Abstract

The detection of vapors of dinitrobenzenes and dinitrotoluenes by UV cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS) was investigated. Absorption cross sections at 248nm were estimated by measurements on saturated vapors and compared with solution-phase values. The computed subparts per 109 detection sensitivity with no effort at preconcentration was demonstrated through measurements on diluted flows. The factors affecting measurements on 1 atm total pressure were considered, and it was demonstrated that Rayleigh scattering by air will reduce the detection sensitivity by 5%–10%. The UV absorption spectra of these compounds are broad, resulting in a relatively poor selectivity for single-wavelength measurements with the UV CRDS technique.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  4. Y. Chen, H.-B. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X. C. Zhan, "THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene," Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357-361 (2004).
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2006 (2)

C. López-Moreno, S. Palanco, J. J. Laserna, F. DeLucia, Jr., A. W. Miziolek, R. A. Walters, and A. L. Whitehouse, "Test of a stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy sensor for the detection of explosive residues on solid surfaces," J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 21, 55-60 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H.-B. Liu, Y. Chen, G. J. Bastiaans, and X.-C. Zhang, "Detection and identification of explosive RDX by THz diffuse reflection spectroscopy," Opt. Express 14, 415-423 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

A. Rose, Z. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, and V. Bulovic, "Sensitivity gains in chemosensing by lasing action in organic polymers," Nature 434, 876-879 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

Y. Chen, H.-B. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X. C. Zhan, "THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene," Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357-361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Moore, "Instrumentation for trace detection of high explosives," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2499-2512 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Teslja, B. Nizamov, and P. J. Dagdigian, "The electronic spectrum of methyleneimine," J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 4433-4439 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. Orphal, "A critical review of the absorption cross sections of O3 and NO2 in the ultraviolet and visible," J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 157, 185-209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. W. Todd, R. A. Provencal, T. G. Owano, B. A. Paldus, A. Kachanov, K. L. Vodopyanov, M. Hunter, S. L. Coy, J. I. Steinfeld, and J. T. Arnold, "Application of mid-infrared cavity ringdown spectroscopy to trace explosives vapor detection using a broadly tunable (6-8 μm) optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. B 75, 367-376 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

K. J. Albert, M. L. Myrick, S. B. Brown, D. L. James, F. P. Milanovich, and D. R. Walt, "Field-deployable sniffer for 2,4-dinitrotoluene detection," Environ. Sci. Technol. 35, 3193-3200 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. F. Jenkins, D. C. Leggett, P. H. Miyares, M. E. Walsh, T. A. Ranney, J. H. Cragin, and V. George, "Chemical signatures of TNT-filled land mines," Talanta 54, 501-513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Rittfeldt, "Determination of vapor pressure of low-volatility compounds using a method to obtain saturated vapor with coated capillary columns," Anal. Chem. 73, 2405-2411 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Usachev, T. S. Miller, J. P. Singh, F. Yueh, P. Jang, and D. L. Monts, "Optical properties of gaseous 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in the ultraviolet region," Appl. Spectrosc. 55, 125-129 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

H. Naus and W. Ubachs, "Experimental verification of Rayleigh scattering cross sections," Opt. Lett. 25, 347-349 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Sylvia, J. B. Janni, J. D. Klein, and K. M. Spencer, "Surface-enhanced Raman detection of 2,4-dnitrotoluene impurity vapor as a marker to locate landmines," Anal. Chem. 72, 5834-5840 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, "Cavity ringdown spectroscopy: experimental schemes and applications," Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565-607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. I. Steinfeld and J. Wormhoudt, "Explosives detection: a challenge for physical chemistry," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 49, 203-232 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

J. Janni, B. D. Gilbert, R. W. Field, and J. I. Steinfeld, "Infrared absorption spectra of explosive molecule vapors," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 53, 1375-1381 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, A. O'Keefe, and R. J. Saykally, "Cavity ringdown spectroscopy: History, development, and application to pulsed molecular beams," Chem. Rev. 97, 25-51 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

A. Bucholtz, "Rayleigh-scattering calculations for the terrestrial atmosphere," Appl. Opt. 34, 2765-2773 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Talukdar, J. B. Burkholder, A. Schmoltner, J. M. Roberts, R. R. Wilson, and A. R. Ravishankara, "Investigation of the loss process for peroxyacetyl nitrate in the atmosphere: UV photolysis and reaction with OH," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 14163-14173 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

D. C. Dionne, D. P. Rounbehler, E. K. Achter, J. R. Hobbs, and D. H. Fine, "Vapor pressure of explosives," J. Energ. Mater. 4, 447-472 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

D. R. Bates, "Rayleigh scattering by air," Planet. Space Sci. 32, 785-790 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

P. A. Pella, "Measurement of the vapor pressures of TNT, 2.4-DNT, 2.6-DNT, and EGDN," J. Chem. Thermodyn. 9, 301-305 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

