Abstract

A method for increasing the output energy from newly developed passively Q-switched Er:glass eyesafe lasers is presented. The increase of energy is achieved by incorporating binary phase elements inside the laser cavities. Experimental results reveal that the output energies can be increased by more than a factor of two. Moreover, by manipulating the output phase with the binary phase elements, the peak energy density in the far field is increased by more than a factor of 4.5.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Brumer, M. Sirota, A. Kigel, A. Sashchiuk, E. Galun, Z. Burshtein, and E. Lifshitz, "Nanocrystals of PbSe core, PbSe/PbS, and PbSe/PbSexS1-x core/shell as saturable absorbers in passively Q-switched near-infrared lasers," Appl. Opt. 45, 7488-7497 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Birnbaum, M. B. Camargo, S. Lee, and F. Unlu, "Co2+ZnSe saturable absorber Q-switch for the 1.54 µm Er3+:Yb3+:Glass laser," OSA TOPS 10, 148-151 (1997).
  3. R. D. Stultz, M. B. Camargo, and M. Birnbaum, "Passive Q-switch at 1.54 µm using divalent uranium ions in calcium flouride," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 2959-2961 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. B. Camargo, R. D. Stultz, M. Birnbaum, and M. Kokta, "Co2+YSGG saturable absorber Q switch for infrared erbium lasers," Opt. Lett. 20, 339-341 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. D. Stultz, M. B. Camargo, and M. Birnbaum, "Q switch saturable absorber materials for solid state lasers," Proc. SPIE 2115, 31-37 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. V. Volk, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, O. S. Dymshits, A. V. Shashkin, A. A. Zhilin, U. Kang, and K. H. Lee, "Influence of reducing-oxidizing conditions on the optical properties of Co2+-doped magnesium aluminosilicate glass ceramics and their use as an effective saturable absorber Q-switch," Appl. Opt. 43, 6011-6015 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. M. Malyarevich, I. A. Denisov, K. V. Yumashev, O. S. Dymshits, A. A. Zhilin, and U. Kang, "Cobalt-doped glass ceramic as a saturable absorber Q-switch for erbium:glass lasers," Appl. Opt. 40, 4322-4325 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. V. Akulinichev, I. V. Kurnin, and E. G. Kurochkina, "Eyesafe lidar by the solid state Er:glass laser," Proc. SPIE 5478, 291-297 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Wu, M. J. Myers, J. D. Myers, and S. J. Hamlin, "Miniature and high repetition rate eyesafe Q-switched Er:glass transmitter for radar applications," Proc. SPIE 2748, 378-384 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Sirota, E. Galun, V. Krupkin, A. Glushko, A. Kigel, M. Brumer, A. Sashchiuk, L. Amirav, and E. Lifshitz, "IV-VI semiconductor nanocrystals for passive Q-switch in IR," Proc. SPIE 5510, 9-16 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. R. Sooy, "The natural selection of modes in a passively Q-switched laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 36-37 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Chandonnet, M. Piche, and N. McCarthy, "Beam narrowing by saturable absorber in a Nd:YAG laser," Opt. Commun. 75, 123-128 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. A. Ishaaya, N. Davidson, G. Machavariani, E. Hasman, and A. A. Friesem, "Efficient selection of high order Laguerre Gaussian modes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 74-82 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Oron, Y. Danziger, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesem, and E. Hasman, "Discontinuous phase elements for transverse mode selection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1373 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. A. Ishaaya, N. Davidson, and A. A. Friesem, "Very high order pure Laguerre Gaussian mode selection in a passively Q-switched Nd:YAG," Opt. Express 13, 4952-4962 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. R. Wu, T. Chen, J. D. Myers, M. J. Myers, and C. R. Hardy, "Multi-pulses behavior in a erbium glass laser Q-Switched by cobalt spinal," Proc. SPIE 5086, 140 (2003).
  17. R. Wu, S. J. Hamlin, J. A. Hutchinson, and L. T. Marshall, "Laser diode pumped, passively Q-Switched Erbium:glass lasers," OSA TOPS 10, 145-147 (1997).
  18. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, 1986).
  19. A. E. Siegman, "Binary phase plates cannot improve laser beam quality," Opt. Lett. 18, 675-677 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. A. E. Siegman, G. Nemes, and J. Serna, "How to (maybe) measure laser beam quality," OSA TOPS 17, 184-199 (1998).
  21. R. Oron, N. Davidson, and A. A. Friesem, "Continuous phase elements can improve laser beam quality," Opt. Lett. 25, 939-941 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2006

