Abstract

We demonstrate that direct sequence optical code- division multiple-access (DS-OCDMA) encoders and decoders using sampled fiber Bragg gratings (S-FBGs) behave as multipath interferometers. In that case, chip pulses of the prime sequence codes generated by spreading in time-coherent data pulses can result from multiple reflections in the interferometers that can superimpose within a chip time duration. We show that the autocorrelation function has to be considered as the sum of complex amplitudes of the combined chip as the laser source coherence time is much greater than the integration time of the photodetector. To reduce the sensitivity of the DS-OCDMA system to the coherence time of the laser source, we analyze the use of sparse and nonperiodic quadratic congruence and extended quadratic congruence codes.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. A. Salehi, "Code division multiple-access techniques in optical fiber networks. I. Fundamental principles," IEEE Trans. Commun. 37, 824-833 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Prucnal, M. Santoro, and T. Fan, "Spread spectrum fiber-optic local area network using optical processing," J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 547-554 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. A. Salehi, A. M. Weiner, and J. P. Heritage, "Coherent ultrashort light pulse code division multiple-access communication systems," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 478-491 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. Wada and K. Kitayama, "A 10 Gb/s optical code division multiplexing using 8-chip optical bipolar code and coherent detection," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1758-1765 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. E. Town, K. Chan, and G. Yoffe, "Design and performance of high-speed optical pulse-code generators using optical fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron . 5, 1325-1331 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Kavehrad and D. Zaccarin, "Optical code-division-multiplexed systems based on spectral encoding of noncoherent sources," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 534-545 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. A. Hassan, J. E. Hershey, and N. A. Riza, "Spatial optical OCDMA," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 13, 609-613 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. A. Salehi and E. G. Paek, "Holographic CDMA," IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 2434-2438 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. E. McGeehan, S. M. R. M. Nezam, P. Saghari, A. E. Willner, R. Omrani, and P. V. Kumar, "Experimental demonstration of OCDMA transmission using a three-dimensional (time-wavelength-polarization) codeset," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3282-3289 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Keshavarzian and J. A. Salehi, "Optical orthogonal code: acquisition in fiber optic CDMA system via the simple serial search method," IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 473-483 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Chang, R. Fuji-Hara, and Y. Miao, "Combinatorial constructions of optimal optical orthogonal codes with weight 4," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory. 49, 1283-1292 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. G. Zhang and G. Picchi, "Tunable prime code encoder/decoder for all optical CDMA applications," Electron. Lett. 29, 1211-1212 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G.-C. Yang and W. C. Kwong, Prime Codes with Applications to CDMA Optical and Wireless Networks, Mobile Communications Series (Artech House, 2002).
  14. L. R. Chen and P. W. E. Smith, "Demonstration of incoherent wavelength-encoding/time-spreading optical CDMA using chirped moiré gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1281-1283 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. C. Teh, P. Petropoulos, M. Ibsen, and D. J. Richardson, "A comparative study of the performance of seven- and 63-chip optical code-division multiple-access encoders and decoders based on superstructured fiber Bragg gratings," J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1352-1365 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. J. Eom, S.-J. Kim, T.-Y. Kim, C.-S. Park, U.-C. Paek, and B. H. Lee, "Realization of true-time-delay using cascaded long-period fiber gratings: theory and applications to the optical pulse multiplication and temporal encoder/decoder," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 597-608 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Grunnet-Jepsen, A. E. Johnson, E. S. Maniloff, T. W. Mossberg, M. J. Munroe, and J. N. Sweetser, "Fiber Bragg grating based spectral encoder/decoder for lightwave CDMA," Electron. Lett. 35, 1096-1097 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Zahedi and J. A. Salehi, "Analytical comparison of various fiber-optic CDMA receiver structures," J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1718-1727 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  19. X. Wang and K. Kitayama, "Analysis of beat noise in coherent and incoherent time-spreading OCDMA," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2226-2235 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  20. B. Ni and J. S. Lehnert, "Performance of an incoherent temporal spreading OCDMA system with broadband light sources," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2206-2214 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  21. L. Tancevski and L. A. Rush, "Impact of beat noise on the performance of 2D optical CDMA systems," IEEE Commun. Lett. 4, 264-266 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Rochette and L. A. Rusch, "Spectral efficiency of OCDMA systems with coherent pulsed sources," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 1033-1038 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. V. Maric, "New family of algebraically design optical orthogonal codes for use in CDMA fiber optic networks," Electron. Lett. 29, 538-539 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  24. S. V. Maric, Z. I. Kostic, and E. L. Titlebaum, "A new family of optical code sequences for use in spread-spectrum fiber optic local area networks," IEEE Trans. Commun. 41, 1217-1221 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  25. Z. Wei, H. M. H. Shalaby, and H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Modified quadratic congruence codes for fiber Bragg-grating-based spectral-amplitude-coding optical CDMA systems," J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1274-1281 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  26. D. Z. Anderson, V. Mizuehi, T. Erdogan, and A. E. White, "Production of in-fiber gratings using a diffractive optical element," Electron. Lett. 29, 566-568 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  27. I. Fsaifes, C. Lepers, A.-F. Obaton, and P. Gallion, "DS-OCDMA encoder/decoder performance analysis using optical low coherence reflectometry," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3121-3128 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  28. A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  29. H. Fathallah and L. A. Rusch, "Robust optical FFH-CDMA communications: coding in place of frequency and temperature controls," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1284-1293 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  30. I. Fsaifes, C. Lepers, M. Lourdiane, R. Gabet, and P. Gallion, "Pulsed laser source coherence time impairments in a direct detection DS-OCDMA system," Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2006), paper CWH6.