D. Ferro, V. Piacente, R. Gigli, and G. D'Ascenzo, "Determination of the vapour pressure of o-, m-, and p-dinitrobenzene by the torsion-effusion method," J. Chem. Thermodyn. 8, 1137-1143 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1960 (1)

T. Abe, "Ultraviolet absorption spectra of o-, m- and p-dinitrobenzene," Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 33, 220-222 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

C. P. Conduit, "Ultraviolet and infrared spectra of some aromatic compounds," J. Chem. Soc. 1959, 3273-3277 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1951 (1)

W. A. Schroeder, P. E. Wilcox, K. N. Trueblood, and A. O. Dekker, "Ultraviolet and visible absorption spectra in ethyl alcohol. Data for certain nitric esters, nitramines, nitroalkylbenzenes, and derivatives of phenol, aniline, urea, carbamic acid, diphenylamine, carbazole, and triphenylamine," Anal. Chem. 22, 1740-1717 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Abe, T.

T. Abe, "Ultraviolet absorption spectra of o-, m- and p-dinitrobenzene," Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 33, 220-222 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Achter, E. K.

D. C. Dionne, D. P. Rounbehler, E. K. Achter, J. R. Hobbs, and D. H. Fine, "Vapor pressure of explosives," J. Energ. Mater. 4, 447-472 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Albert, K. J.

K. J. Albert, M. L. Myrick, S. B. Brown, D. L. James, F. P. Milanovich, and D. R. Walt, "Field-deployable sniffer for 2,4-dinitrotoluene detection," Environ. Sci. Technol. 35, 3193-3200 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnold, J. T.

M. W. Todd, R. A. Provencal, T. G. Owano, B. A. Paldus, A. Kachanov, K. L. Vodopyanov, M. Hunter, S. L. Coy, J. I. Steinfeld, and J. T. Arnold, "Application of mid-infrared cavity ringdown spectroscopy to trace explosives vapor detection using a broadly tunable (6-8 μm) optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. B 75, 367-376 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bastiaans, G. J.

Bates, D. R.

D. R. Bates, "Rayleigh scattering by air," Planet. Space Sci. 32, 785-790 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Berden, G.

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, "Cavity ringdown spectroscopy: experimental schemes and applications," Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565-607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brown, S. B.

K. J. Albert, M. L. Myrick, S. B. Brown, D. L. James, F. P. Milanovich, and D. R. Walt, "Field-deployable sniffer for 2,4-dinitrotoluene detection," Environ. Sci. Technol. 35, 3193-3200 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bucholtz, A.

Bulovic, V.

A. Rose, Z. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, and V. Bulovic, "Sensitivity gains in chemosensing by lasing action in organic polymers," Nature 434, 876-879 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burkholder, J. B.

R. K. Talukdar, J. B. Burkholder, A. Schmoltner, J. M. Roberts, R. R. Wilson, and A. R. Ravishankara, "Investigation of the loss process for peroxyacetyl nitrate in the atmosphere: UV photolysis and reaction with OH," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 14163-14173 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

H.-B. Liu, Y. Chen, G. J. Bastiaans, and X.-C. Zhang, "Detection and identification of explosive RDX by THz diffuse reflection spectroscopy," Opt. Express 14, 415-423 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, H.-B. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X. C. Zhan, "THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene," Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357-361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Coggiola, M. J.

C. Mullen, A. Irwin, B. V. Pond, D. L. Huestis, M. J. Coggiola, and H. Oser, "Detection of explosives and explosive related compounds by single photon laser ionization time of flight mass spectrometry," Anal. Chem. 78, 3807-3814 (2006).

Conduit, C. P.

C. P. Conduit, "Ultraviolet and infrared spectra of some aromatic compounds," J. Chem. Soc. 1959, 3273-3277 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Coy, S. L.

M. W. Todd, R. A. Provencal, T. G. Owano, B. A. Paldus, A. Kachanov, K. L. Vodopyanov, M. Hunter, S. L. Coy, J. I. Steinfeld, and J. T. Arnold, "Application of mid-infrared cavity ringdown spectroscopy to trace explosives vapor detection using a broadly tunable (6-8 μm) optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. B 75, 367-376 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cragin, J. H.

T. F. Jenkins, D. C. Leggett, P. H. Miyares, M. E. Walsh, T. A. Ranney, J. H. Cragin, and V. George, "Chemical signatures of TNT-filled land mines," Talanta 54, 501-513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dagdigian, P. J.

A. Teslja, B. Nizamov, and P. J. Dagdigian, "The electronic spectrum of methyleneimine," J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 4433-4439 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D'Ascenzo, G.

D. Ferro, V. Piacente, R. Gigli, and G. D'Ascenzo, "Determination of the vapour pressure of o-, m-, and p-dinitrobenzene by the torsion-effusion method," J. Chem. Thermodyn. 8, 1137-1143 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Dekker, A. O.