2005

2004

M. Sirota, E. Galun, V. Krupkin, A. Glushko, A. Kigel, M. Brumer, A. Sashchiuk, L. Amirav, and E. Lifshitz, "IV-VI semiconductor nanocrystals for passive Q-switch in IR," Proc. SPIE 5510, 9-16 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. V. Volk, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, O. S. Dymshits, A. V. Shashkin, A. A. Zhilin, U. Kang, and K. H. Lee, "Influence of reducing-oxidizing conditions on the optical properties of Co2+-doped magnesium aluminosilicate glass ceramics and their use as an effective saturable absorber Q-switch," Appl. Opt. 43, 6011-6015 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Akulinichev, I. V. Kurnin, and E. G. Kurochkina, "Eyesafe lidar by the solid state Er:glass laser," Proc. SPIE 5478, 291-297 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

A. A. Ishaaya, N. Davidson, G. Machavariani, E. Hasman, and A. A. Friesem, "Efficient selection of high order Laguerre Gaussian modes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 74-82 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Wu, T. Chen, J. D. Myers, M. J. Myers, and C. R. Hardy, "Multi-pulses behavior in a erbium glass laser Q-Switched by cobalt spinal," Proc. SPIE 5086, 140 (2003).

2001

2000

1999

R. Oron, Y. Danziger, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesem, and E. Hasman, "Discontinuous phase elements for transverse mode selection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

A. E. Siegman, G. Nemes, and J. Serna, "How to (maybe) measure laser beam quality," OSA TOPS 17, 184-199 (1998).

1997

R. Wu, S. J. Hamlin, J. A. Hutchinson, and L. T. Marshall, "Laser diode pumped, passively Q-Switched Erbium:glass lasers," OSA TOPS 10, 145-147 (1997).

M. Birnbaum, M. B. Camargo, S. Lee, and F. Unlu, "Co2+ZnSe saturable absorber Q-switch for the 1.54 µm Er3+:Yb3+:Glass laser," OSA TOPS 10, 148-151 (1997).

1996

R. Wu, M. J. Myers, J. D. Myers, and S. J. Hamlin, "Miniature and high repetition rate eyesafe Q-switched Er:glass transmitter for radar applications," Proc. SPIE 2748, 378-384 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

R. D. Stultz, M. B. Camargo, and M. Birnbaum, "Passive Q-switch at 1.54 µm using divalent uranium ions in calcium flouride," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 2959-2961 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Camargo, R. D. Stultz, M. Birnbaum, and M. Kokta, "Co2+YSGG saturable absorber Q switch for infrared erbium lasers," Opt. Lett. 20, 339-341 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

R. D. Stultz, M. B. Camargo, and M. Birnbaum, "Q switch saturable absorber materials for solid state lasers," Proc. SPIE 2115, 31-37 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

1990

A. Chandonnet, M. Piche, and N. McCarthy, "Beam narrowing by saturable absorber in a Nd:YAG laser," Opt. Commun. 75, 123-128 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1965

W. R. Sooy, "The natural selection of modes in a passively Q-switched laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 36-37 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Akulinichev, V. V.

V. V. Akulinichev, I. V. Kurnin, and E. G. Kurochkina, "Eyesafe lidar by the solid state Er:glass laser," Proc. SPIE 5478, 291-297 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Amirav, L.