2006

2005

2004

2003

Y. Chang, R. Fuji-Hara, and Y. Miao, "Combinatorial constructions of optimal optical orthogonal codes with weight 4," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory. 49, 1283-1292 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

A. Keshavarzian and J. A. Salehi, "Optical orthogonal code: acquisition in fiber optic CDMA system via the simple serial search method," IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 473-483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

2000

L. Tancevski and L. A. Rush, "Impact of beat noise on the performance of 2D optical CDMA systems," IEEE Commun. Lett. 4, 264-266 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Zahedi and J. A. Salehi, "Analytical comparison of various fiber-optic CDMA receiver structures," J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1718-1727 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Chen and P. W. E. Smith, "Demonstration of incoherent wavelength-encoding/time-spreading optical CDMA using chirped moiré gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1281-1283 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, A. E. Johnson, E. S. Maniloff, T. W. Mossberg, M. J. Munroe, and J. N. Sweetser, "Fiber Bragg grating based spectral encoder/decoder for lightwave CDMA," Electron. Lett. 35, 1096-1097 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Wada and K. Kitayama, "A 10 Gb/s optical code division multiplexing using 8-chip optical bipolar code and coherent detection," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1758-1765 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Town, K. Chan, and G. Yoffe, "Design and performance of high-speed optical pulse-code generators using optical fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron . 5, 1325-1331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Fathallah and L. A. Rusch, "Robust optical FFH-CDMA communications: coding in place of frequency and temperature controls," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1284-1293 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

M. Kavehrad and D. Zaccarin, "Optical code-division-multiplexed systems based on spectral encoding of noncoherent sources," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 534-545 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Hassan, J. E. Hershey, and N. A. Riza, "Spatial optical OCDMA," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 13, 609-613 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Salehi and E. G. Paek, "Holographic CDMA," IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 2434-2438 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

J. G. Zhang and G. Picchi, "Tunable prime code encoder/decoder for all optical CDMA applications," Electron. Lett. 29, 1211-1212 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Anderson, V. Mizuehi, T. Erdogan, and A. E. White, "Production of in-fiber gratings using a diffractive optical element," Electron. Lett. 29, 566-568 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Maric, "New family of algebraically design optical orthogonal codes for use in CDMA fiber optic networks," Electron. Lett. 29, 538-539 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Maric, Z. I. Kostic, and E. L. Titlebaum, "A new family of optical code sequences for use in spread-spectrum fiber optic local area networks," IEEE Trans. Commun. 41, 1217-1221 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990

J. A. Salehi, A. M. Weiner, and J. P. Heritage, "Coherent ultrashort light pulse code division multiple-access communication systems," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 478-491 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

J. A. Salehi, "Code division multiple-access techniques in optical fiber networks. I. Fundamental principles," IEEE Trans. Commun. 37, 824-833 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986

P. Prucnal, M. Santoro, and T. Fan, "Spread spectrum fiber-optic local area network using optical processing," J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 547-554 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, D. Z.