W. A. Schroeder, P. E. Wilcox, K. N. Trueblood, and A. O. Dekker, "Ultraviolet and visible absorption spectra in ethyl alcohol. Data for certain nitric esters, nitramines, nitroalkylbenzenes, and derivatives of phenol, aniline, urea, carbamic acid, diphenylamine, carbazole, and triphenylamine," Anal. Chem. 22, 1740-1717 (1951).
[CrossRef]

DeLucia, F.

C. López-Moreno, S. Palanco, J. J. Laserna, F. DeLucia, Jr., A. W. Miziolek, R. A. Walters, and A. L. Whitehouse, "Test of a stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy sensor for the detection of explosive residues on solid surfaces," J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 21, 55-60 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Deng, Y.

Y. Chen, H.-B. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X. C. Zhan, "THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene," Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357-361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dionne, D. C.

D. C. Dionne, D. P. Rounbehler, E. K. Achter, J. R. Hobbs, and D. H. Fine, "Vapor pressure of explosives," J. Energ. Mater. 4, 447-472 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Dodson, C.

Y. Chen, H.-B. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X. C. Zhan, "THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene," Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357-361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ferro, D.

D. Ferro, V. Piacente, R. Gigli, and G. D'Ascenzo, "Determination of the vapour pressure of o-, m-, and p-dinitrobenzene by the torsion-effusion method," J. Chem. Thermodyn. 8, 1137-1143 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Field, R. W.

J. Janni, B. D. Gilbert, R. W. Field, and J. I. Steinfeld, "Infrared absorption spectra of explosive molecule vapors," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 53, 1375-1381 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fine, D. H.

D. C. Dionne, D. P. Rounbehler, E. K. Achter, J. R. Hobbs, and D. H. Fine, "Vapor pressure of explosives," J. Energ. Mater. 4, 447-472 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Fitch, M. J.

Y. Chen, H.-B. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X. C. Zhan, "THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene," Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357-361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

George, V.

T. F. Jenkins, D. C. Leggett, P. H. Miyares, M. E. Walsh, T. A. Ranney, J. H. Cragin, and V. George, "Chemical signatures of TNT-filled land mines," Talanta 54, 501-513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gigli, R.

D. Ferro, V. Piacente, R. Gigli, and G. D'Ascenzo, "Determination of the vapour pressure of o-, m-, and p-dinitrobenzene by the torsion-effusion method," J. Chem. Thermodyn. 8, 1137-1143 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Gilbert, B. D.

J. Janni, B. D. Gilbert, R. W. Field, and J. I. Steinfeld, "Infrared absorption spectra of explosive molecule vapors," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 53, 1375-1381 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hobbs, J. R.

D. C. Dionne, D. P. Rounbehler, E. K. Achter, J. R. Hobbs, and D. H. Fine, "Vapor pressure of explosives," J. Energ. Mater. 4, 447-472 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Huestis, D. L.

C. Mullen, A. Irwin, B. V. Pond, D. L. Huestis, M. J. Coggiola, and H. Oser, "Detection of explosives and explosive related compounds by single photon laser ionization time of flight mass spectrometry," Anal. Chem. 78, 3807-3814 (2006).

Hunter, M.

M. W. Todd, R. A. Provencal, T. G. Owano, B. A. Paldus, A. Kachanov, K. L. Vodopyanov, M. Hunter, S. L. Coy, J. I. Steinfeld, and J. T. Arnold, "Application of mid-infrared cavity ringdown spectroscopy to trace explosives vapor detection using a broadly tunable (6-8 μm) optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. B 75, 367-376 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Irwin, A.

C. Mullen, A. Irwin, B. V. Pond, D. L. Huestis, M. J. Coggiola, and H. Oser, "Detection of explosives and explosive related compounds by single photon laser ionization time of flight mass spectrometry," Anal. Chem. 78, 3807-3814 (2006).

James, D. L.

K. J. Albert, M. L. Myrick, S. B. Brown, D. L. James, F. P. Milanovich, and D. R. Walt, "Field-deployable sniffer for 2,4-dinitrotoluene detection," Environ. Sci. Technol. 35, 3193-3200 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jang, P.

Janni, J.

J. Janni, B. D. Gilbert, R. W. Field, and J. I. Steinfeld, "Infrared absorption spectra of explosive molecule vapors," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 53, 1375-1381 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Janni, J. B.

J. M. Sylvia, J. B. Janni, J. D. Klein, and K. M. Spencer, "Surface-enhanced Raman detection of 2,4-dnitrotoluene impurity vapor as a marker to locate landmines," Anal. Chem. 72, 5834-5840 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jenkins, T. F.