M. Sirota, E. Galun, V. Krupkin, A. Glushko, A. Kigel, M. Brumer, A. Sashchiuk, L. Amirav, and E. Lifshitz, "IV-VI semiconductor nanocrystals for passive Q-switch in IR," Proc. SPIE 5510, 9-16 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Birnbaum, M.

M. Birnbaum, M. B. Camargo, S. Lee, and F. Unlu, "Co2+ZnSe saturable absorber Q-switch for the 1.54 µm Er3+:Yb3+:Glass laser," OSA TOPS 10, 148-151 (1997).

R. D. Stultz, M. B. Camargo, and M. Birnbaum, "Passive Q-switch at 1.54 µm using divalent uranium ions in calcium flouride," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 2959-2961 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Camargo, R. D. Stultz, M. Birnbaum, and M. Kokta, "Co2+YSGG saturable absorber Q switch for infrared erbium lasers," Opt. Lett. 20, 339-341 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Stultz, M. B. Camargo, and M. Birnbaum, "Q switch saturable absorber materials for solid state lasers," Proc. SPIE 2115, 31-37 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brumer, M.

M. Brumer, M. Sirota, A. Kigel, A. Sashchiuk, E. Galun, Z. Burshtein, and E. Lifshitz, "Nanocrystals of PbSe core, PbSe/PbS, and PbSe/PbSexS1-x core/shell as saturable absorbers in passively Q-switched near-infrared lasers," Appl. Opt. 45, 7488-7497 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sirota, E. Galun, V. Krupkin, A. Glushko, A. Kigel, M. Brumer, A. Sashchiuk, L. Amirav, and E. Lifshitz, "IV-VI semiconductor nanocrystals for passive Q-switch in IR," Proc. SPIE 5510, 9-16 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Burshtein, Z.

Camargo, M. B.

M. Birnbaum, M. B. Camargo, S. Lee, and F. Unlu, "Co2+ZnSe saturable absorber Q-switch for the 1.54 µm Er3+:Yb3+:Glass laser," OSA TOPS 10, 148-151 (1997).

M. B. Camargo, R. D. Stultz, M. Birnbaum, and M. Kokta, "Co2+YSGG saturable absorber Q switch for infrared erbium lasers," Opt. Lett. 20, 339-341 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Stultz, M. B. Camargo, and M. Birnbaum, "Passive Q-switch at 1.54 µm using divalent uranium ions in calcium flouride," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 2959-2961 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Stultz, M. B. Camargo, and M. Birnbaum, "Q switch saturable absorber materials for solid state lasers," Proc. SPIE 2115, 31-37 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chandonnet, A.

A. Chandonnet, M. Piche, and N. McCarthy, "Beam narrowing by saturable absorber in a Nd:YAG laser," Opt. Commun. 75, 123-128 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T.

R. Wu, T. Chen, J. D. Myers, M. J. Myers, and C. R. Hardy, "Multi-pulses behavior in a erbium glass laser Q-Switched by cobalt spinal," Proc. SPIE 5086, 140 (2003).

Danziger, Y.

R. Oron, Y. Danziger, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesem, and E. Hasman, "Discontinuous phase elements for transverse mode selection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Davidson, N.

A. A. Ishaaya, N. Davidson, and A. A. Friesem, "Very high order pure Laguerre Gaussian mode selection in a passively Q-switched Nd:YAG," Opt. Express 13, 4952-4962 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Ishaaya, N. Davidson, G. Machavariani, E. Hasman, and A. A. Friesem, "Efficient selection of high order Laguerre Gaussian modes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 74-82 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Oron, N. Davidson, and A. A. Friesem, "Continuous phase elements can improve laser beam quality," Opt. Lett. 25, 939-941 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Oron, Y. Danziger, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesem, and E. Hasman, "Discontinuous phase elements for transverse mode selection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Denisov, I. A.

