Abstract

Investigations of the environmental stability of diffraction gratings, recorded in dichromated pullulan (DCP), arereported. Profile changes of DCP surface relief gratings, under high humidity conditions, were analyzed using an atomic force microscope. It was found that the profile was not altered, while the diffraction efficiency was preserved. The influence of storage life on the diffraction efficiency and surface profile of DCP gratings were also investigated. It was concluded that DCP gratings offer much better stability compared with the dichromated gelatin.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. J. Chang and C. D. Leonard, "Dichromated gelatin for the fabrication of holographic optical elements," Appl. Opt. 18, 2407-2417 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. Calixto and R. A. Lessard, "Real-time holography with undeveloped dichromated gelatin films," Appl. Opt. 23, 1989-1994 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. C. Newell, L. Solymar, and A. A. Ward, "Holograms in dichromated gelatin: real-time effects," Appl. Opt. 24, 4460-4466 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Y. L. Lee, C. H. Kwak, J. H. Kwon, and Y. S. Im, "Observation of a fast-formed absorption grating and a slowly formed phase grating in undeveloped dichromated gelatin," Appl. Opt. 40, 3635-3639 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Changkakoti and S. V. Pappu, "Methylene blue sensitized dichromated gelatin holograms: a study of their storage life and reprocessibility," Appl. Opt. 28, 340-344 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. Wang, L. Guo, J. Zhu, W. Zhang, and B. Cheng, "Methylene blue dichromated-gelatine holograms: antihumidity method for taking off strongly adsorbing humidity groups," Appl. Opt. 37, 326-328 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. M. Naik, A. Mathur, and S. V. Pappu, "Dichromated gelatin holograms: an investigation of their environmental stability," Appl. Opt. 29, 5292-5297 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. Ketai, G. Lurong, Z. Jianhua, Z. Weiping, T. Jiyaueo, and P. Lin, "Methylene-blue-sensitized dichromated holograms with antihumidity polymer coatings," Appl. Opt. 36, 3116-3119 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. B. Pinto-Iguanero, A. Olivares-Perez, A. W. Mendez-Alvarado, I. Fuentes-Tapia, and C. G. Trevino-Palacois, "Non-hydroscopic vanilla doped dichromated gelatin holographic material," Opt. Mater. 22, 397-404 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Sano, Y. Uemura, and A. Furuta, "Photosensitive resin composition containing pullulan or esters thereof," U.S. patent 3,960,685 (1 June 1976).
  11. D. Pantelic, S. Savic, and D. Jakovljevic, "Dichromated pullulan as a novel photosensitive holographic material," Opt. Lett. 23, 807-809 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Savic, D. Pantelic, and D. Jakovljevic, "Real-time and postprocessing holographic effects in dichromated pullulan," Appl. Opt. 41, 4484-4488 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. Savic, D. Pantelic, and D. Jakovljevic, "Dichromated pullulan: real-time effects and holographic properties," presented at the International Conference Optical Holography and its Applications, Ukraine, 26-29 September 2000.
  14. S. Savic Sevic and D. Pantelic, "Relief hologram replication using a dental composite as an embossing tool," Opt. Express 13, 2747-2754 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, and L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, 1971).

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

B. Pinto-Iguanero, A. Olivares-Perez, A. W. Mendez-Alvarado, I. Fuentes-Tapia, and C. G. Trevino-Palacois, "Non-hydroscopic vanilla doped dichromated gelatin holographic material," Opt. Mater. 22, 397-404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

1998 (2)

1997 (1)

1990 (1)

1989 (1)

1985 (1)

1984 (1)

1979 (1)

Burckhardt, C. B.

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, and L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, 1971).

Calixto, S.

Chang, B. J.

Changkakoti, R.

Cheng, B.

Collier, R. J.

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, and L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, 1971).

Fuentes-Tapia, I.

B. Pinto-Iguanero, A. Olivares-Perez, A. W. Mendez-Alvarado, I. Fuentes-Tapia, and C. G. Trevino-Palacois, "Non-hydroscopic vanilla doped dichromated gelatin holographic material," Opt. Mater. 22, 397-404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Furuta, A.

T. Sano, Y. Uemura, and A. Furuta, "Photosensitive resin composition containing pullulan or esters thereof," U.S. patent 3,960,685 (1 June 1976).

Guo, L.

Im, Y. S.

Jakovljevic, D.

S. Savic, D. Pantelic, and D. Jakovljevic, "Real-time and postprocessing holographic effects in dichromated pullulan," Appl. Opt. 41, 4484-4488 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pantelic, S. Savic, and D. Jakovljevic, "Dichromated pullulan as a novel photosensitive holographic material," Opt. Lett. 23, 807-809 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Savic, D. Pantelic, and D. Jakovljevic, "Dichromated pullulan: real-time effects and holographic properties," presented at the International Conference Optical Holography and its Applications, Ukraine, 26-29 September 2000.

Jianhua, Z.

Jiyaueo, T.

Ketai, W.

Kwak, C. H.

Kwon, J. H.

Lee, Y. L.

Leonard, C. D.

Lessard, R. A.

Lin, L. H.

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, and L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, 1971).

Lin, P.

Lurong, G.

Mathur, A.

Mendez-Alvarado, A. W.

B. Pinto-Iguanero, A. Olivares-Perez, A. W. Mendez-Alvarado, I. Fuentes-Tapia, and C. G. Trevino-Palacois, "Non-hydroscopic vanilla doped dichromated gelatin holographic material," Opt. Mater. 22, 397-404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Naik, G. M.