T. F. Jenkins, D. C. Leggett, P. H. Miyares, M. E. Walsh, T. A. Ranney, J. H. Cragin, and V. George, "Chemical signatures of TNT-filled land mines," Talanta 54, 501-513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kachanov, A.

M. W. Todd, R. A. Provencal, T. G. Owano, B. A. Paldus, A. Kachanov, K. L. Vodopyanov, M. Hunter, S. L. Coy, J. I. Steinfeld, and J. T. Arnold, "Application of mid-infrared cavity ringdown spectroscopy to trace explosives vapor detection using a broadly tunable (6-8 μm) optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. B 75, 367-376 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Klein, J. D.

J. M. Sylvia, J. B. Janni, J. D. Klein, and K. M. Spencer, "Surface-enhanced Raman detection of 2,4-dnitrotoluene impurity vapor as a marker to locate landmines," Anal. Chem. 72, 5834-5840 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laserna, J. J.

C. López-Moreno, S. Palanco, J. J. Laserna, F. DeLucia, Jr., A. W. Miziolek, R. A. Walters, and A. L. Whitehouse, "Test of a stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy sensor for the detection of explosive residues on solid surfaces," J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 21, 55-60 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leggett, D. C.

T. F. Jenkins, D. C. Leggett, P. H. Miyares, M. E. Walsh, T. A. Ranney, J. H. Cragin, and V. George, "Chemical signatures of TNT-filled land mines," Talanta 54, 501-513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.-B.

H.-B. Liu, Y. Chen, G. J. Bastiaans, and X.-C. Zhang, "Detection and identification of explosive RDX by THz diffuse reflection spectroscopy," Opt. Express 14, 415-423 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, H.-B. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X. C. Zhan, "THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene," Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357-361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

López-Moreno, C.

C. López-Moreno, S. Palanco, J. J. Laserna, F. DeLucia, Jr., A. W. Miziolek, R. A. Walters, and A. L. Whitehouse, "Test of a stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy sensor for the detection of explosive residues on solid surfaces," J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 21, 55-60 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Madigan, C. F.

A. Rose, Z. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, and V. Bulovic, "Sensitivity gains in chemosensing by lasing action in organic polymers," Nature 434, 876-879 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McNesby, K. L.

K. L. McNesby and R. A. Pesce-Rodriguez, "Applications of vibrationally spectroscopy in the study of explosives," in Handbook of Vibrational Spectroscopy, J.M.Chalmers and P.R.Griffiths, eds. (Wiley, 2002), pp. 1-17.

Meijer, G.

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, "Cavity ringdown spectroscopy: experimental schemes and applications," Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565-607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Milanovich, F. P.

K. J. Albert, M. L. Myrick, S. B. Brown, D. L. James, F. P. Milanovich, and D. R. Walt, "Field-deployable sniffer for 2,4-dinitrotoluene detection," Environ. Sci. Technol. 35, 3193-3200 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, T. S.

Miyares, P. H.

T. F. Jenkins, D. C. Leggett, P. H. Miyares, M. E. Walsh, T. A. Ranney, J. H. Cragin, and V. George, "Chemical signatures of TNT-filled land mines," Talanta 54, 501-513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Miziolek, A. W.

C. López-Moreno, S. Palanco, J. J. Laserna, F. DeLucia, Jr., A. W. Miziolek, R. A. Walters, and A. L. Whitehouse, "Test of a stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy sensor for the detection of explosive residues on solid surfaces," J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 21, 55-60 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Monts, D. L.

Moore, D. S.

D. S. Moore, "Instrumentation for trace detection of high explosives," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2499-2512 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mullen, C.

C. Mullen, A. Irwin, B. V. Pond, D. L. Huestis, M. J. Coggiola, and H. Oser, "Detection of explosives and explosive related compounds by single photon laser ionization time of flight mass spectrometry," Anal. Chem. 78, 3807-3814 (2006).

Myrick, M. L.

K. J. Albert, M. L. Myrick, S. B. Brown, D. L. James, F. P. Milanovich, and D. R. Walt, "Field-deployable sniffer for 2,4-dinitrotoluene detection," Environ. Sci. Technol. 35, 3193-3200 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naus, H.

Nizamov, B.

A. Teslja, B. Nizamov, and P. J. Dagdigian, "The electronic spectrum of methyleneimine," J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 4433-4439 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O'Keefe, A.

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, A. O'Keefe, and R. J. Saykally, "Cavity ringdown spectroscopy: History, development, and application to pulsed molecular beams," Chem. Rev. 97, 25-51 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orphal, J.

J. Orphal, "A critical review of the absorption cross sections of O3 and NO2 in the ultraviolet and visible," J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 157, 185-209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oser, H.

C. Mullen, A. Irwin, B. V. Pond, D. L. Huestis, M. J. Coggiola, and H. Oser, "Detection of explosives and explosive related compounds by single photon laser ionization time of flight mass spectrometry," Anal. Chem. 78, 3807-3814 (2006).