Dymshits, O. S.

Friesem, A. A.

A. A. Ishaaya, N. Davidson, and A. A. Friesem, "Very high order pure Laguerre Gaussian mode selection in a passively Q-switched Nd:YAG," Opt. Express 13, 4952-4962 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Ishaaya, N. Davidson, G. Machavariani, E. Hasman, and A. A. Friesem, "Efficient selection of high order Laguerre Gaussian modes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 74-82 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Oron, N. Davidson, and A. A. Friesem, "Continuous phase elements can improve laser beam quality," Opt. Lett. 25, 939-941 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Oron, Y. Danziger, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesem, and E. Hasman, "Discontinuous phase elements for transverse mode selection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Galun, E.

M. Brumer, M. Sirota, A. Kigel, A. Sashchiuk, E. Galun, Z. Burshtein, and E. Lifshitz, "Nanocrystals of PbSe core, PbSe/PbS, and PbSe/PbSexS1-x core/shell as saturable absorbers in passively Q-switched near-infrared lasers," Appl. Opt. 45, 7488-7497 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sirota, E. Galun, V. Krupkin, A. Glushko, A. Kigel, M. Brumer, A. Sashchiuk, L. Amirav, and E. Lifshitz, "IV-VI semiconductor nanocrystals for passive Q-switch in IR," Proc. SPIE 5510, 9-16 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Glushko, A.

M. Sirota, E. Galun, V. Krupkin, A. Glushko, A. Kigel, M. Brumer, A. Sashchiuk, L. Amirav, and E. Lifshitz, "IV-VI semiconductor nanocrystals for passive Q-switch in IR," Proc. SPIE 5510, 9-16 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hamlin, S. J.

R. Wu, S. J. Hamlin, J. A. Hutchinson, and L. T. Marshall, "Laser diode pumped, passively Q-Switched Erbium:glass lasers," OSA TOPS 10, 145-147 (1997).

R. Wu, M. J. Myers, J. D. Myers, and S. J. Hamlin, "Miniature and high repetition rate eyesafe Q-switched Er:glass transmitter for radar applications," Proc. SPIE 2748, 378-384 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hardy, C. R.

R. Wu, T. Chen, J. D. Myers, M. J. Myers, and C. R. Hardy, "Multi-pulses behavior in a erbium glass laser Q-Switched by cobalt spinal," Proc. SPIE 5086, 140 (2003).

Hasman, E.

A. A. Ishaaya, N. Davidson, G. Machavariani, E. Hasman, and A. A. Friesem, "Efficient selection of high order Laguerre Gaussian modes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 74-82 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Oron, Y. Danziger, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesem, and E. Hasman, "Discontinuous phase elements for transverse mode selection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hutchinson, J. A.

R. Wu, S. J. Hamlin, J. A. Hutchinson, and L. T. Marshall, "Laser diode pumped, passively Q-Switched Erbium:glass lasers," OSA TOPS 10, 145-147 (1997).

Ishaaya, A. A.

A. A. Ishaaya, N. Davidson, and A. A. Friesem, "Very high order pure Laguerre Gaussian mode selection in a passively Q-switched Nd:YAG," Opt. Express 13, 4952-4962 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Ishaaya, N. Davidson, G. Machavariani, E. Hasman, and A. A. Friesem, "Efficient selection of high order Laguerre Gaussian modes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 74-82 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kang, U.

Kigel, A.

M. Brumer, M. Sirota, A. Kigel, A. Sashchiuk, E. Galun, Z. Burshtein, and E. Lifshitz, "Nanocrystals of PbSe core, PbSe/PbS, and PbSe/PbSexS1-x core/shell as saturable absorbers in passively Q-switched near-infrared lasers," Appl. Opt. 45, 7488-7497 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sirota, E. Galun, V. Krupkin, A. Glushko, A. Kigel, M. Brumer, A. Sashchiuk, L. Amirav, and E. Lifshitz, "IV-VI semiconductor nanocrystals for passive Q-switch in IR," Proc. SPIE 5510, 9-16 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kokta, M.

