Abstract

A variety of shapes of lamp lenses at the feature millimeter scale have been extensively used in lamp design. To further improve the light efficiency and to reduce the overall dimension of lamps, the lamp lens at the micrometer scale is fabricated by excimer laser cross scanning on a polycarbonate sheet. To verify the proposed method, the influence of an optical system with various shapes and sizes of lamp lenses on the light efficiency is explored in advance by asap optical software. The lens with a miniature feature can produce a smaller divergence angle than that with a large-size lens feature. The experiment is carried out at varying laser operating parameters, mask shape, and dimensions. The simulation shows that the desired lamp lens profile can be effectively produced by excimer laser micromachining.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Hamm, "Necessity of new approaches for LED headlamp design," Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Technical Paper 2005-01-0448 (SAE, 2005).
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  5. K. Natsume, "The development of a rectangular multi-reflector on a free-formed surface for signaling lamps," Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Technical Paper 1999-01-0387 (SAE, 1999).
  6. L. Sardi and M. T. Dalmasso, "Double reflection concept applied to rear lamps design," Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Technical Paper 2001-01-0458 (SAE, 2001).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  10. J. H. Cho, M. W. Cho, and M. K. Kim, "Computer-aided design, manufacturing and inspection system integration for optical lens production," Int. J. Prod. Res. 40, 4271-4283 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Nakata, "Innovative high efficient headlamp system using concave or convex lenses," Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Technical Paper 2000-01-0427 (SAE, 2000).
  12. V. K. Berger, "The application of parabolic and hyperbolic shapes for pillow optics," Proc. SPIE 5529, 261-267 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Kawamura, K. Toyoda, and S. Namba, "Effective deep ultraviolet photoetching of polymethyl methacrylate by an excimer laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 374-375 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Srinivasan and V. Mayne-Banton, "Self-developing photoetching of poly(ethylene-terephthalate) films by far-ultraviolet excimer laser radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 576-578 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. H. Noggle, Physical Chemistry (HarperCollins, 1996).
  16. H. Hocheng and K. Y. Wang, "Microgroove pattern machined by excimer laser scanning," Int. J. Manuf. Technol. Manage. (to be published).

2004 (1)

V. K. Berger, "The application of parabolic and hyperbolic shapes for pillow optics," Proc. SPIE 5529, 261-267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

M. Sikkens and P. Nuyens, "Structured design method for automotive lamp reflectors," Proc. SPIE 5173, 46-54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

J. H. Cho, M. W. Cho, and M. K. Kim, "Computer-aided design, manufacturing and inspection system integration for optical lens production," Int. J. Prod. Res. 40, 4271-4283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. De Montureaux, L. J. L. Haenen, J. Ansems, and J. Schuurmans, "New slim automotive taillight using HiPerVision lamps," Proc. SPIE 4775, 135-144 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1982 (2)

Y. Kawamura, K. Toyoda, and S. Namba, "Effective deep ultraviolet photoetching of polymethyl methacrylate by an excimer laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 374-375 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. Srinivasan and V. Mayne-Banton, "Self-developing photoetching of poly(ethylene-terephthalate) films by far-ultraviolet excimer laser radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 576-578 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Y. Kawamura, K. Toyoda, and S. Namba, "Effective deep ultraviolet photoetching of polymethyl methacrylate by an excimer laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 374-375 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. Srinivasan and V. Mayne-Banton, "Self-developing photoetching of poly(ethylene-terephthalate) films by far-ultraviolet excimer laser radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 576-578 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Manuf. Technol. Manage. (1)

H. Hocheng and K. Y. Wang, "Microgroove pattern machined by excimer laser scanning," Int. J. Manuf. Technol. Manage. (to be published).

Int. J. Prod. Res. (1)

J. H. Cho, M. W. Cho, and M. K. Kim, "Computer-aided design, manufacturing and inspection system integration for optical lens production," Int. J. Prod. Res. 40, 4271-4283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (3)

M. Sikkens and P. Nuyens, "Structured design method for automotive lamp reflectors," Proc. SPIE 5173, 46-54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. De Montureaux, L. J. L. Haenen, J. Ansems, and J. Schuurmans, "New slim automotive taillight using HiPerVision lamps," Proc. SPIE 4775, 135-144 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. K. Berger, "The application of parabolic and hyperbolic shapes for pillow optics," Proc. SPIE 5529, 261-267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

C. Montelymard and V. Godbillon, "Signal lamp system--vertical linear technology," Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Technical Paper 1999-01-0391 (SAE, 1999).

J. H. Noggle, Physical Chemistry (HarperCollins, 1996).

M. Hamm, "Necessity of new approaches for LED headlamp design," Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Technical Paper 2005-01-0448 (SAE, 2005).

W. Brandenburg, "The replacement of parabolic reflectors by 'free form' reflectors," Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Technical Paper 1996-01-0926 (SAE, 1996).

K. Natsume, "The development of a rectangular multi-reflector on a free-formed surface for signaling lamps," Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Technical Paper 1999-01-0387 (SAE, 1999).

L. Sardi and M. T. Dalmasso, "Double reflection concept applied to rear lamps design," Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Technical Paper 2001-01-0458 (SAE, 2001).

T. Kawai, K. Sawada, and Y. Takeuchi, "Ultra-precision microstructuring by means of mechanical machining," in Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS, 2001) (IEEE, 2001), pp. 22-25.

Y. Nakata, "Innovative high efficient headlamp system using concave or convex lenses," Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Technical Paper 2000-01-0427 (SAE, 2000).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Spherical lamp lens with a unit size of 5   mm × 5   mm and a radius of curvature of 4.8   mm .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Spherical lens with a unit size of 0.1   mm × 0.1   mm and a radius of curvature of 0.48   mm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Pillow-shape lens with a unit size of 4   mm × 6   mm and a radius of curvature of 6.5   mm .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Pillow-shape lens with a unit size of 0.1   mm × 0.15   mm and a radius of curvature of 0.65   mm .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Flow chart of the lens fabrication process.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Schematic of the laser scanning process.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Scanning mask and machined profile: (a) opening dimension of the mask pattern H ( x ) and (b) ablation depth of machined profile D ( x ) increases when the scanning velocity in Y direction decreases.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Experimental and predicted lens feature in laser cross scanning with a half-circular mask (fluence , 300 mJ / cm 2 ; velocity , 2 mm / min ; repetition rate , 60   Hz ; size , 0.1   mm × 0.1   mm ).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) Experimental and predicted lens feature in laser cross scanning with a half-circular mask in different directions: scanning in the X direction (fluence , 300 mJ / cm 2 ; velocity , 1 mm / min ; repetition rate , 60   Hz ; area , 0.1   mm × 0.05   mm ); scanning in the Y direction (fluence , 290 mJ / cm 2 ; velocity , 2   mm / min ; repetition rate , 60   Hz ; size , 0.15   mm × 0.075   mm ).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Comparison of Different Lens Features

Equations (1)

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D = 1 β ln [ ( 1 R ) E F th ] f H V A f A o f s f 20 d drag d fixed ,

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