Osiander, R.

Y. Chen, H.-B. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X. C. Zhan, "THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene," Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357-361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Owano, T. G.

M. W. Todd, R. A. Provencal, T. G. Owano, B. A. Paldus, A. Kachanov, K. L. Vodopyanov, M. Hunter, S. L. Coy, J. I. Steinfeld, and J. T. Arnold, "Application of mid-infrared cavity ringdown spectroscopy to trace explosives vapor detection using a broadly tunable (6-8 μm) optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. B 75, 367-376 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Palanco, S.

C. López-Moreno, S. Palanco, J. J. Laserna, F. DeLucia, Jr., A. W. Miziolek, R. A. Walters, and A. L. Whitehouse, "Test of a stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy sensor for the detection of explosive residues on solid surfaces," J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 21, 55-60 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Paldus, B. A.

M. W. Todd, R. A. Provencal, T. G. Owano, B. A. Paldus, A. Kachanov, K. L. Vodopyanov, M. Hunter, S. L. Coy, J. I. Steinfeld, and J. T. Arnold, "Application of mid-infrared cavity ringdown spectroscopy to trace explosives vapor detection using a broadly tunable (6-8 μm) optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. B 75, 367-376 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Paul, J. B.

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, A. O'Keefe, and R. J. Saykally, "Cavity ringdown spectroscopy: History, development, and application to pulsed molecular beams," Chem. Rev. 97, 25-51 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peeters, R.

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, "Cavity ringdown spectroscopy: experimental schemes and applications," Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565-607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pella, P. A.

P. A. Pella, "Measurement of the vapor pressures of TNT, 2.4-DNT, 2.6-DNT, and EGDN," J. Chem. Thermodyn. 9, 301-305 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Pesce-Rodriguez, R. A.

K. L. McNesby and R. A. Pesce-Rodriguez, "Applications of vibrationally spectroscopy in the study of explosives," in Handbook of Vibrational Spectroscopy, J.M.Chalmers and P.R.Griffiths, eds. (Wiley, 2002), pp. 1-17.

Piacente, V.

D. Ferro, V. Piacente, R. Gigli, and G. D'Ascenzo, "Determination of the vapour pressure of o-, m-, and p-dinitrobenzene by the torsion-effusion method," J. Chem. Thermodyn. 8, 1137-1143 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Pond, B. V.

C. Mullen, A. Irwin, B. V. Pond, D. L. Huestis, M. J. Coggiola, and H. Oser, "Detection of explosives and explosive related compounds by single photon laser ionization time of flight mass spectrometry," Anal. Chem. 78, 3807-3814 (2006).

Provencal, R. A.

M. W. Todd, R. A. Provencal, T. G. Owano, B. A. Paldus, A. Kachanov, K. L. Vodopyanov, M. Hunter, S. L. Coy, J. I. Steinfeld, and J. T. Arnold, "Application of mid-infrared cavity ringdown spectroscopy to trace explosives vapor detection using a broadly tunable (6-8 μm) optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. B 75, 367-376 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ranney, T. A.

T. F. Jenkins, D. C. Leggett, P. H. Miyares, M. E. Walsh, T. A. Ranney, J. H. Cragin, and V. George, "Chemical signatures of TNT-filled land mines," Talanta 54, 501-513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ravishankara, A. R.

R. K. Talukdar, J. B. Burkholder, A. Schmoltner, J. M. Roberts, R. R. Wilson, and A. R. Ravishankara, "Investigation of the loss process for peroxyacetyl nitrate in the atmosphere: UV photolysis and reaction with OH," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 14163-14173 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rittfeldt, L.

L. Rittfeldt, "Determination of vapor pressure of low-volatility compounds using a method to obtain saturated vapor with coated capillary columns," Anal. Chem. 73, 2405-2411 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roberts, J. M.

R. K. Talukdar, J. B. Burkholder, A. Schmoltner, J. M. Roberts, R. R. Wilson, and A. R. Ravishankara, "Investigation of the loss process for peroxyacetyl nitrate in the atmosphere: UV photolysis and reaction with OH," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 14163-14173 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rose, A.

A. Rose, Z. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, and V. Bulovic, "Sensitivity gains in chemosensing by lasing action in organic polymers," Nature 434, 876-879 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rounbehler, D. P.

D. C. Dionne, D. P. Rounbehler, E. K. Achter, J. R. Hobbs, and D. H. Fine, "Vapor pressure of explosives," J. Energ. Mater. 4, 447-472 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Saykally, R. J.

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, A. O'Keefe, and R. J. Saykally, "Cavity ringdown spectroscopy: History, development, and application to pulsed molecular beams," Chem. Rev. 97, 25-51 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schauki, D.

Y. Chen, H.-B. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X. C. Zhan, "THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene," Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357-361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, J. J.