D. Z. Anderson, V. Mizuehi, T. Erdogan, and A. E. White, "Production of in-fiber gratings using a diffractive optical element," Electron. Lett. 29, 566-568 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Askins, C. G.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chan, K.

G. E. Town, K. Chan, and G. Yoffe, "Design and performance of high-speed optical pulse-code generators using optical fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron . 5, 1325-1331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y.

Y. Chang, R. Fuji-Hara, and Y. Miao, "Combinatorial constructions of optimal optical orthogonal codes with weight 4," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory. 49, 1283-1292 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. R.

L. R. Chen and P. W. E. Smith, "Demonstration of incoherent wavelength-encoding/time-spreading optical CDMA using chirped moiré gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1281-1283 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Davis, M. A.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Eom, T. J.

Erdogan, T.

D. Z. Anderson, V. Mizuehi, T. Erdogan, and A. E. White, "Production of in-fiber gratings using a diffractive optical element," Electron. Lett. 29, 566-568 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fan, T.

P. Prucnal, M. Santoro, and T. Fan, "Spread spectrum fiber-optic local area network using optical processing," J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 547-554 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Fathallah, H.

Friebele, E. J.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fsaifes, I.

I. Fsaifes, C. Lepers, A.-F. Obaton, and P. Gallion, "DS-OCDMA encoder/decoder performance analysis using optical low coherence reflectometry," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3121-3128 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Fsaifes, C. Lepers, M. Lourdiane, R. Gabet, and P. Gallion, "Pulsed laser source coherence time impairments in a direct detection DS-OCDMA system," Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2006), paper CWH6.

Fuji-Hara, R.

Y. Chang, R. Fuji-Hara, and Y. Miao, "Combinatorial constructions of optimal optical orthogonal codes with weight 4," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory. 49, 1283-1292 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gabet, R.

I. Fsaifes, C. Lepers, M. Lourdiane, R. Gabet, and P. Gallion, "Pulsed laser source coherence time impairments in a direct detection DS-OCDMA system," Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2006), paper CWH6.

Gallion, P.

I. Fsaifes, C. Lepers, A.-F. Obaton, and P. Gallion, "DS-OCDMA encoder/decoder performance analysis using optical low coherence reflectometry," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3121-3128 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Fsaifes, C. Lepers, M. Lourdiane, R. Gabet, and P. Gallion, "Pulsed laser source coherence time impairments in a direct detection DS-OCDMA system," Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2006), paper CWH6.

Ghafouri-Shiraz, H.

Grunnet-Jepsen, A.

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, A. E. Johnson, E. S. Maniloff, T. W. Mossberg, M. J. Munroe, and J. N. Sweetser, "Fiber Bragg grating based spectral encoder/decoder for lightwave CDMA," Electron. Lett. 35, 1096-1097 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hassan, A. A.

A. A. Hassan, J. E. Hershey, and N. A. Riza, "Spatial optical OCDMA," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 13, 609-613 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Heritage, J. P.

J. A. Salehi, A. M. Weiner, and J. P. Heritage, "Coherent ultrashort light pulse code division multiple-access communication systems," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 478-491 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hershey, J. E.

A. A. Hassan, J. E. Hershey, and N. A. Riza, "Spatial optical OCDMA," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 13, 609-613 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ibsen, M.

Johnson, A. E.

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, A. E. Johnson, E. S. Maniloff, T. W. Mossberg, M. J. Munroe, and J. N. Sweetser, "Fiber Bragg grating based spectral encoder/decoder for lightwave CDMA," Electron. Lett. 35, 1096-1097 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kavehrad, M.

M. Kavehrad and D. Zaccarin, "Optical code-division-multiplexed systems based on spectral encoding of noncoherent sources," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 534-545 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A. D.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Keshavarzian, A.

A. Keshavarzian and J. A. Salehi, "Optical orthogonal code: acquisition in fiber optic CDMA system via the simple serial search method," IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 473-483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-J.

Kim, T.-Y.

Kitayama, K.

Koo, K. P.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kostic, Z. I.

S. V. Maric, Z. I. Kostic, and E. L. Titlebaum, "A new family of optical code sequences for use in spread-spectrum fiber optic local area networks," IEEE Trans. Commun. 41, 1217-1221 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, P. V.

Kwong, W. C.