Krupkin, V.

M. Sirota, E. Galun, V. Krupkin, A. Glushko, A. Kigel, M. Brumer, A. Sashchiuk, L. Amirav, and E. Lifshitz, "IV-VI semiconductor nanocrystals for passive Q-switch in IR," Proc. SPIE 5510, 9-16 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kurnin, I. V.

V. V. Akulinichev, I. V. Kurnin, and E. G. Kurochkina, "Eyesafe lidar by the solid state Er:glass laser," Proc. SPIE 5478, 291-297 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kurochkina, E. G.

V. V. Akulinichev, I. V. Kurnin, and E. G. Kurochkina, "Eyesafe lidar by the solid state Er:glass laser," Proc. SPIE 5478, 291-297 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. H.

Lee, S.

M. Birnbaum, M. B. Camargo, S. Lee, and F. Unlu, "Co2+ZnSe saturable absorber Q-switch for the 1.54 µm Er3+:Yb3+:Glass laser," OSA TOPS 10, 148-151 (1997).

Lifshitz, E.

M. Brumer, M. Sirota, A. Kigel, A. Sashchiuk, E. Galun, Z. Burshtein, and E. Lifshitz, "Nanocrystals of PbSe core, PbSe/PbS, and PbSe/PbSexS1-x core/shell as saturable absorbers in passively Q-switched near-infrared lasers," Appl. Opt. 45, 7488-7497 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sirota, E. Galun, V. Krupkin, A. Glushko, A. Kigel, M. Brumer, A. Sashchiuk, L. Amirav, and E. Lifshitz, "IV-VI semiconductor nanocrystals for passive Q-switch in IR," Proc. SPIE 5510, 9-16 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Machavariani, G.

A. A. Ishaaya, N. Davidson, G. Machavariani, E. Hasman, and A. A. Friesem, "Efficient selection of high order Laguerre Gaussian modes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 74-82 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Malyarevich, A. M.

Marshall, L. T.

R. Wu, S. J. Hamlin, J. A. Hutchinson, and L. T. Marshall, "Laser diode pumped, passively Q-Switched Erbium:glass lasers," OSA TOPS 10, 145-147 (1997).

McCarthy, N.

A. Chandonnet, M. Piche, and N. McCarthy, "Beam narrowing by saturable absorber in a Nd:YAG laser," Opt. Commun. 75, 123-128 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Myers, J. D.

R. Wu, T. Chen, J. D. Myers, M. J. Myers, and C. R. Hardy, "Multi-pulses behavior in a erbium glass laser Q-Switched by cobalt spinal," Proc. SPIE 5086, 140 (2003).

R. Wu, M. J. Myers, J. D. Myers, and S. J. Hamlin, "Miniature and high repetition rate eyesafe Q-switched Er:glass transmitter for radar applications," Proc. SPIE 2748, 378-384 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Myers, M. J.

R. Wu, T. Chen, J. D. Myers, M. J. Myers, and C. R. Hardy, "Multi-pulses behavior in a erbium glass laser Q-Switched by cobalt spinal," Proc. SPIE 5086, 140 (2003).

R. Wu, M. J. Myers, J. D. Myers, and S. J. Hamlin, "Miniature and high repetition rate eyesafe Q-switched Er:glass transmitter for radar applications," Proc. SPIE 2748, 378-384 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nemes, G.

A. E. Siegman, G. Nemes, and J. Serna, "How to (maybe) measure laser beam quality," OSA TOPS 17, 184-199 (1998).

Oron, R.

R. Oron, N. Davidson, and A. A. Friesem, "Continuous phase elements can improve laser beam quality," Opt. Lett. 25, 939-941 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Oron, Y. Danziger, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesem, and E. Hasman, "Discontinuous phase elements for transverse mode selection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Piche, M.