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, A. O'Keefe, and R. J. Saykally, "Cavity ringdown spectroscopy: History, development, and application to pulsed molecular beams," Chem. Rev. 97, 25-51 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmoltner, A.

R. K. Talukdar, J. B. Burkholder, A. Schmoltner, J. M. Roberts, R. R. Wilson, and A. R. Ravishankara, "Investigation of the loss process for peroxyacetyl nitrate in the atmosphere: UV photolysis and reaction with OH," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 14163-14173 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, W. A.

W. A. Schroeder, P. E. Wilcox, K. N. Trueblood, and A. O. Dekker, "Ultraviolet and visible absorption spectra in ethyl alcohol. Data for certain nitric esters, nitramines, nitroalkylbenzenes, and derivatives of phenol, aniline, urea, carbamic acid, diphenylamine, carbazole, and triphenylamine," Anal. Chem. 22, 1740-1717 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Shur, M.

Y. Chen, H.-B. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X. C. Zhan, "THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene," Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357-361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Singh, J. P.

Spencer, K. M.

J. M. Sylvia, J. B. Janni, J. D. Klein, and K. M. Spencer, "Surface-enhanced Raman detection of 2,4-dnitrotoluene impurity vapor as a marker to locate landmines," Anal. Chem. 72, 5834-5840 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spicer, J. B.

Y. Chen, H.-B. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X. C. Zhan, "THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene," Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357-361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Steinfeld, J. I.

M. W. Todd, R. A. Provencal, T. G. Owano, B. A. Paldus, A. Kachanov, K. L. Vodopyanov, M. Hunter, S. L. Coy, J. I. Steinfeld, and J. T. Arnold, "Application of mid-infrared cavity ringdown spectroscopy to trace explosives vapor detection using a broadly tunable (6-8 μm) optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. B 75, 367-376 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Steinfeld and J. Wormhoudt, "Explosives detection: a challenge for physical chemistry," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 49, 203-232 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Janni, B. D. Gilbert, R. W. Field, and J. I. Steinfeld, "Infrared absorption spectra of explosive molecule vapors," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 53, 1375-1381 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Swager, T. M.

A. Rose, Z. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, and V. Bulovic, "Sensitivity gains in chemosensing by lasing action in organic polymers," Nature 434, 876-879 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sylvia, J. M.

J. M. Sylvia, J. B. Janni, J. D. Klein, and K. M. Spencer, "Surface-enhanced Raman detection of 2,4-dnitrotoluene impurity vapor as a marker to locate landmines," Anal. Chem. 72, 5834-5840 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Talukdar, R. K.

R. K. Talukdar, J. B. Burkholder, A. Schmoltner, J. M. Roberts, R. R. Wilson, and A. R. Ravishankara, "Investigation of the loss process for peroxyacetyl nitrate in the atmosphere: UV photolysis and reaction with OH," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 14163-14173 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Teslja, A.

A. Teslja, B. Nizamov, and P. J. Dagdigian, "The electronic spectrum of methyleneimine," J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 4433-4439 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Todd, M. W.

M. W. Todd, R. A. Provencal, T. G. Owano, B. A. Paldus, A. Kachanov, K. L. Vodopyanov, M. Hunter, S. L. Coy, J. I. Steinfeld, and J. T. Arnold, "Application of mid-infrared cavity ringdown spectroscopy to trace explosives vapor detection using a broadly tunable (6-8 μm) optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. B 75, 367-376 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Trueblood, K. N.

W. A. Schroeder, P. E. Wilcox, K. N. Trueblood, and A. O. Dekker, "Ultraviolet and visible absorption spectra in ethyl alcohol. Data for certain nitric esters, nitramines, nitroalkylbenzenes, and derivatives of phenol, aniline, urea, carbamic acid, diphenylamine, carbazole, and triphenylamine," Anal. Chem. 22, 1740-1717 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Ubachs, W.

Usachev, A. D.

Vodopyanov, K. L.

M. W. Todd, R. A. Provencal, T. G. Owano, B. A. Paldus, A. Kachanov, K. L. Vodopyanov, M. Hunter, S. L. Coy, J. I. Steinfeld, and J. T. Arnold, "Application of mid-infrared cavity ringdown spectroscopy to trace explosives vapor detection using a broadly tunable (6-8 μm) optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. B 75, 367-376 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, M. E.

T. F. Jenkins, D. C. Leggett, P. H. Miyares, M. E. Walsh, T. A. Ranney, J. H. Cragin, and V. George, "Chemical signatures of TNT-filled land mines," Talanta 54, 501-513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Walt, D. R.

K. J. Albert, M. L. Myrick, S. B. Brown, D. L. James, F. P. Milanovich, and D. R. Walt, "Field-deployable sniffer for 2,4-dinitrotoluene detection," Environ. Sci. Technol. 35, 3193-3200 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walters, R. A.