G.-C. Yang and W. C. Kwong, Prime Codes with Applications to CDMA Optical and Wireless Networks, Mobile Communications Series (Artech House, 2002).

LeBlanc, M.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. H.

Lehnert, J. S.

Lepers, C.

I. Fsaifes, C. Lepers, A.-F. Obaton, and P. Gallion, "DS-OCDMA encoder/decoder performance analysis using optical low coherence reflectometry," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3121-3128 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Fsaifes, C. Lepers, M. Lourdiane, R. Gabet, and P. Gallion, "Pulsed laser source coherence time impairments in a direct detection DS-OCDMA system," Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2006), paper CWH6.

Lourdiane, M.

I. Fsaifes, C. Lepers, M. Lourdiane, R. Gabet, and P. Gallion, "Pulsed laser source coherence time impairments in a direct detection DS-OCDMA system," Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2006), paper CWH6.

Maniloff, E. S.

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, A. E. Johnson, E. S. Maniloff, T. W. Mossberg, M. J. Munroe, and J. N. Sweetser, "Fiber Bragg grating based spectral encoder/decoder for lightwave CDMA," Electron. Lett. 35, 1096-1097 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Maric, S. V.

S. V. Maric, "New family of algebraically design optical orthogonal codes for use in CDMA fiber optic networks," Electron. Lett. 29, 538-539 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Maric, Z. I. Kostic, and E. L. Titlebaum, "A new family of optical code sequences for use in spread-spectrum fiber optic local area networks," IEEE Trans. Commun. 41, 1217-1221 (1993).
[CrossRef]

McGeehan, J. E.

Miao, Y.

Y. Chang, R. Fuji-Hara, and Y. Miao, "Combinatorial constructions of optimal optical orthogonal codes with weight 4," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory. 49, 1283-1292 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mizuehi, V.

D. Z. Anderson, V. Mizuehi, T. Erdogan, and A. E. White, "Production of in-fiber gratings using a diffractive optical element," Electron. Lett. 29, 566-568 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mossberg, T. W.

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, A. E. Johnson, E. S. Maniloff, T. W. Mossberg, M. J. Munroe, and J. N. Sweetser, "Fiber Bragg grating based spectral encoder/decoder for lightwave CDMA," Electron. Lett. 35, 1096-1097 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Munroe, M. J.

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, A. E. Johnson, E. S. Maniloff, T. W. Mossberg, M. J. Munroe, and J. N. Sweetser, "Fiber Bragg grating based spectral encoder/decoder for lightwave CDMA," Electron. Lett. 35, 1096-1097 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nezam, S. M. R. M.

Ni, B.

Obaton, A.-F.

Omrani, R.

Paek, E. G.

J. A. Salehi and E. G. Paek, "Holographic CDMA," IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 2434-2438 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Paek, U.-C.

Park, C.-S.

Patrick, H. J.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Petropoulos, P.

Picchi, G.

J. G. Zhang and G. Picchi, "Tunable prime code encoder/decoder for all optical CDMA applications," Electron. Lett. 29, 1211-1212 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Prucnal, P.

P. Prucnal, M. Santoro, and T. Fan, "Spread spectrum fiber-optic local area network using optical processing," J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 547-554 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Putnam, M. A.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

Riza, N. A.

A. A. Hassan, J. E. Hershey, and N. A. Riza, "Spatial optical OCDMA," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 13, 609-613 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rochette, M.

Rusch, L. A.

Rush, L. A.

L. Tancevski and L. A. Rush, "Impact of beat noise on the performance of 2D optical CDMA systems," IEEE Commun. Lett. 4, 264-266 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Saghari, P.

Salehi, J. A.

A. Keshavarzian and J. A. Salehi, "Optical orthogonal code: acquisition in fiber optic CDMA system via the simple serial search method," IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 473-483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Zahedi and J. A. Salehi, "Analytical comparison of various fiber-optic CDMA receiver structures," J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1718-1727 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Salehi and E. G. Paek, "Holographic CDMA," IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 2434-2438 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Salehi, A. M. Weiner, and J. P. Heritage, "Coherent ultrashort light pulse code division multiple-access communication systems," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 478-491 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Salehi, "Code division multiple-access techniques in optical fiber networks. I. Fundamental principles," IEEE Trans. Commun. 37, 824-833 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Santoro, M.

P. Prucnal, M. Santoro, and T. Fan, "Spread spectrum fiber-optic local area network using optical processing," J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 547-554 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Shalaby, H. M. H.