A. Chandonnet, M. Piche, and N. McCarthy, "Beam narrowing by saturable absorber in a Nd:YAG laser," Opt. Commun. 75, 123-128 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sashchiuk, A.

M. Brumer, M. Sirota, A. Kigel, A. Sashchiuk, E. Galun, Z. Burshtein, and E. Lifshitz, "Nanocrystals of PbSe core, PbSe/PbS, and PbSe/PbSexS1-x core/shell as saturable absorbers in passively Q-switched near-infrared lasers," Appl. Opt. 45, 7488-7497 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sirota, E. Galun, V. Krupkin, A. Glushko, A. Kigel, M. Brumer, A. Sashchiuk, L. Amirav, and E. Lifshitz, "IV-VI semiconductor nanocrystals for passive Q-switch in IR," Proc. SPIE 5510, 9-16 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Serna, J.

A. E. Siegman, G. Nemes, and J. Serna, "How to (maybe) measure laser beam quality," OSA TOPS 17, 184-199 (1998).

Shashkin, A. V.

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, G. Nemes, and J. Serna, "How to (maybe) measure laser beam quality," OSA TOPS 17, 184-199 (1998).

A. E. Siegman, "Binary phase plates cannot improve laser beam quality," Opt. Lett. 18, 675-677 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, 1986).

Sirota, M.

M. Brumer, M. Sirota, A. Kigel, A. Sashchiuk, E. Galun, Z. Burshtein, and E. Lifshitz, "Nanocrystals of PbSe core, PbSe/PbS, and PbSe/PbSexS1-x core/shell as saturable absorbers in passively Q-switched near-infrared lasers," Appl. Opt. 45, 7488-7497 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sirota, E. Galun, V. Krupkin, A. Glushko, A. Kigel, M. Brumer, A. Sashchiuk, L. Amirav, and E. Lifshitz, "IV-VI semiconductor nanocrystals for passive Q-switch in IR," Proc. SPIE 5510, 9-16 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sooy, W. R.

W. R. Sooy, "The natural selection of modes in a passively Q-switched laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 36-37 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Stultz, R. D.

R. D. Stultz, M. B. Camargo, and M. Birnbaum, "Passive Q-switch at 1.54 µm using divalent uranium ions in calcium flouride," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 2959-2961 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Camargo, R. D. Stultz, M. Birnbaum, and M. Kokta, "Co2+YSGG saturable absorber Q switch for infrared erbium lasers," Opt. Lett. 20, 339-341 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Stultz, M. B. Camargo, and M. Birnbaum, "Q switch saturable absorber materials for solid state lasers," Proc. SPIE 2115, 31-37 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Unlu, F.

M. Birnbaum, M. B. Camargo, S. Lee, and F. Unlu, "Co2+ZnSe saturable absorber Q-switch for the 1.54 µm Er3+:Yb3+:Glass laser," OSA TOPS 10, 148-151 (1997).

Volk, Y. V.

Wu, R.

R. Wu, T. Chen, J. D. Myers, M. J. Myers, and C. R. Hardy, "Multi-pulses behavior in a erbium glass laser Q-Switched by cobalt spinal," Proc. SPIE 5086, 140 (2003).

R. Wu, S. J. Hamlin, J. A. Hutchinson, and L. T. Marshall, "Laser diode pumped, passively Q-Switched Erbium:glass lasers," OSA TOPS 10, 145-147 (1997).

R. Wu, M. J. Myers, J. D. Myers, and S. J. Hamlin, "Miniature and high repetition rate eyesafe Q-switched Er:glass transmitter for radar applications," Proc. SPIE 2748, 378-384 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yumashev, K. V.