C. López-Moreno, S. Palanco, J. J. Laserna, F. DeLucia, Jr., A. W. Miziolek, R. A. Walters, and A. L. Whitehouse, "Test of a stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy sensor for the detection of explosive residues on solid surfaces," J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 21, 55-60 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Warneck, P.

P. Warneck, Chemistry of the Natural Atmosphere, 2nd ed. (Academic, 2000).

Whitehouse, A. L.

C. López-Moreno, S. Palanco, J. J. Laserna, F. DeLucia, Jr., A. W. Miziolek, R. A. Walters, and A. L. Whitehouse, "Test of a stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy sensor for the detection of explosive residues on solid surfaces," J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 21, 55-60 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wilcox, P. E.

W. A. Schroeder, P. E. Wilcox, K. N. Trueblood, and A. O. Dekker, "Ultraviolet and visible absorption spectra in ethyl alcohol. Data for certain nitric esters, nitramines, nitroalkylbenzenes, and derivatives of phenol, aniline, urea, carbamic acid, diphenylamine, carbazole, and triphenylamine," Anal. Chem. 22, 1740-1717 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, R. R.

R. K. Talukdar, J. B. Burkholder, A. Schmoltner, J. M. Roberts, R. R. Wilson, and A. R. Ravishankara, "Investigation of the loss process for peroxyacetyl nitrate in the atmosphere: UV photolysis and reaction with OH," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 14163-14173 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wormhoudt, J.

J. I. Steinfeld and J. Wormhoudt, "Explosives detection: a challenge for physical chemistry," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 49, 203-232 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yueh, F.

Zhan, X. C.

Y. Chen, H.-B. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X. C. Zhan, "THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene," Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357-361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

Zhu, Z.

A. Rose, Z. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, and V. Bulovic, "Sensitivity gains in chemosensing by lasing action in organic polymers," Nature 434, 876-879 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (3)

J. M. Sylvia, J. B. Janni, J. D. Klein, and K. M. Spencer, "Surface-enhanced Raman detection of 2,4-dnitrotoluene impurity vapor as a marker to locate landmines," Anal. Chem. 72, 5834-5840 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Schroeder, P. E. Wilcox, K. N. Trueblood, and A. O. Dekker, "Ultraviolet and visible absorption spectra in ethyl alcohol. Data for certain nitric esters, nitramines, nitroalkylbenzenes, and derivatives of phenol, aniline, urea, carbamic acid, diphenylamine, carbazole, and triphenylamine," Anal. Chem. 22, 1740-1717 (1951).
[CrossRef]

L. Rittfeldt, "Determination of vapor pressure of low-volatility compounds using a method to obtain saturated vapor with coated capillary columns," Anal. Chem. 73, 2405-2411 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

J. I. Steinfeld and J. Wormhoudt, "Explosives detection: a challenge for physical chemistry," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 49, 203-232 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. W. Todd, R. A. Provencal, T. G. Owano, B. A. Paldus, A. Kachanov, K. L. Vodopyanov, M. Hunter, S. L. Coy, J. I. Steinfeld, and J. T. Arnold, "Application of mid-infrared cavity ringdown spectroscopy to trace explosives vapor detection using a broadly tunable (6-8 μm) optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. B 75, 367-376 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. (1)

T. Abe, "Ultraviolet absorption spectra of o-, m- and p-dinitrobenzene," Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 33, 220-222 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Chen, H.-B. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X. C. Zhan, "THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene," Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357-361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, A. O'Keefe, and R. J. Saykally, "Cavity ringdown spectroscopy: History, development, and application to pulsed molecular beams," Chem. Rev. 97, 25-51 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Environ. Sci. Technol. (1)

K. J. Albert, M. L. Myrick, S. B. Brown, D. L. James, F. P. Milanovich, and D. R. Walt, "Field-deployable sniffer for 2,4-dinitrotoluene detection," Environ. Sci. Technol. 35, 3193-3200 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, "Cavity ringdown spectroscopy: experimental schemes and applications," Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565-607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Anal. At. Spectrom. (1)

C. López-Moreno, S. Palanco, J. J. Laserna, F. DeLucia, Jr., A. W. Miziolek, R. A. Walters, and A. L. Whitehouse, "Test of a stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy sensor for the detection of explosive residues on solid surfaces," J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 21, 55-60 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Soc. (1)

C. P. Conduit, "Ultraviolet and infrared spectra of some aromatic compounds," J. Chem. Soc. 1959, 3273-3277 (1959).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Thermodyn. (2)

D. Ferro, V. Piacente, R. Gigli, and G. D'Ascenzo, "Determination of the vapour pressure of o-, m-, and p-dinitrobenzene by the torsion-effusion method," J. Chem. Thermodyn. 8, 1137-1143 (1976).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Pella, "Measurement of the vapor pressures of TNT, 2.4-DNT, 2.6-DNT, and EGDN," J. Chem. Thermodyn. 9, 301-305 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Energ. Mater. (1)