Smith, P. W. E.

L. R. Chen and P. W. E. Smith, "Demonstration of incoherent wavelength-encoding/time-spreading optical CDMA using chirped moiré gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1281-1283 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sweetser, J. N.

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, A. E. Johnson, E. S. Maniloff, T. W. Mossberg, M. J. Munroe, and J. N. Sweetser, "Fiber Bragg grating based spectral encoder/decoder for lightwave CDMA," Electron. Lett. 35, 1096-1097 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tancevski, L.

L. Tancevski and L. A. Rush, "Impact of beat noise on the performance of 2D optical CDMA systems," IEEE Commun. Lett. 4, 264-266 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Teh, P. C.

Titlebaum, E. L.

S. V. Maric, Z. I. Kostic, and E. L. Titlebaum, "A new family of optical code sequences for use in spread-spectrum fiber optic local area networks," IEEE Trans. Commun. 41, 1217-1221 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Town, G. E.

G. E. Town, K. Chan, and G. Yoffe, "Design and performance of high-speed optical pulse-code generators using optical fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron . 5, 1325-1331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wada, N.

Wang, X.

Wei, Z.

Weiner, A. M.

J. A. Salehi, A. M. Weiner, and J. P. Heritage, "Coherent ultrashort light pulse code division multiple-access communication systems," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 478-491 (1990).
[CrossRef]

White, A. E.

D. Z. Anderson, V. Mizuehi, T. Erdogan, and A. E. White, "Production of in-fiber gratings using a diffractive optical element," Electron. Lett. 29, 566-568 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Willner, A. E.

Yang, G.-C.

G.-C. Yang and W. C. Kwong, Prime Codes with Applications to CDMA Optical and Wireless Networks, Mobile Communications Series (Artech House, 2002).

Yoffe, G.

G. E. Town, K. Chan, and G. Yoffe, "Design and performance of high-speed optical pulse-code generators using optical fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron . 5, 1325-1331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zaccarin, D.

M. Kavehrad and D. Zaccarin, "Optical code-division-multiplexed systems based on spectral encoding of noncoherent sources," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 534-545 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zahedi, S.

Zhang, J. G.

J. G. Zhang and G. Picchi, "Tunable prime code encoder/decoder for all optical CDMA applications," Electron. Lett. 29, 1211-1212 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

J. G. Zhang and G. Picchi, "Tunable prime code encoder/decoder for all optical CDMA applications," Electron. Lett. 29, 1211-1212 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

S-FBG design for encoding–decoding of user data bits.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental time response of a S-FBG 1 encoder.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Generation mechanism of the code sequence.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Predicted (dotted line) and experimental (solid curve) autocorrelation functions obtained with a matched decoder, i.e., C 1 C 1 .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Construction mechanism of the autocorrelation function.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Autocorrelation functions of PS, QC, and EQC codes, respectively, with p = 5 .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Cross-correlation functions of PS, QC, and EQC codes, respectively, with p = 7 .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Code generation and autocorrelation function reconstruction mechanisms for nonperiodic QC code ( p = 3 ) .

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Temporal response and autocorrelation function simulations for QC code (100000001000001000101) when p = 5 using FBGs.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Temporal response and autocorrelation function simulations for EQC code (100000000000010000001000000000010000100000000) when p = 5 using FBGs.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of PS, QC, and EQC Codes

Tables Icon

Table 2 FBG Specifications for QC and EQC Codes

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

A C m ( s ) = i = 0 L 1 C m ( i ) C m ( i s ) { = ω f o r s = 0 λ a f o r 1 s < L ,
C C m , n ( s ) = i = 0 L 1 C m ( i ) C n ( i s ) λ c for   0 s < L ,
P 1 = R 1 P ,
P 2 = ( 1 R 1 ) 2 R 2 P ,
P 3 = ( 1 R 1 ) 2 ( 1 R 2 ) 2 R 3 P .
P 3 = P 3 + P 3 + 2 P 3 P 3  cos ( Δ Φ ) ,
P 3 = ( 1 R 1 ) 2 R 1 R 2 2 P .
P 3 max = P 3 + P 3 + 2 P 3 P 3
P 3 min = P 3 + P 3 2 P 3 P 3 .
P 1 = P 2 = P 3 = P 4 = P 5 ,

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