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1199-1207 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Heismann, F.

F. Heismann, "Integrated-optic polarization transformer for reset-free endless polarization control," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1989-1906 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, D.

R. Noé, H. Heidrich, and D. Hoffmann, "Endless polarization control systems for coherent optics," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1199-1207 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kozodoy, P.

M. C. Larson, Y. A. Akulova, C. Coldren, T. Lijeberg, G. A. Fish, S. Nakagawa, A. Dahl, P. Kozodoy, D. Bingo, M. Bai, N. Ramdas, S. Penniman, T. Wipiejewski, and L. A. Coldren, "High performance widely-tunable SG-DBR lasers," in Novel In-Plane Semiconductor Lasers II, C. F. Gmachl and D. P. Bour, eds., Proc. SPIE 4995, 66-80 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Larson, M. C.

M. C. Larson, Y. A. Akulova, C. Coldren, T. Lijeberg, G. A. Fish, S. Nakagawa, A. Dahl, P. Kozodoy, D. Bingo, M. Bai, N. Ramdas, S. Penniman, T. Wipiejewski, and L. A. Coldren, "High performance widely-tunable SG-DBR lasers," in Novel In-Plane Semiconductor Lasers II, C. F. Gmachl and D. P. Bour, eds., Proc. SPIE 4995, 66-80 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lijeberg, T.

M. C. Larson, Y. A. Akulova, C. Coldren, T. Lijeberg, G. A. Fish, S. Nakagawa, A. Dahl, P. Kozodoy, D. Bingo, M. Bai, N. Ramdas, S. Penniman, T. Wipiejewski, and L. A. Coldren, "High performance widely-tunable SG-DBR lasers," in Novel In-Plane Semiconductor Lasers II, C. F. Gmachl and D. P. Bour, eds., Proc. SPIE 4995, 66-80 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, S.

M. C. Larson, Y. A. Akulova, C. Coldren, T. Lijeberg, G. A. Fish, S. Nakagawa, A. Dahl, P. Kozodoy, D. Bingo, M. Bai, N. Ramdas, S. Penniman, T. Wipiejewski, and L. A. Coldren, "High performance widely-tunable SG-DBR lasers," in Novel In-Plane Semiconductor Lasers II, C. F. Gmachl and D. P. Bour, eds., Proc. SPIE 4995, 66-80 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Noé, R.

R. Noé, H. Heidrich, and D. Hoffmann, "Endless polarization control systems for coherent optics," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1199-1207 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Penniman, S.

M. C. Larson, Y. A. Akulova, C. Coldren, T. Lijeberg, G. A. Fish, S. Nakagawa, A. Dahl, P. Kozodoy, D. Bingo, M. Bai, N. Ramdas, S. Penniman, T. Wipiejewski, and L. A. Coldren, "High performance widely-tunable SG-DBR lasers," in Novel In-Plane Semiconductor Lasers II, C. F. Gmachl and D. P. Bour, eds., Proc. SPIE 4995, 66-80 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ramdas, N.

M. C. Larson, Y. A. Akulova, C. Coldren, T. Lijeberg, G. A. Fish, S. Nakagawa, A. Dahl, P. Kozodoy, D. Bingo, M. Bai, N. Ramdas, S. Penniman, T. Wipiejewski, and L. A. Coldren, "High performance widely-tunable SG-DBR lasers," in Novel In-Plane Semiconductor Lasers II, C. F. Gmachl and D. P. Bour, eds., Proc. SPIE 4995, 66-80 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thaniyavarn, S.

S. Thaniyavarn, "Wavelength independent, optical damage immune Z-propagation LiNbO3 waveguide polarization converter," Appl. Physics Lett. 47, 674-676 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wipiejewski, T.

M. C. Larson, Y. A. Akulova, C. Coldren, T. Lijeberg, G. A. Fish, S. Nakagawa, A. Dahl, P. Kozodoy, D. Bingo, M. Bai, N. Ramdas, S. Penniman, T. Wipiejewski, and L. A. Coldren, "High performance widely-tunable SG-DBR lasers," in Novel In-Plane Semiconductor Lasers II, C. F. Gmachl and D. P. Bour, eds., Proc. SPIE 4995, 66-80 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Woods, T. H.

T. H. Woods, "Highly reliable high power optical amplifiers at 1.55 μm," in Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits VIII, L. A. Eldada and E. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE 6124, 61240Q1-9 (2006).

Appl. Physics Lett. (1)

S. Thaniyavarn, "Wavelength independent, optical damage immune Z-propagation LiNbO3 waveguide polarization converter," Appl. Physics Lett. 47, 674-676 (1985).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

F. Heismann, "Integrated-optic polarization transformer for reset-free endless polarization control," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1989-1906 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

R. Noé, H. Heidrich, and D. Hoffmann, "Endless polarization control systems for coherent optics," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1199-1207 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

M. C. Larson, Y. A. Akulova, C. Coldren, T. Lijeberg, G. A. Fish, S. Nakagawa, A. Dahl, P. Kozodoy, D. Bingo, M. Bai, N. Ramdas, S. Penniman, T. Wipiejewski, and L. A. Coldren, "High performance widely-tunable SG-DBR lasers," in Novel In-Plane Semiconductor Lasers II, C. F. Gmachl and D. P. Bour, eds., Proc. SPIE 4995, 66-80 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Woods, "Highly reliable high power optical amplifiers at 1.55 μm," in Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits VIII, L. A. Eldada and E. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE 6124, 61240Q1-9 (2006).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Calibration source layout. OAP, off-axis parabola; EDFA, erbium-doped fiber amplifier; PBS, polarization beam splitter; OSA, optical spectrum analyzer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SBS threshold at 1559.8   nm for various tunable laser sources in slow-axis-aligned PANDA fiber. ECL, external-cavity laser; SG-DBR, sampled-grating distributed Bragg reflector laser.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Alignment procedure.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Configuration for angular sensitivity analysis measurement.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Theoretical and measured fiber–retrosphere alignment sensitivity.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

rms wavefront error at 1545   nm and facility temperature.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Calibration source power spectra. PSD, power spectral density.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Long-term power stability.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Long-term polarization stability.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Calibration Source Performance

Tables Icon

Table 2 Calibration Source Alignment Budget

Metrics