Zhilin, A. A.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

W. R. Sooy, "The natural selection of modes in a passively Q-switched laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 36-37 (1965).
[CrossRef]

R. Oron, Y. Danziger, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesem, and E. Hasman, "Discontinuous phase elements for transverse mode selection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

A. A. Ishaaya, N. Davidson, G. Machavariani, E. Hasman, and A. A. Friesem, "Efficient selection of high order Laguerre Gaussian modes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 74-82 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

R. D. Stultz, M. B. Camargo, and M. Birnbaum, "Passive Q-switch at 1.54 µm using divalent uranium ions in calcium flouride," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 2959-2961 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

A. Chandonnet, M. Piche, and N. McCarthy, "Beam narrowing by saturable absorber in a Nd:YAG laser," Opt. Commun. 75, 123-128 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

OSA TOPS

M. Birnbaum, M. B. Camargo, S. Lee, and F. Unlu, "Co2+ZnSe saturable absorber Q-switch for the 1.54 µm Er3+:Yb3+:Glass laser," OSA TOPS 10, 148-151 (1997).

A. E. Siegman, G. Nemes, and J. Serna, "How to (maybe) measure laser beam quality," OSA TOPS 17, 184-199 (1998).

R. Wu, S. J. Hamlin, J. A. Hutchinson, and L. T. Marshall, "Laser diode pumped, passively Q-Switched Erbium:glass lasers," OSA TOPS 10, 145-147 (1997).

Proc. SPIE

R. Wu, T. Chen, J. D. Myers, M. J. Myers, and C. R. Hardy, "Multi-pulses behavior in a erbium glass laser Q-Switched by cobalt spinal," Proc. SPIE 5086, 140 (2003).

R. D. Stultz, M. B. Camargo, and M. Birnbaum, "Q switch saturable absorber materials for solid state lasers," Proc. SPIE 2115, 31-37 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Akulinichev, I. V. Kurnin, and E. G. Kurochkina, "Eyesafe lidar by the solid state Er:glass laser," Proc. SPIE 5478, 291-297 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Wu, M. J. Myers, J. D. Myers, and S. J. Hamlin, "Miniature and high repetition rate eyesafe Q-switched Er:glass transmitter for radar applications," Proc. SPIE 2748, 378-384 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Sirota, E. Galun, V. Krupkin, A. Glushko, A. Kigel, M. Brumer, A. Sashchiuk, L. Amirav, and E. Lifshitz, "IV-VI semiconductor nanocrystals for passive Q-switch in IR," Proc. SPIE 5510, 9-16 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, 1986).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental configuration with two optional locations of the intracavity binary phase elements. The intracavity binary phase element can be either placed at position A—near the output coupler, or at position B—near the rear mirror. If positioned at A, the emitted light will have a uniform phase. If positioned at B, a second binary phase element should be placed at the exit from the output coupler, at position C, to obtain the uniform phase.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Experimental and calculated near-field and far-field intensity distributions with different BPEs. The BPEs for selecting the TEM 01 , and TEM 02 modes were placed near the rear mirror so an external identical BPE was also used to obtain uniform transverse output phase and a bright focused far field spot. The BPE for selecting the TEM 04 mode was placed near the output coupler. As evident, there was no need to add an external BPE in order to obtain the bright focused spot with that arrangement.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental and calculated cross sections of the far-field energy distributions for the four different modes with uniform phases. (a) Experimental; and (b) calculated.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental cross sections of the far-field amplitude distributions for the four different modes with uniform phases.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental and calculated energy in the bucket as a function of aperture diameter in the far field. (a) Experimental relative energies; (b) calculated relative energies; (c) experimental actual energies; and (d) calculated actual energies.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Ratios Summary of Experimental and Calculated Output Energies Parameters

Equations (3)

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E p l ( r , θ ) = E 0 ϱ l / 2 L p l ( ϱ ) e ϱ / 2 cos ( l θ ) ,
E ( r , θ ) p l | uniform – phase = | E p l ( r , θ ) | .
U p , l o u t = ( 1 γ d ) ( 1 γ O C ) U p , l i n ,

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