Newell, J. C.

Olivares-Perez, A.

B. Pinto-Iguanero, A. Olivares-Perez, A. W. Mendez-Alvarado, I. Fuentes-Tapia, and C. G. Trevino-Palacois, "Non-hydroscopic vanilla doped dichromated gelatin holographic material," Opt. Mater. 22, 397-404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pantelic, D.

Pappu, S. V.

Pinto-Iguanero, B.

B. Pinto-Iguanero, A. Olivares-Perez, A. W. Mendez-Alvarado, I. Fuentes-Tapia, and C. G. Trevino-Palacois, "Non-hydroscopic vanilla doped dichromated gelatin holographic material," Opt. Mater. 22, 397-404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sano, T.

T. Sano, Y. Uemura, and A. Furuta, "Photosensitive resin composition containing pullulan or esters thereof," U.S. patent 3,960,685 (1 June 1976).

Savic, S.

S. Savic, D. Pantelic, and D. Jakovljevic, "Real-time and postprocessing holographic effects in dichromated pullulan," Appl. Opt. 41, 4484-4488 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pantelic, S. Savic, and D. Jakovljevic, "Dichromated pullulan as a novel photosensitive holographic material," Opt. Lett. 23, 807-809 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Savic, D. Pantelic, and D. Jakovljevic, "Dichromated pullulan: real-time effects and holographic properties," presented at the International Conference Optical Holography and its Applications, Ukraine, 26-29 September 2000.

Sevic, S. Savic

Solymar, L.

Trevino-Palacois, C. G.

B. Pinto-Iguanero, A. Olivares-Perez, A. W. Mendez-Alvarado, I. Fuentes-Tapia, and C. G. Trevino-Palacois, "Non-hydroscopic vanilla doped dichromated gelatin holographic material," Opt. Mater. 22, 397-404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Uemura, Y.

T. Sano, Y. Uemura, and A. Furuta, "Photosensitive resin composition containing pullulan or esters thereof," U.S. patent 3,960,685 (1 June 1976).

Wang, K.

Ward, A. A.

Weiping, Z.

Zhang, W.

Zhu, J.

Appl. Opt. (9)

B. J. Chang and C. D. Leonard, "Dichromated gelatin for the fabrication of holographic optical elements," Appl. Opt. 18, 2407-2417 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Calixto and R. A. Lessard, "Real-time holography with undeveloped dichromated gelatin films," Appl. Opt. 23, 1989-1994 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Newell, L. Solymar, and A. A. Ward, "Holograms in dichromated gelatin: real-time effects," Appl. Opt. 24, 4460-4466 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Lee, C. H. Kwak, J. H. Kwon, and Y. S. Im, "Observation of a fast-formed absorption grating and a slowly formed phase grating in undeveloped dichromated gelatin," Appl. Opt. 40, 3635-3639 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Changkakoti and S. V. Pappu, "Methylene blue sensitized dichromated gelatin holograms: a study of their storage life and reprocessibility," Appl. Opt. 28, 340-344 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Wang, L. Guo, J. Zhu, W. Zhang, and B. Cheng, "Methylene blue dichromated-gelatine holograms: antihumidity method for taking off strongly adsorbing humidity groups," Appl. Opt. 37, 326-328 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Naik, A. Mathur, and S. V. Pappu, "Dichromated gelatin holograms: an investigation of their environmental stability," Appl. Opt. 29, 5292-5297 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Ketai, G. Lurong, Z. Jianhua, Z. Weiping, T. Jiyaueo, and P. Lin, "Methylene-blue-sensitized dichromated holograms with antihumidity polymer coatings," Appl. Opt. 36, 3116-3119 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Savic, D. Pantelic, and D. Jakovljevic, "Real-time and postprocessing holographic effects in dichromated pullulan," Appl. Opt. 41, 4484-4488 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. (1)

B. Pinto-Iguanero, A. Olivares-Perez, A. W. Mendez-Alvarado, I. Fuentes-Tapia, and C. G. Trevino-Palacois, "Non-hydroscopic vanilla doped dichromated gelatin holographic material," Opt. Mater. 22, 397-404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

T. Sano, Y. Uemura, and A. Furuta, "Photosensitive resin composition containing pullulan or esters thereof," U.S. patent 3,960,685 (1 June 1976).

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, and L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, 1971).

S. Savic, D. Pantelic, and D. Jakovljevic, "Dichromated pullulan: real-time effects and holographic properties," presented at the International Conference Optical Holography and its Applications, Ukraine, 26-29 September 2000.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

AFM picture of a surface relief DCP diffraction grating before exposure to 87% RH (at 23.6 ° C ).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Line profile (on a reduced scale) of the AFM picture from Fig. 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

AFM picture of a surface relief DCP diffraction grating after exposure to 87% RH (at 23.6 ° C ).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Line profile (on a reduced scale) of the AFM picture from Fig. 3.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Compared DE of DCP and DCG gratings versus time at 87% RH.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

DE of a DCP grating (immediately after development) versus drying time.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

DE of a DCP grating versus storage time.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Relative variation of DE D ( η ) versus the initial DE η1 of DCP (5 days of storage) and MBDCG gratings (4 days of storage).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Relative variation of DE D ( η ) versus the initial DE η 1 of DCP (4 years storage time) and MBDCG gratings (2 years storage time).

Equations (1)

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D ( η ) = η 1 η 2 η 1 100 ,

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