Abstract

Barium gallogermanate (BGG) glasses are currently being explored as a viable low cost material for numerous U.S. defense and commercial visible-infrared window applications. These glasses are transparent from 0.4μm to beyond 5.0μm and can be easily made in large optics and complex shapes with high index homogeneity. For high-energy laser (HEL) applications, knowledge of the thermo-optic coefficient (dn/dT) of the window material is important in determining the optical path distortion. The dn/dT measurements were made on BGG glass at 633 and 3390  nm and compared with the values for multispectral ZnS. The dn∕dT for BGG glass was 15 the value for multispectral ZnS, giving BGG glass a clear advantage for HEL applications.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
  2. P. L. Higby, I. D. Aggarwal, and E. J. Friebele, "Low loss glass and optical fibers therefrom," U.S. patent 5,305,414 (19 April 1994).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2006

2003

S. S. Bayya, G. D. Chin, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, "Vis-IR transmitting BGG glass windows," Proc. SPIE 5078, 208-215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

D. E. Zelmon, S. S. Bayya, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, "Dispersion of barium gallogermanate glass," Appl. Opt. 41, 1366-1367 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Bayya, J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. A. Wojcik, "Infrared transparent germanate glass-ceramics," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 3114-3116 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997

S. S. Bayya, B. B. Harbison, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, "BaO-Ga2-O3-GeO2 glasses with enhanced properties," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 212, 198-207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994

J. M. Jewell, L. E. Busse, K. Crahan, B. B. Harbison, and I. D. Aggarwal, "Optical properties of BaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 glasses for fiber and bulk optical applications," Proc. SPIE 2287, 154-163 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Jewell, P. L. Higby, and I. D. Aggarwal, "Properties of BaO-R2O3-Ga2O3-GeO2 (R = Y, Al, La, and Gd) glasses," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77, 697-700 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

P. L. Higby and I. D. Aggarwal, "Properties of barium gallium germanate glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 163, 303-308 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

P. L. Higby, C. I. Merzbacher, I. D. Aggarwal, and E. J. Friebele, "Gallogermanate glasses as near-IR optical materials," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 244, 115-120 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1977

1974

Appl. Opt.

J. Am. Ceram. Soc.

S. S. Bayya, J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. A. Wojcik, "Infrared transparent germanate glass-ceramics," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 3114-3116 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Jewell, P. L. Higby, and I. D. Aggarwal, "Properties of BaO-R2O3-Ga2O3-GeO2 (R = Y, Al, La, and Gd) glasses," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77, 697-700 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

S. S. Bayya, B. B. Harbison, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, "BaO-Ga2-O3-GeO2 glasses with enhanced properties," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 212, 198-207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Higby and I. D. Aggarwal, "Properties of barium gallium germanate glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 163, 303-308 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.

P. L. Higby, C. I. Merzbacher, I. D. Aggarwal, and E. J. Friebele, "Gallogermanate glasses as near-IR optical materials," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 244, 115-120 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Proc. SPIE

S. S. Bayya, G. D. Chin, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, "Vis-IR transmitting BGG glass windows," Proc. SPIE 5078, 208-215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Jewell, L. E. Busse, K. Crahan, B. B. Harbison, and I. D. Aggarwal, "Optical properties of BaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 glasses for fiber and bulk optical applications," Proc. SPIE 2287, 154-163 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other

P. L. Higby, I. D. Aggarwal, and E. J. Friebele, "Low loss glass and optical fibers therefrom," U.S. patent 5,305,414 (19 April 1994).

J. M. Jewell, "Alkaline earth gallogermanate glasses," in Rare Elements in Glasses, J. E. Shelby, ed. (Trans Tech, 1994), pp. 317-343.

J. M. Jewell, B. B. Harbison, I. D. Aggarwal, and S. S. Bayya, "Germanate glass ceramic," U.S. patent 5,486,495 (23 January 1996).

S. S. Bayya, B. B. Harbison, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, "IR transmitting rare earth gallogermanate glass-ceramics," U.S. patent 5,786,287 (28 July 1998).

CLEARTRAN data sheet, Rohm and Haas Advanced Materials.

Multi-spectral ZnS product data sheet, Crystran Ltd., 1 Broom Road Business Park, Poole Dorset BH12 4PA UK.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Visible-infrared transmission of BGG glass (not corrected for Fresnel reflections).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the d n / d T measurement setup.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical fringe pattern formed by interference of 3390   nm laser radiation for BGG glass as a function of temperature. The line indicates the temperature difference needed to produce a change in OPD corresponding to four fringes.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 CTE and Refractive Index ( n ) of BGG Glass Samples

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Table 2 d n ∕d T for BGG Glass Sample Compared with Multi-Spectral ZnS

Equations (1)

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d n / d T = [ λ / ( 2 L Δ T ) ] n α ,

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