D. C. Dionne, D. P. Rounbehler, E. K. Achter, J. R. Hobbs, and D. H. Fine, "Vapor pressure of explosives," J. Energ. Mater. 4, 447-472 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

R. K. Talukdar, J. B. Burkholder, A. Schmoltner, J. M. Roberts, R. R. Wilson, and A. R. Ravishankara, "Investigation of the loss process for peroxyacetyl nitrate in the atmosphere: UV photolysis and reaction with OH," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 14163-14173 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Photochem. Photobiol. A (1)

J. Orphal, "A critical review of the absorption cross sections of O3 and NO2 in the ultraviolet and visible," J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 157, 185-209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. A (1)

A. Teslja, B. Nizamov, and P. J. Dagdigian, "The electronic spectrum of methyleneimine," J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 4433-4439 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

A. Rose, Z. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, and V. Bulovic, "Sensitivity gains in chemosensing by lasing action in organic polymers," Nature 434, 876-879 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Planet. Space Sci. (1)

D. R. Bates, "Rayleigh scattering by air," Planet. Space Sci. 32, 785-790 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

D. S. Moore, "Instrumentation for trace detection of high explosives," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2499-2512 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta Part A (1)

J. Janni, B. D. Gilbert, R. W. Field, and J. I. Steinfeld, "Infrared absorption spectra of explosive molecule vapors," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 53, 1375-1381 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Talanta (1)

T. F. Jenkins, D. C. Leggett, P. H. Miyares, M. E. Walsh, T. A. Ranney, J. H. Cragin, and V. George, "Chemical signatures of TNT-filled land mines," Talanta 54, 501-513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

K. L. McNesby and R. A. Pesce-Rodriguez, "Applications of vibrationally spectroscopy in the study of explosives," in Handbook of Vibrational Spectroscopy, J.M.Chalmers and P.R.Griffiths, eds. (Wiley, 2002), pp. 1-17.

C. Mullen, A. Irwin, B. V. Pond, D. L. Huestis, M. J. Coggiola, and H. Oser, "Detection of explosives and explosive related compounds by single photon laser ionization time of flight mass spectrometry," Anal. Chem. 78, 3807-3814 (2006).

P. Warneck, Chemistry of the Natural Atmosphere, 2nd ed. (Academic, 2000).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Equilibrium vapor number densities of the ERCs (data taken from Refs. [7, 8, 9]).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic of the experimental apparatus. (b) The gas flow and sample handling system for CRDS measurements at reduced pressure. F denotes flow controllers, and PMT denotes the photomultiplier tube. The shaded area was heated to 50 ° C to avoid adsorption of the samples on the walls of the tubing and cell. (c) Arrangement for CRDS measurements at atmospheric pressure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absorption spectra for solutions of the ERCs dissolved in methanol. The spectra for the DNBs and DNTs were recorded in our laboratory, and the spectrum of TNT (solution in ethanol) was taken from Ref. [21].

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of vapor-phase (solid curves, determined by CRDS, sample temperatures 22 ° C ) and solution-phase (dashed curves) absorption cross sections of (a) 2,4-DNT and (b) 2.6-DNT.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured concentrations of (a) 2,4-DNT at 21 ° C and (b) 2,6-DNT at 18 ° C as a function of the flow through the bypass flow controller. The pressure in the cell was 40 Torr at the highest flow rate. The insets (plotted in the same units as the main graph) show expanded plots for high flow rates. Concentrations were computed from the absorbances measured by CRDS and using vapor-phase absorption cross sections. Fractional uncertainties in the derived concentrations are 0.7 % 1 % ; error bars are smaller than the solid circles used to indicate each point.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured concentrations of the DNBs (sample temperatures indicated) as a function of the flow through the bypass flow controller. The inset (plotted in the same units as the main graph) shows an expanded plot for the higher flow rates. Concentrations were computed from the absorbances measured by CRDS and using solution-phase absorption cross sections. Fractional uncertainties in the derived concentrations are 0.7 % 1 % ; error bars are smaller than the solid circles used to indicate each point.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Absorption Cross Sections of the DNTs at 248 nm

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparison of Absorption Cross Sections at 242 nm of Vapors and Solutions of the DNBs

Equations (5)

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τ = L / [ c { ( 1 R ) + σ abs 0 L n ( l ) d l } ] ,
σ abs 0 L n ( l ) d l = ( L / c ) [ τ - 1 τ 0 1 ] .
α min ( f τ / c τ ) ( L / l eff ) ,
R = ( σ abs n l eff ) 1 ( σ abs n l eff ) 2 = l 1 l eff l 2 l eff .
τ = L / { c [ ( 1 R ) + n ERC σ abs l eff + n buff σ Ray L ] } .

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